Louisiana purchase Essay

This essay has a total of 5129 words and 23 pages.

louisiana purchase








Several great American Statesmen were pivotal in shaping and molding the government of the
United States. History has since forgotten some of these founding fathers. The ones
remembered throughout history are those we hold up for their accomplishments. Thomas
Jefferson is one of the American Statesmen that stands out from the rest as being one of
the greatest contributors to our present form of government.

Historian Robert Tucker described Jefferson's life as being a paradox. He was a slave
holder that was not necessarily in favor of this form of servitude. He also associated
himself with the yeoman farmer, yet he traveled in company with a cosmopolitan flair.

So it is to this President that we look to as he faced one of his greatest dilemmas.
Jefferson, the third President of the United States, remembered primarily for two great
accomplishments: he authored the Declaration of Independence and made the greatest land
acquisition in our nation's history, the Louisiana Purchase. Both subjects, have been
written about extensively, yet one question persists: did Thomas Jefferson exceed his
fiduciary duty to the Constitution of the United States when he started the proceedings
that led to the Louisiana Purchase?

Thomas Jefferson was a pragmatic, articulate, and, at times, capricious leader of a young
nation that had recently gained its freedom from the monarchical Great Britain. Jefferson,
a Democratic Republican, made his ascension to the presidency at a time when the
Federalist Party was in decline. The Louisiana Purchase would bring a great deal of
discomfort to the Party. The only opposition to the purchase would consequently be the
Federalist Party which, ironically, had always been in favor of a broad construction of
the Constitution.

The broad constructionist believed that the Constitution held implied powers to the
central government. The people who interpreted the Constitution in this fashion backed the
notion of strong centralization of power. The strict constructionist, like Jefferson,
believed that if something in the Constitution was not described then it was
unconstitutional. They also feared the abuse of power obtainable by the central government
by a broad interpretation of the Constitution.

Since 1493, France and Spain alternately held the Louisiana Territory. Towards the end of
the 18th century the jurisdiction of the territory was under Spanish rule. New troubles
were brewing on the European continent and the Americans feared that the Louisiana
Territory would fall into the hands of the British. This would place the British on three
sides of the Americans and they were prepared to go to war to avoid this.

The Spaniards, uncertain of their British ally and fearing an insurrection from within the
Louisiana Territory, signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty with the
Americans in 1795. Under terms of the treaty, Americans were allowed to deposit goods for
overseas shipment at the port of New Orleans free of duty. The Spanish also ceded control
of the Ohio River Valley to the Americans. This pleased the majority of Americans who were
in favor of westward expansion, many of who were by now settling illegally in the
Louisiana Territory. Securing the Mississippi River for commercial purposes was of the
greatest importance to most Americans at the time. The desired peace of the country to be
protected from outside interference was also the goal of those in favor of expansion.

In 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French government and assumed control of France
and her colonies. Bonaparte was anxious to build a western empire, perhaps to make up for
his previous losses in Egypt. Bonaparte saw the conquest of the Caribbean island of Santo
Domingo as his first step in his western expansion efforts. From Santo Domingo the French
could support troops that they intended to post in New Orleans.

By early 1801 American whites made up more than half of the population in upper Louisiana.
In 1802 the first migration of Americans west of the Mississippi River begun and by now
the Americans looked to wrest the Louisiana Territory away from the Spanish. To this dream
of conquest of the Spaniards by Americans is to what Jefferson responded. He was not alone
in his supposition of the need for expansion.

Indeed, the one area that Jefferson and his long time nemesis, and staunch Federalist,
Alexander Hamilton agreed upon was territorial expansion. In 1798, Hamilton informed a
fellow Federalist, Timothy Pickering, of the necessity of acquiring the Louisiana
territory. Hamilton suggested to negotiate, and endeavor to purchase; and if this fails,
to go to war in order to procure the desideratum. With Hamilton's desire to maintain a
strong militia one perhaps, could draw the conclusion, that Hamilton would have preferred
the latter, to go to war.

Jefferson sought to obtain the desired territory through diplomatic channels. Although
Jefferson was not beyond using the threat of war or developing an alliance with Great
Britain in order to achieve his objectives, he preferred a peaceful means to gain the
desired territory.

