Mao's Cultural Revolution Essay

This essay has a total of 2648 words and 11 pages.

Mao's Cultural Revolution


Dressed in the drab military uniform that symbolized the revolutionary government of
Communist China, Mao Zedong's body still looked powerful, like an giant rock in a gushing
river. An enormous red flag draped his coffin, like a red sail unfurled on a Chinese junk,
illustrating the dualism of traditional China and the present Communist China that
typified Mao. 1 A river of people flowed past while he lay in state during the second week
of September 1976. Workers, peasants, soldiers and students, united in grief; brought
together by Mao, the helmsman of modern China. 2 He had assembled a revolutionary
government using traditional Chinese ideals of filial piety, harmony, and order. Mao's
cult of personality, party purges, and political policies reflect Mao's esteem of these
traditional Chinese ideals and history.


Mao was born on December 26, 1893 in Shao Shan, a village in Hunan Province. 3 His family
lived in a rural village where for hundreds of years the pattern of everyday life had
remained largely unbroken. 4 Mao's father, the son of a "poor peasant," during Mao's
childhood however, prospered and become a wealthy land owner and rice dealer. 5 Yet, the
structure of Mao's family continued to mirror the rigidity of traditional Chinese society.
His father, a strict disciplinarian, demanded filial piety. 6 Forced to do farm labor and
study the Chinese classics, Mao was expected to be obedient. On the other hand, Mao
remembers his mother was "generous and sympathetic." 7 Mao urged his mother to confront
his father but Mao's mother who believed in many traditional ideas replied that "was not
the Chinese way." 8 Mao in his interviews with historian Edgar Snow reports how during his
childhood he tried to escape this traditional Chinese upbringing by running away from
home.


The rebellion Mao claims to have manifested might have distanced Mao physically from his
family but, traditional Chinese values were deeply ingrained, shaping his political and
personal persona. His father's harshness with dealing with opposition, his cunning, his
demand for reverence from subordinates, and his ambition were to be seen in how Mao
demanded harmony, order, and reverence as a ruthless dictator. Yet, Mao, was also the
kindly father figure for the people of China, as manifested in characteristic qualities of
Mao's mother: kindness, benevolence, and patriarchal indulgence.


The China that Mao was born into was fast becoming a shell of its former past. The Ch'ing
dynasty which had ruled China for 250 years was only 14 years away from its collapse. 9
Peasant rebellions, famines, and riots heralded its failing. For Mao, one particular event
when he was just ten years old, left a lasting impression. It both symbolized the
deterioration of order in Chinese traditional society and was in sharp contrast to
principles of harmony. A group of local villagers rioted for food during a famine in 1903.
The leaders were captured, beheaded, and their heads displayed on poles as a warning for
future rebels. 10


Amidst the change that quaked the Chinese nation and Mao's family's economic situation, 11
Mao sought solace in books about Chinese history and its emperors. 12 He became known in
his family as, "the scholar." As a child " fascinated by accounts of the rulers of ancient
China: Yao, Shun, Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, and Hu Wu Ti, and read many books about them." 13
Indeed, the emperors grandeur, elegance and power were a sharp contrast to the brutish
leaders that Mao was exposed to during his childhood. 14 Yao and Shun are credited with
forming the first Chinese society in the Yellow River Valley; Ch'in Shih Huang Ti unified
the Chinese empire and built the Great Wall of China; Han Wu Ti solidified the foundation
of the Han Empire. 15 In the turmoil that China was to undergo, particularly after Mao
became the head of the Communist party, we will see how he was guided by traditional
Chinese values and the history of the emperors provided him with a map for the future. 16
However, at first, he did not seem strongly focused on history or philosophy.


During the next ten years, 1909-1918, Mao drifted. In 1909 at the age of 16, he left home
to attend school in Hsiang. 17 In 1911, he enlisted in the Army for six months after which
he moved to Changsha the capital of Hunan Province where he stayed until 1918. 18 While in
Changsha, he tried numerous schools. 19 Finally, he enrolled at the Hunan Normal School,
graduating in 1918. 20


Mao's mother's died in 1918, which seemed to be a precipitant factor in his final break
with home and in September of that year he traveled to Beijing. Arriving at Beijing
University21 he was exposed to a wide range of political philosophy such as, anarchism,
communism, and western ideas of democracy and capitalism. Nonetheless, when describing to
Edgar Snow the events that stood out in his mind from his time in Beijing, Mao did not
select political ideology but three journeys to Chinese sites that captured the grandeur
of the historic Chinese Empires. He visited the wall of Hsuchou famous in the San Kuo ;
climbed the T'ai Shan, a Chinese mountain of historic and religious significance; and made
a pilgrimage to Confucius's grave. 22


