Essay on Manifest destiny

This essay has a total of 809 words and 5 pages.

manifest destiny



PHOBIA
Phobia- intense and persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or activity. Because
of this intense and persistent fear, the phobic person often leads a constricted life. The
anxiety is typically out of proportion to the real situation, and the victim is fully
aware that the fear is irrational.

Phobic anxiety is distinguishable from other forms of anxiety only in that it occurs
specifically in relation to a certain object or situation. This anxiety is characterized
by physiological symptoms such as a rapid, pounding heartbeat, stomach disorders, nausea,
diarrhea, frequent urination, choking feelings, flushing of the face, perspiration,
tremulousness, and faintness. Some phobic people are able to confront their fears. More
commonly, however, they avoid the situation or object that causes the fear—an avoidance
that impairs the sufferer's freedom.

Psychiatrists recognize three major types of phobias. Simple phobias are fears of specific
objects or situations such as animals, closed spaces, and heights. The second type,
agoraphobia, is fear of open, public places and situations (such as public vehicles and
crowded shopping centers) from which escape is difficult; agoraphobics tend increasingly
to avoid more situations until eventually they become housebound. Social phobias, the
third type, are fears of appearing stupid or shameful in social situations. The simple
phobias, especially the fear of animals, may begin in childhood and persist into
adulthood. Agoraphobia characteristically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood,
and social phobia is also associated with adolescence.

Although agoraphobia is more often seen in treatment than the other types of phobia, it is
not believed to be as common as simple phobia. Taken together, the phobias are believed to
afflict 5 to 10 persons in 100. Agoraphobia and simple phobia are more commonly diagnosed
in women than in men; the distribution for social phobia is not known. Agoraphobias,
social phobias, and animal phobias tend to run in families.

Behavioral techniques have proved successful in treating phobias, especially simple and
social phobias. One technique, systematic desensitization, involves gradually confronting
the phobic person with situations or objects that are increasingly close to the feared
ones. Exposure therapy, another behavioral method, has recently been shown more effective.
In this technique, phobics are repeatedly exposed to the feared situation or object so
that they can see that no harm befalls them; the fear gradually fades. Antianxiety drugs
have also been used as palliatives. Antidepressant drugs have also proved successful in
treating some phobias.



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