After the signing of the United States Constitution in 1787, Jefferson entered the federal
government by virtue of his appointment by George Washington to the position of Secretary
of State. Under this aegis, Jefferson's duties included diplomatic relations with France.
During this time, Jefferson maintained an affinity with France and believed that the two
countries shared a common foe in Great Britain. This changed after the ascension of
Napoleon Bonaparte to Head Consul, at which time America's relations with France began to
cool.

America and France terminated their alliance during President John Adams' administration.
Since 1798 French vessels had captured American ships and imprisoned the crews. The so
called Quasi War with France ended when the Franco-American Convention of 1800 concluded
with the signing of the Treaty of Morfontaine. The treaty, designed to protect America's
right of neutrality, allowed for free shipping of American goods, and a restricted
contraband list. For France the treaty ended hostilities with America and put American
claims of indemnity for spoliation against the French on hold for the seizing of American
vessels. The Treaty of Morfontaine was ratified by the United States Senate shortly after
Jefferson's inauguration as President .

One day after signing the Treaty of Morfontaine French diplomats requested the Spanish
government to cede the Louisiana Territory to France. In the second Treaty of San
Ildefonso Spain ceded the Louisiana Territory to France under French threats of
garrisoning an army in Spain with the pretext of invading Portugal. Although Jefferson
had always viewed Great Britain as being America's greatest threat, as the newly elected
president, he was now confronted with a powerful belligerent nation poised to move into
the Louisiana Territory.

Jefferson, after hearing the news of the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory by France,
simply refused to recognize the transfer of the territory. When Jefferson addressed the
Seventh Congress in 1802, it was apparent that France had indeed acquired Louisiana, and
Jefferson was forced to acknowledge the Treaty of San Ildefonso. Fearing the
establishment of a French empire on the western shores of the Mississippi River, American
diplomats were dispatched in an attempt to procure the Floridas and New Orleans from the
French.

On January 11, 1803 Jefferson requested the Senate to name James Monroe as 'minister
extraordinary' to France and Spain. Secretary of State James Madison then instructed
Robert R. Livingston, United States Minister to France, to try to persuade the French into
transferring the Floridas to the United States. If Livingston found that the Spanish still
held claim to the Floridas he was instructed to work in concert with United States
Diplomat to Spain, Charles Pinckney. Because the United States was not sure which country
had dominion over Louisiana and the Floridas, it sent diplomats to both countries in order
to achieve their objectives. At the time neither Jefferson nor Madison realized that they
had placed in motion the vehicle that would lead to the Louisiana Purchase.

While the Americans pondered the prospect of having the French moving into the area across
the Mississippi River, the French were embroiled in a violent struggle on the island of
Santo Domingo. The conquest of Santo Domingo was to be the first step in building France's
western empire. The determined resistance of the inhabitants of Santo Domingo made them an
unwitting ally of the Americans. The decimation of Napoleon's troops in this unfriendly
environment would be the pivotal point of capitulation for the French Emperor. Napoleon
had wasted supplies and man power in the futile attempt to take the Caribbean Island which
ended in the defeat of the French.

Coinciding with the calamity on Santo Domingo new aggressions were building on the
European continent between France and England. Jefferson was not beyond threatening an
alliance with the English as a way to force Napoleon into relinquishing his control over
the Louisiana Territory. Little did Jefferson know that such an alliance was unnecessary,
for at the same time that he was attempting to force Napoleon's hand, the Emperor was
determined to keep Louisiana away from the English.

In April of 1803, James Monroe was dispatched to Paris under the pretext of assisting in
the negotiations started by Livingston. Monroe was unaware of the fact that Napoleon had
already become determined to release Louisiana to the Americans. On April 10, 1803,
seeking favor with the Americans, Napoleon carried on the following discourse with his
minister, Barbe Marbois.

Napoleon was not one for procrastinating. On the morning of April 11, 1803, Livingston was
quickly summoned to the French Court. French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
Perigord offered up the entire Louisiana Territory. At first Livingston balked, suggesting
that the Americans were only interested in New Orleans and Florida.

On the next day Monroe reached Paris. Livingston in an attempt to achieve the fait
accompli prior to Monroe's knowledge of the treaty, tried to persuade Talleyrand into
repeating the offer. This effort on the part of Livingston met with Talleyrand's silence.
Although Monroe had reached Paris prepared to take up the negotiations for the Louisiana
Territory, the agreement was made in large part by Livingston.