Mao now age 26, returned to Changsha in the spring of 1919. 23 It was at this point that
he became active in politics. During the summer of 1919, Mao became involved in
demonstrations, which although not Marxist-inspired, were strongly anti-imperialist. 24
But, by the summer of 1920, he embraced Marxism. 25 However, like everything that Mao
embarked upon, it also had "Maoist" tenets. The Marxism that Mao espoused became by the
1930's, an amalgam of Marxism and Mao's Chinese traditional ideas. He called it,
Sinified-Marxism. 26


In 1923, after the Communists formed an alliance with the Guomingdang, the Chinese
National People's Party, 27 Mao became a leader in the combined party. 28 He was sent in
1925 to organize the Peasants of Hunan province. This event and Mao's report of it became
a pivotal point in documenting and disseminating Mao's hallmark of Chinese Communism. 29
It reflected Mao's revolutionary belief in the peasantry's ability to rule while also
giving credence to Chinese traditional ideals. With glee, Mao described the peasant
associations which had successfully taken over in Hunan. 30 In his report, Mao pays
tribute to the peasants for selectively relying on Chinese traditions of order, harmony,
and filial piety. While praising the peasants for abandoning the worship of Gods and
rejecting Buddhism, he congratulates the peasants puritan prohibitions against gambling
and drinking wine. Although the peasants rejected "the traditional Buddhist religion" by
spurning idols, Mao praises the peasants for saving certain idols such as, a statue of Pao
Cheng who was a official in the Sung Dynasty (960-1127), an impartial judge. 31 Finally,
he applauds the Hunan peasant association for restoring order, which was to be a theme
echoed by Mao during the Cultural Revolution when Mao relied on the military to restore
order.


Mao's belief in the ability of peasants to organize and rule was at the heart of the
Communist success in attaining power. In 1927, the Guomingdang broke with the Communists.
Chased from the urban areas, the Communists fled to the countryside. 32 This proved to be
a blessing. Throughout the 1930's, the Communists organized the rural areas and solidified
Continues for 6 more pages >>