Livingston quickly brought Monroe up to speed over the nature of the negotiations. While
at dinner on the evening of April 12, 1803, they encountered the French diplomat Marbois.
Monroe, weary from his journey to Paris, retired in short order and Livingston carried on
the conversation with Marbois. Later that evening the two diplomates effectually secured
the bargain. The only remaining difficulty was the settlement of the price before
Napoleon had a chance to change his mind.

The Americans and Napoleon agreed to a price which amounted to roughly fifteen million
dollars, to be procured through the sale of bonds. The stipulation that called for the
immediate incorporation into the Union would be the subject of future debate in the United
States. The lack of specific boundaries of the Louisiana Territory would also be a topic
for future discussion with the French and Americans. Hence, Livingston and Monroe were
able to report from Paris on 13 May 1803, that the purchase had been completed, minus the
desired region of Florida, which remained under the dominion of Spain. Negotiations with
the Spanish continued over this area and in 1819 the Americans would receive all of
Florida from Spain in the Treaty of Adams-Obis.

In early July 1803, the news of the Louisiana Purchase reached American shores via the New
England Federalist, Rufus King. Once in Boston, King wasted no time in relaying the
information to long time friend George Cabot. Cabot believed the sale to be advantageous
to the French. Cabot believed that the French were simply giving up territory that they
were incapable of defending and looking to better their relations with America. Cabot,
unaware of Napoleon's discussion with Marbois, had correctly ascertained Napoleon's
motivation.

The harshest criticism of the purchase came from Jefferson's arch rival, Alexander
Hamilton. Hamilton believed that it was through pure serendipity that Monroe and
Livingston walked away with the treaty rather then any skill on their part. Hamilton
viewed the western territories as only being beneficial to Spain and that we could
possibly use the territory as barter to obtain the Floridas.

Henry Adams suggested that it was only due to the desperate courage of five hundred
thousand Haitian negroes who would not be enslaved that enabled the United States to
procure the Louisiana Territory. The probability exists that had Napoleon's armies
successfully conquered the island of Santo Domingo, they would have had a base of
operations in the western hemisphere. From there they could have easily made their way to
the port of New Orleans and successfully closed the mouth of the Mississippi River to
American commerce.

Jefferson's party greeted the news with jubilation. Accolades poured into the Federal
Capital at Washington from Jefferson's constituents. Future President Andrew Jackson sent
his congratulations to Jefferson.

John Adams would eventually make public his views on the matter several years after the
fact. In a letter to one of his constituents, Benjamin Rush, Adams was pleased with the
purchase of Louisiana, because, without it, we could never have secured and commanded the
navigation of the Mississippi. Hence, one venerable old Federalist broke party lines and
sided with the Jeffersonians.

In a July 17, 1803 letter to his friend Daniel Clarke, Jefferson describes his attitude
of the purchase. The cession of Louisiana by France to the United States, a cession which
will give as much satisfaction to the inhabitants of that province as it does to us.
Jefferson also used this device to convey his intention of convening the Eighth Congress
of the United States as early as October 17, 1803 in order to consider ratification of the
treaty, which occurred on November 25, 1803.

The constitutional debates that followed would bring great concern to President Jefferson.
For sometime, he believed the Constitution had been violated, by making the purchase. This
has been an area of debate because the Constitution does not specify how the United States
can gain territory. It only covers provisions of territory already in the domain of the
United States at the time of its signing.

To some, the ambiguous nature of the Constitution appeared to be intentional on the part
of the writers. Subsequent to ratification of the treaty by Congress, Henry W. Livingston
petitioned Gouverneur Morris, delegate from Pennsylvania to the Federal convention, in an
attempt to ascertain the intention of the framers of the constitution on this point.

This paper restriction that Morris so casually referred to would bring many uneasy hours
to Jefferson. If Jefferson were to maintain his strict constructionist view of the
Constitution, he would have to stick to every word of it. As we have seen, no where in the
Constitution does it delegate how the United States is to procure new territory. Yet, one
must consider that the constitution was but sixteen years old at the time, and that the
old Articles of Confederation were still fresh in the minds of American politicians.
Contained in Article eleven of the Articles of Confederation was the passage that, "Canada
was to be admitted to the United States and also to be entitled to all the advantages of
the Union." So to the majority of politicians the United States should simply absorb the
Louisiana Territory into the Nation.

While Congress prepared to convene on October 17, 1803, Jefferson considered his options.
He could either ask congress to amend the Constitution to allow the new territory into the
Union, or quietly submit the treaty for ratification. Attorney General Levi Lincoln
suggested that Jefferson boldly announce and defend the constitutionality of the purchase
in his message to Congress.
Continues for 12 more pages >>




  • American Cowboys
    American Cowboys American Cowboys Have you ever wondered who the cowboys were; how they lived; or what they did? The American Cowboy’s way of life was interesting and unique, and they contributed more to society than one might think. Besides looking after stock and driving cattle, they had to round up huge numbers of cattle for ranchers. This paper will examine the American cowboy’s character, what they wore, the everyday things they did like driving cattle and branding calves and the lawlessnes
  • Cowboys
    cowboys Cowboys How they started Cattle ranchers began to move out onto the Great Plains in the mid 1800’s In the late 1800’s cowboys became popular in the cattle industry. The American cowboys owe their knowledge of how to tame the cattle to vaquerars (the Mexican cowboys). The animals originally were from the ranches in southern Texas formerly operated by Spaniards and Mexicans. The cowboys often called the wild cattle longhorns, which were the huge herds of wild cattle. About one- third of th
  • Jimmy Carter
    Jimmy Carter The President of Peace Jimmy Carter was born October 1, 1924, in the small farming town of Plains, Georgia, and grew up in the nearby community of Archery. His father, James Earl Carter, Sr., was a farmer and businessman; his mother, Lillian Gordy, a registered nurse. He was educated in the Plains public schools, attended Georgia Southwestern College and the Georgia Institute of Technology, and received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1946. On Ju
  • Mound builders of north america
    mound builders of north america Mound Builders of North America The mound builders of North America have allured the curiosity of scholars and architects since the days of de Soto. Having such a long history, and being the most advanced civilization in the United States portion of North America, their history, vague and ancient, has continued to excite scholars up until current times. Mounds are scattered all over the United States as far west as the Rocky Mountains. Some, especially in Illinois
  • Native americans
    native americans American Indian Wars There is perhaps a tendency to view the record of the military in terms of conflict, that may be why the U.S. Armys operational experience in the quarter century following the Civil War became known as the Indian wars. Previous struggles with the Indian, dating back to colonial times, had been limited. There was a period where the Indian could withdraw or be pushed into vast reaches of uninhabited and as yet unwanted territory in the west. By 1865 the safet
  • Native americans
    native americans American Indian Wars There is perhaps a tendency to view the record of the military in terms of conflict, that may be why the U.S. Armys operational experience in the quarter century following the Civil War became known as the Indian wars. Previous struggles with the Indian, dating back to colonial times, had been limited. There was a period where the Indian could withdraw or be pushed into vast reaches of uninhabited and as yet unwanted territory in the west. By 1865 the safet
  • None Provided2
    None Provided2 The gold rush of the 1850’s symbolized America’s quest towards westward movement, challenges of life on the frontier, and the impact it had on California’s growth. As a result, the gold rush strongly influenced the shaping of American History. Many people that had heard of the gold rush in the 1850’s moved right out there as fast as they could to get their hands on that gold. Once the people got out there they wouldn’t return back to the east. As a result, the gold rush strongly i
  • OREGON TRAIL
    OREGON TRAIL CROSSING THE Great Plains The Oregon Trail was an overland emigrant route in the United States from the Missouri River to the Columbia River country, was the way to travel back in the 1840’s through the 1860’s. In 1843 the “Great Emigration” began and the west would never be the same after the out set of the travelers. The pioneers by wagon train did not, however, follow any single narrow route. In open country the different trains might spread out over a large area, only to converg
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • Unionism
    unionism Michael Paul 099 66 3949 History 316z Trade unionism, industrial unionism, and socialism were the main forms of organized labor in the late nineteenth century early twentieth century, yet rarely did these shifting currents flow in complementary ways that might appeal to the vast majority of struggling workers. The three most important formal organizations were the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the Socialist Party of America. All three
  • United States Expansion