  • Describe A Person Who Has Influenced You
    Describe A Person Who Has Influenced You Everyone is affected by certain events or individuals that greatly change their life. Many people have influenced me during my life. Three wonderful friends that have had a special effect on me are Robert, Tiffany and Ashley. In the four years that I have known them well, they have been my best friends, and have helped to transform me from a lonely middle school scholar into a happy senior with a decent social life. Popular wisdom has it that, "You judge
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of
    JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President, therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented the United States from entering into another world war. Kennedy was especially admir
  • Truman
    Truman Harry S. Truman. ”Early Life Harry S. Truman, the oldest of three children born to Martha Ellen Young Truman and John Anderson Truman, was born in his family’s small frame house in Lamar, Missouri, in 1884. Truman had no middle name; his parents apparently gave him the middle initial S. because two family relatives names started with that letter. When Truman was six years old, his family moved to Independence, Missouri, where he attended the Presbyterian Church Sunday school. There he met
  • The Life of Mao Zedong
    The Life of Mao Zedong The Life of Mao Zedong Dressed in the drab military uniform that symbolized the revolutionary government of Communist China, Mao Zedong\'s body still looked powerful, like an giant rock in a gushing river. An enormous red flag draped his coffin, like a red sail unfurled on a Chinese junk, illustrating the dualism of traditional China and the present Communist China that typified Mao. 1 A river of people flowed past while he lay in state during the second week of September
  • Tinanmen Diary
    Tinanmen Diary Jeremy Richart Tiananmen Diary Book Review Asian Politics 345 Manju Parikh May 18, 1999 Change is the dramatic art of survival. If one is to survive, one needs to adapt to changing needs and desires. The Communist Party in China was started for just that reason. The Chinese wanted a change from what was going on in the country at the time. The student and worker protesters at Tiananmen Square wanted the same goal to be met. They wanted a dialogue to discuss the need for an adaptat
  • CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM
    CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese Economic Refrom
    Chinese Economic Refrom Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese reform
    chinese reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced
  • Stalin and Mao
    Stalin and Mao History has shown that strong individuals and revolutionary ideas can have a major impact on a country. Leaders are often driven by what they perceive as a desire to create a more perfect country. Frequently their egos and methods sway them from the realization of the ideals they set out to achieve. Every country has encountered a noteworthy leader at one point or another. Some countries realize this, and take advantage of the fact, while others let him or her pass slip away. A gr
  • Asias Sleeping Giants
    Asias Sleeping Giants China and Japan: Asia’s Sleeping Giants Of all regions in the world aiming for a bright future, none is closer to that goal than Asia. Asia, also known as the “sleeping giant” accounts for over sixty percent of the earth’s population with China holding a large amount of the sixty percent. Economically, Japan is in the forefront of the world with only the United States leading them in the category of Gross National Product (GNP). Both Japan and China are looked upon by a gre
  • Asia and the Pacific after WWII
    Asia and the Pacific after WWII The situation that formed in Asia and the Pacific Rim after WWII was basically a battle between the West (America, capitalism) and the East (USSR, communism). The war created two super-powers in Russia and the USA. Russia immediately began to convert all their territory gained into communist puppet governments. This caused disagreement between the US and the USSR. The US then tried to suppress the spread of communism. This started the Cold War. When other countrie
  • China
    China Engagement and Human Rights in China With the great advancement of Chinas economy and foreign trade relations within the last twenty years, one cannot help notice a simultaneous increase in Chinese human rights. Naturally, the question of whether the rights have stemmed from trade relations or the trade relations have developed out of greater human rights in China has come up for debate. The prevalent view of the countrys stance is that foreign nations humanitarian concerns for China ha
  • Chinese Book Report
    Chinese Book Report China Book Report Book: China Since 1945 Author: Stewart Ross (Note: This book is not described in full depth and detail but is just explained in a very general way, therefore Mahmoud Abdelkader uses The Modernization of China by Gilbert Rozman (Editor) excerpts to support his views) Type of Book: Illustrated Pages: 64 China Book Report The book China Since 1945, written by author Stewart Ross, opens in a description of the Chinese Empire in the 1900’s. There it describes the
  • Totalitarianism Maos China
    Totalitarianism Maos China Mao turned China into a complete Totalitarianism state. It was the Communist ideology that ran the country. All social, political, economic, Cultural and intellectual activities were in some way controlled by Mao. Mao set many rules by which the people were to live by making China at the time, a totalitarianism state. At the time of Mao’s birth, Emperor Yuan ruled China in the Qing dynasty. The Qing dynasty had been controlling China since 1644 and had never been popul
  • Winston Churchill1
    Winston Churchill1 Thesis Statement Churchill, the master British statesman, stood alone against fascism and renewed the worlds, faith in the superiority of democracy. Sir Winston Churchill The political history of the 20th century can be written as the biographies of six men: Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, and Mao Zedong. Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. The first four were totalitarians that made or used revolutions to create monstrous dictatorships. Roosevelt and Churchill differed from them
  • Chinese economic reform
    chinese economic reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • None Provided