    United States Expansion Throughout the first half of the 1800s or 19th century there were many factors influencing United States expansion. From the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to the Gadsden Purchase in 1853 the United States had tripled in size since its original thirteen colonies and only paid forty-five million dollars in doing so. The idea of Manifest Destiny spread quickly throughout the country and soon thousands were moving westward in search of a new way of life. The idea of Manifest Des
  • Westward expansionin nineteenth century
    westward expansionin nineteenth century THE WESTWARD EXPANSION Introduction The Westward Expansion has often been regarded as the central theme of American history, down to the end of the19th century and as the main factor in the shaping of American history. As Frederick Jackson Turner says, the greatest force or influence in shaping American democracy and society had been that there was so much free land in America and this profoundly affected American society. Motives After the revolution, the
  • Frogs
    Frogs A Frog is a small, tail less animal that has bulging eyes. Almost all frogs have long back legs. The strong hind legs make the frog able to leap farther than the length of its body. Frogs live on every continent except Antarctica, but tropical regions have the greatest number of species. Frogs are classified as amphibians. Most amphibians, including most frogs, spend part of their life as a water animal and part as a land animal. Frogs are related to toads, but are different from them in a
  • The Plains Zebra
    The Plains Zebra The Plains Zebra Deep ebony, blinding cream, these are the colors of the zebra. The zebra is one unique animal. Zebras are one of the marvelous animals in Africa. About the size of a small horse, these amazing animals are about 50-53 inches in height. When a male zebra grows up, he can weigh up to 520 pounds! It\'s a good thing that the female zebra is friendly. It can weigh a whopping 510 pounds, almost as much as the male! Zebras usually do not attack unless threatened though,
  • Wildlife
    Wildlife The “cry of the wild” can still be heard across this great land. I have heard the bugle of an elk on the Great Plains...the shrill of a bald eagle along the banks of the mightily Mississippi...the roar of a brown eagle bear on windswept tundra...and the gobble of a wild turkey among western foothills. Amazing beauty can still be found in the natural landscapes of this great land. I have seen through televisions, articles, books, and newspapers the towering forests...pristine waters...ri
  • Crop Production
    Crop Production Beginning about 12,000 years ago, the human population began a trend that completely changed the way we, as a race, evolved. For the first time in history, humans pushed beyond the restraints of traditional hunting and gathering, into domestication and farming. It was a change that would not only take thousands of years to prove worthy, but also may have set us back on the evolutionary path at the time. Along the path to this point, we have been constantly changing and finding ne
  • The American Indian Genocide
    The American Indian Genocide The American Indian Genocide Textbooks and movies are still hiding the genocide of Native American Indian cultures, which began five centuries ago. There were many friendly and close relationships between early immigrant settlers and native peoples, but these were not the main current in their relations. U.S. history is destroyed by acts of genocide against native people, made worse by the deadly impact of new diseases spread by contact between new settlers and nativ
  • Native american astronomy
    native american astronomy For many years astronomers and people alike have constantly heard about the observations and records of the Chinese and Europeans. No other culture can provide as much information as that gathered by the Chinese and Europeans, but there are many other cultures that observed and recorded the night sky, one of those being the Native Americans. During the last fifteen to twenty years archaeoastronomers have uncovered much concerning the beliefs and records of Native Americ
  • The solar system
    The solar system Assignment 1: The Solar System The solar system consists of the Sun; the nine planets, 67 satellites of the planets and a large number of small bodies (comets and asteroids). The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars: The planets of the outer solar system are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus, though all except Mercury and Pluto are very nearly circular. The orbits of the pla
  • CRM comuncation
    CRM comuncation In dealing with weather there are many types which can seriously cause damage to people and communities. Especially in the aviation we as pilot have to take into account many consideration in preparing for a flight. For instance, thunderstorms, icing levels, winds aloft, and visibility all play major factors in preparing for a flight. But there are some weather phenomena that can be extremely dangerous to fly into. Hurricanes, wind shear, and tornadoes are just some of the major
  • Alexander Hamilton
    Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton was born as a British subject on the island of Nevis in the West Indies on the 11th of January 1755. His father was James Hamilton, a Scottish merchant of St. Christopher. His grandfather was Alexander Hamilton, of Grange, Lanarkshire. One of his great grandfathers was Sir R. Pollock, the Laird of Cambuskeith. Hamilton\'s mother was Rachael Fawcette Levine, of French Huguenot descent. When she was very young, she married a Danish proprietor of St. Croix name
  • Crazy horse
    Crazy horse Crazy Horse When I think back of the stories that I have heard about howthe Native American Indians were driven from their land andforced to live on the reservations one particular event comes tomy mind. That event is the Battle of the Little Big Horn. It isone of the few times that the Oglala Sioux made history with thembeing the ones who left the battlefield as winners. When storiesare told, or when the media dares to tamper with history, it isusually the American Indians who are l
  • Life and Legend of Howard Hughes
    Life and Legend of Howard Hughes The Life and Legend of Howard Hughes Throughout the 20th century, it has been the medias job to pinpoint what events and people would prove to be an effective story. This was certainly the case for Howard R. Hughes. Son to the wealthy Howard Hughes Sr., Howard became the interest of the American people and newspapers for most of his life. Being deemed one of the most famous men of the mid-20th century was greatly attributed to Hughess skills as an industrialist
  • The Making of Evita
    The Making of Evita INTRODUCTION As I sit here at my computer, I am at a standstill trying to decide where to start. How do you condense a person into ten short pages, and still enable the reader to ‘get to know’ them. I have decided that the task is nearly impossible, even in the telling of a life that was tragically so short. Evita, as the people affectionately knew her, entered into this world with nothing and left with everything. From a poor peasant girl growing up in the pampas, to a popul
  • The Making of Evita1
    The Making of Evita1 INTRODUCTION As I sit here at my computer, I am at a standstill trying to decide where to start. How do you condense a person into ten short pages, and still enable the reader to ‘get to know’ them. I have decided that the task is nearly impossible, even in the telling of a life that was tragically so short. Evita, as the people affectionately knew her, entered into this world with nothing and left with everything. From a poor peasant girl growing up in the pampas, to a popu
  • Many Lives Many Masters
    Many Lives Many Masters Many Lives, Many Masters is a book about a psychologist Brian L. Weiss, who by helping his patient he helps himself as well. Through Catherine he learned that his conventional approach through the scientific method and medication was not the proper way to heal his patients. Catherine comes in with anxiety, panic attacks and phobias and wants a way out of it all. Dr. Weiss approaches the situation in a scientific manner as he does with all of his patients, he doesn’t get v
  • The Grapes of Wrath AP US History Paper
    The Grapes of Wrath AP US History Paper The Grapes of Wrath By: John Steinbeck The Grapes of Wrath is an eye-opening novel which deals with the struggle for survival of a migrant family of farmers in the western United States. The book opens with a narrative chapter describing Oklahoma, and the overall setting. It sets the mood of an area which has been ravished by harsh weather. "The sun flared down on the growing corn day after day until a line of brown spread along the edge of each green bayo
  • Wild Bill Kickok
    Wild Bill Kickok 1. Character vs. character Wild Bill vs. Dave McCanles - David McCanles employed Bill and always bullied other people. Dave had tried many times to get Bill to fight him. A man named Horace Wellman owed Dave some money but did not have any way of repaying McCanles. One day, after Horace had come back from trying to get some money at a larger town, McCanles and two others arrived at Wellman’s house, where Bill was staying. McCanles called Wellman out, but instead, got shot by Bil
  • Accounting Software Decisions
    Accounting Software Decisions Selecting Accounting Software is one of the most important and, potentially, one of the most costly decisions a business makes. The decision is important because if the right choice is made, internal control of most accounting functions will provide a lower risk of doing business. An accurate method of keeping track of the essential financial functions of the business also will result. However, the decision could be costly if it is made without a thorough evaluation
  • Civilized by way of nature
    Civilized by way of nature David C. Mohr 11/02/00 WR121 Hayden Bass Civilized by way of Nature The natural evolutionary process has persisted throughout the eons of time. A new race breed appears just to be vanquished off the face of the earth a few thousand years later. A few thousand years, nothing but a drop in the bucket of time for a earth that has existed for millions of years. What a concept to delve into, the existence of a species as compared to the existence of the planet on which we c