    None Provided Table of Contents Article 1: Unchanging China, News Analysis by David Shapinsky, ABC News. 11/20/99 Article 2: WTO Entry Mixed Blessing for China, By John Leicester, Associated Press Writer. 11/21/99 Article 3: The Imperial Dragon, By Terry McCarthy, Time Magazine. 11/29/99 Conclusion Bibliography Article #1 After rather lengthy negotiations between the United States and China, there has been a trade agreement reached between the two countries. China has agreed to enter into the Wo
  • Asian
    Asian Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had
  • China the past
    china the past For most of its 3,500 years of history, China led the world in agriculture, crafts and science, then fell behind in the 19th century when the Industrial Revolution gave the West clear superiority in military and economic affairs. In the first half of the 20th century, China continued to suffer from major famines, civil unrest, military defeat, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China\'s autono
  • Describe A Person Who has Influenced Yoy
    Describe A Person Who has Influenced Yoy Describe A Person who has Influenced You Everyone is affected by certain events or individuals that greatly change their life. Many people have influenced me during my life. Three wonderful friends that have had a special effect on me are Robert, Tiffany and Ashley. In the four years that I have known them well, they have been my best friends, and have helped to transform me from a lonely middle school scholar into a happy senior with a decent social life
  • Important people
    Important people Mao Zedong Sex: Male Pronunciation: [mow dzuhdoong] History: also spelled Mao Tse-tung Life: (1893-1976) Leader and leading theorist of the Chinese communist revolution, born in the village of Shaoshan, Hunan Province, China, the son of a farmer. He graduated from Changsha teachers\' training college, then worked at Beijing University, where he was influenced by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. He took a leading part in the May Fourth Movement, becoming a Marxist and a founding member
  • Jack Kerouac
    Jack Kerouac Born on March 12, 1922, the youngest of three children in a French-Canadian family that had established itself in Lowell, Massachusetts, Jack Kerouac was by the age of ten already aiming to become a writer. His father ran a print shop and published a local newsletter called the Spotlight. Before long he began writing and producing his own sport sheet, which he sold to friends and acquaintances in Lowell. He attended both Catholic and public schools, and won athletic scholarships to
  • Lifestyle
    lifestyle Everyone is affected by certain events or individuals that greatly change their life. Many people have influenced me during my life. Three wonderful friends that have had a special effect on me are Robert, Tiffany and Ashley. In the four years that I have known them well, they have been my best friends, and have helped to transform me from a lonely middle school scholar into a happy senior with a decent social life. Popular wisdom has it that, "You judge a man by his friends." Earlier
  • Mao Zedong
    Mao Zedong The Little Red Book written by one of China\'s most influential characters of the 20th century, Mao Zedong. His folly known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution caused a tragic period for the Chinese people and the nation itself. As a child, Mao Zedong had a dream to become a leader of his own country, China. Although he was born into a poor family, it did not prevent him from accomplishing his dreams. Without his existence, there would not be a People\'s Republic of China. We
  • Marx2
    marx2 Kings and Dukes ran Europe in the early nineteenth century. The working class was stripped of all but the most basic rights. They were not allowed to have a say in politics whatsoever. Karl Marx recognized these injustices and wanted change. His answer to the problem was a 142-page manifesto outlining a political system that abolished social classes and made every citizen equal. His writings set peasants free and scared noble men. He inspired world leaders from the great Leon Trotsky to Ma
  • Nuclear Nonproliferation and China
    Nuclear Nonproliferation and China This paper will examine Nuclear Nonproliferation and China. I will also discuss the land, climate, and history of China. At 3,705,751 square miles, China is just larger than the United States. Because mountains or desert covers much of China, the majority of people live in the east, where rivers and plains allow for productive agriculture. While summers are warmer and winters are colder, China\'s climate is much like the United States. Monsoons cause frequent s
  • Richard Nixons Administation
    Richard Nixons Administation Richard Nixon On January 20, 1969, Richard Nixon was sworn in as the thirty-seventh president of the United States. Nixon’s vice-president was Spiro T. Agnew. His work as president started weeks earlier, before he even took office. Those weeks were spent choosing the people who would be in his cabinet. In 1969, one of the most urgent businesses facing him was finding a way to end the Vietnam War without allowing the government of South Vietnam to be defeated by Commu
  • The Domino Theory
    The Domino Theory In the wake of the temporary partitioning of Vietnam at the Geneva Conference of 1954, the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration was determined to do what it could to ensure that South Vietnam remained out of the hands of Communists. Eisenhower suggested in a 1954 speech that if the Communists were victorious in Vietnam, the rest of Southeast Asia would "topple like a row of dominoes" to Communist ideology. The Eisenhower administration believed that if Southeast Asia turned Comm
  • Who is the person whom affected
    Who is the person whom affected Everyone is affected by certain events or individuals that greatly change their life. Many people have influenced me during my life. Three wonderful friends that have had a special effect on me are Ryan, Alicia and Ana. In the three years that I have known them well, they have been my best friends, and have helped to transform me from a lonely middle school loner into a happy senior with a decent social life. Popular wisdom has it that, "You judge a man by his fri
  • World History Term Paper
    World History Term Paper World History Exam Review Chapter 2: Hieroglyphics - Writing of ancient Egypt that used pictures to represent words and sounds. Dynasty - Family of rulers in which heirs to the throne are members of the rulers family. Monotheism - Worship of single god. Polytheism - Worship of many gods. Hammurabi\'s Code Of Laws - The 1st set of written laws. "eye for an eye". "tooth for a tooth" Cuneiforms - early forms of writing mesopotamia in which the characters were wedge-shaped C