  • Economics of India
    Economics of India Kalpesh P. Patel Dr. Cashel-Cordo Global Economics 271 February 1998 50 Years of Independence ; 5000 Years of History INTRODUCTION The Republic of India possesses tremendous contrasts and enormous ethnic, linguistic and cultural diversity. Since independence in 1947, the Indian civilization has expanded in every facet - from its increasing population to its to its intertwining cultural and social systems. There are over 1600 languages, nearly 400 of them are spoken by more tha
  • Bilingual Education vs English Only
    Bilingual Education vs English Only The Debate Between Bilingual Education and English Immersion Programs Bilingual Education is defined as any school program that uses two languages. In a more theoretical sense it is any educational program whose ultimate goal is for the participants to be fully versed in all facets of both languages (i.e., able to listen, speak , read, and write in both languages). The definition of a coordinated, developmental bilingual approach has emphasized the goal of bei
  • Bilingual Education vs English Only1
    Bilingual Education vs English Only1 The Debate Between Bilingual Education and English Immersion Programs Bilingual Education is defined as any school program that uses two languages. In a more theoretical sense it is any educational program whose ultimate goal is for the participants to be fully versed in all facets of both languages (i.e., able to listen, speak , read, and write in both languages). The definition of a coordinated, developmental bilingual approach has emphasized the goal of be
  • Critiscisms of My Antonia
    Critiscisms of My Antonia In the past, critics have ad moralized and/or brutalized every writer they could get their pen on. This is seen from criticisms of Henry Adams to William Butler Yeats. These writers critique everything about the writer and his/her works. For instance many critics criticize Willa Cather\'s novel, My Antonia. Their criticisms lie on the basis that My Antonia is based on cyclical themes with no structure holding each of the My Antonia\'s books. In other words, as a collect
  • Hemmingway
    hemmingway Jan-Erik Saue English 352, Short Stories TTH 12:15 Final paper ERNEST HEMINGWAY (1899-1961) "You really ought to read more books - you know, those things that look like blocks but come apart on one side." F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1927 This is a paper about Ernest Hemingway\'s short stories The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1938?), Hills like White Elephants (1927), Cat in the Rain (1923?), The Killers (1927) and A Clean Well-Lighted Place (1933). However, to understand Hemingway and his short sto
  • Hemmingway
    hemmingway Jan-Erik Saue English 352, Short Stories TTH 12:15 Final paper ERNEST HEMINGWAY (1899-1961) "You really ought to read more books - you know, those things that look like blocks but come apart on one side." F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1927 This is a paper about Ernest Hemingway\'s short stories The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1938?), Hills like White Elephants (1927), Cat in the Rain (1923?), The Killers (1927) and A Clean Well-Lighted Place (1933). However, to understand Hemingway and his short sto
  • Indian Economy
    Indian Economy India is located in the southern part of Asia and is also south of the Himalayan Mountains. This southern peninsula has the largest mineral deposits and the largest cultivable land in the continent. The population of India is critically large and although nearly all people are Hindu, some are of other religious denominations. The life of the Indian people is usually ruled by their caste system, but the system is not as firm as it was years ago. India has a mixed economy. The diffe
  • Opression of Women in Literature
    Opression of Women in Literature The following paper is in regard to Mary Wollstonecraft’s novel Maria, or the Wrongs of Women and Kate Chopin’s novel titled The Awakenings. The two stories have a similar plot and both discuss the oppression of women in the institution of marriage. This paper will include how the two main characters in each story, Maria (in Maria) and Edna (in The Awakenings) challenge the oppressive ideology by finding a new love and how they also encountered problems as long t
  • Walt Whittman
    Walt Whittman Palomo1 Michael Palomo American Literature Professor Sanchez May 9, 2000 Walt Whitman: An American Poet The ability to pinpoint the birth or beginning of the poet lifestyle is rare. It is rare for the observer as it is for the writer. The Walt Whitman poem Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking is looked at by most as just that. It is a documentation, of sorts, of his own paradigm shift. The realities of the world have therein matured his conceptual frameworks. In line 147 we read "No
  • Womans Studies
    Womans Studies Oppression is defined by The Collins Paperback English Dictionary as, “to subjugate by cruelty, force. etc. To afflict or torment. To lie heavy on (the mind, etc.)”. According to one of the authors in the book Feminist Frontiers IV, Marilyn Frye says: “The root of the word oppression is the element ‘press’. The press of the crowd; pressed into the military service; to press a pair of pants; printing press; printing press; press the button. Presses are used to mold things or flatte
  • Environmental hazadous
    environmental hazadous ENVIRONMENT: Every thing present in this universe is a part of environment including ourselves. Whether they are animals , living thing, or nonliving things. All of the external factors affecting an organism. These factors may be other living organisms (biotic factors) or nonliving variables (abiotic factors), such as water, soil, climate, light, and oxygen. All interacting biotic and abiotic factors together make up an ecosystem. Organisms and their environment constantly
  • Wind Power
    Wind Power Andrew Barefoot WIND POWER Wind energy is an unlimited source of energy. Many countries, including the United States, use wind energy to some degree. Wind turbines generate electricity by spinning in the wind. There are two main types of wind turbines: the horizontal axis variety and the vertical axis design. The horizontal type is the more common which looks like a traditional windmill. Electricity generated from wind turbines is fed into a local utility grid and distributed just lik
  • Alexander the Great
    Alexander the Great Introduction Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II, his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king. Alexander became a
  • Culture
    culture Michael C. Morfenski ASB 222 Early Peruvian cultures evolved from the prehistoric hunter and gathering tribes. Around 9000 BC the large, hunted, animals were extinct, so supplementation of their diet was needed, and so started the trend toward domestication of plants and wildlife. By 5000 BC food gathering techniques were moving toward cultivation, and a more settled lifestyle occurred. Settled populations, in the Andes, began to increase because of a steadier and expanding food supply a
  • Is Napoleon Bonaparte Machiavellian in Nature
    Is Napoleon Bonaparte Machiavellian in Nature In 1513, Niccolo Machiavelli wrote a piece of work called, "The Prince". It was written to all principalities, and that which is parallel to what Machiavelli suggests is often referred to as being "Machiavellian". The purpose of this essay is to ask the question "Is Napoleon Bonaparte Machiavellian in Nature?" By the evidence found from Napoleon\'s life and accomplishments it can said that he was not Machiavellian in nature, which can be demonstrated
  • Colombia2
    Colombia2 COLOMBIA GEOGRAPHY: Colombia stretches over approximately 1,140,000 sq. km, roughly equal to the area of Portugal, Spain, and France put together. Colombia occupies the northwestern end of South America, and is the only country there with coasts on both the Pacific (1350 km long), and the Atlantic (over 1600 km.) Three Andean ranges run north and south through the western half of the country (about 45% of the total territory.) The eastern part is a vast lowland which can be generally d
  • Colombia3
    Colombia3 COLOMBIA GEOGRAPHY: Colombia stretches over approximately 1,140,000 sq. km, roughly equal to the area of Portugal, Spain, and France put together. Colombia occupies the northwestern end of South America, and is the only country there with coasts on both the Pacific (1350 km long), and the Atlantic (over 1600 km.) Three Andean ranges run north and south through the western half of the country (about 45% of the total territory.) The eastern part is a vast lowland which can be generally d
  • Colombia4
    Colombia4 COLOMBIA GEOGRAPHY: Colombia stretches over approximately 1,140,000 sq. km, roughly equal to the area of Portugal, Spain, and France put together. Colombia occupies the northwestern end of South America, and is the only country there with coasts on both the Pacific (1350 km long), and the Atlantic (over 1600 km.) Three Andean ranges run north and south through the western half of the country (about 45% of the total territory.) The eastern part is a vast lowland which can be generally d
  • Australia
    Australia Australia is an island continent and is located southeast of Asia . Australia is the smallest continent in the world . Australia is made up of six states . The climate in Australia varies greatly : a hot season , wet season with rains falling mainly in February and March. During which north western has warm and dry season. Australians mineral resources are notably bauxite, coal , gold, iron , ore, and petroleum. The most popular and native mammals in Australia are marsupials . The best
  • Australia
    Australia Australia is an island continent and is located southeast of Asia . Australia is the smallest continent in the world . Australia is made up of six states . The climate in Australia varies greatly : a hot season , wet season with rains falling mainly in February and March. During which north western has warm and dry season. Australians mineral resources are notably bauxite, coal , gold, iron , ore, and petroleum. The most popular and native mammals in Australia are marsupials . The best