  • Yes china
    yes china The Red Book and the Power Structure of Communist China Propaganda in China during the Cultural Revolution took on many forms; there were mass Red Guard demonstrations in Tianamen Square in support of Mao Zedong, pictures of Mao were put up in every conceivable location from restaurants to the wallpaper in nurseries, and pamphlets and books of Mao\'s teachings were distributed to every Chinese citizen. One of these propaganda publications Quotations from Chairman Mao which later became
  • Communist china
    communist china Communism in an Economically Developing China The future of communism in China is unknown, as the world economy becomes more international. Communism has been in China since 1949 and is still present in the country’s activities. Presently China is undergoing incredible economic growth and promises to be a dominant power early in the next century. China’s social tradition has come under heavy pressure from forces of modernization generated in a large part by the sustained contact
  • Democracy Movements in China
    Democracy Movements in China Democracy Movements in China Democracy Wall In 1978, stimulated by the opening of China to the West and also by the "reversal of verdicts" against the 1976 Tiananmen protesters (These demonstrations against the gang of four had been condemned as counter-revolutionary at the time but were now declared a revolutionary act), thousands of Chinese began to put their thoughts into words, their words onto paper and their paper onto walls to be read by passers by. The most f
  • How and Why Political Systems change
    How and Why Political Systems change How and Why Political Systems Change Since the creation of mankind the world has been continually changing. With each day, man develops, countries grow and political systems change. A political system is an important set of social institutions. Political systems have many functions. Political systems create resources for education, health, welfare, industry and foreign policy. Political systems have changed drastically over centuries and are still changing ev
  • The Long March
    The Long March INTRODUCTION On October 16, 1934, 100 000 Chinese Communist troops set out on a 6,000 mile trek from their base in Kiangsi.1 This trek, later to be known as the Long March, began after Chiang Kai-shek and his Nationalist armies (the Kuomintang) frustrated the Communist organization in Southeast China. The Long March was a difficult journey; approximately 90,000 men and women died before it was over.2 However, communism was not eliminated in China. This paper argues that the Long M
  • Three great religion
    Three great religion Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the
  • Chinese Economic Reform
    Chinese Economic Reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Kennedy
    Kennedy Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented the United States from entering into another world war. The younger peop
  • Eco in China
    eco in China Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the "Great Leap Forward" and the "Cultural Revolution" which had had as their bases ideas such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 Chinas leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems. Hua Guofen
  • Chinese economic reform
    chinese economic reform CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM By: G.J. THORNTON Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching
  • Wild Swans
    Wild Swans Wild Swans Wild Swans Is a novel expressing the history and tradition of the Chinese culture through the eyes of one, Jung Chang. Jung Chang tells the story of a struggling China dealing with communism through three generations of women: her grandmother, her mother, and herself . Through her grandmother the traditional China is brought forth, and the reader is made aware of what it was like living in an older China. Her mother’s life introduces us to communism and how it began and sp
  • The changing image of women position in Chinese fi
    The changing image of women position in Chinese film since 1950s Since 1950s, after the Chairman Mao Zedong’s Yanán conference, art and literature had strictly become tools of promoting the ideology of Communist Party, that is, the product of art and literature in China can be classified as highly popanganda. Chairman Mao Zedong and his Communist Party strongly suggested the equality of both genders - male and female. To promote Mao’s theory, certain kind of strong female character\'s image had
  • Women position in Chinese film since 1950s
    women position in Chinese film since 1950s Since 1950s, after the Chairman Mao Zedong’s Yanán conference, art and literature had strictly become tools of promoting the ideology of Communist Party, that is, the product of art and literature in China can be classified as highly popanganda. Chairman Mao Zedong and his Communist Party strongly suggested the equality of both genders - male and female. To promote Mao’s theory, certain kind of strong female character\'s image had been created in films
  • China Foreign Policy
    China Foreign Policy Since the initial warming of U.S.-China relations in the early 1970’s, policymakers have had difficulty balancing conflicting U.S. policy concerns in the People’s Republic of China. In the strange world of diplomacy between the two, nothing is predictable. From Nixon to Clinton, presidents have had to reconcile security and human rights concerns with the corporate desire for expanded economic relations between the two countries. Nixon established ties with Mao Zedong’s brut
  • Mao vs Deng
    Mao vs Deng Mao vs. Deng Chinas transition from the leadership under the iron fist of Mao Zedong to the more liberal Deng Xiao Ping gave the Peoples Republic a gradual increase in economic freedom while maintaining political stability. During Maos regime, the country focused on bolstering and serving the community, while subsequently encumbering individual growth and prosperity. Deng advocated a more capitalist economic ideology, which established China as an economic force in the global com
  • Three Georges Dam
    Three Georges Dam The United States, China and the Three Gorges Dam: Toward A Sounder Foreign Environmental Policy Yumiko Kojima, Kyoko Murai, Howard Pang, and Elena Vitale The Three Gorges Dam project on Chinas Yangzi River is the worlds largest hydroelectric undertaking. While Chinese leaders say the dam will improve river navigation, prevent periodic flooding, and provide the needed electricity for Chinas growing economy, many doubt that the dam will be able to meet the proponents claims
  • An Alternate China
    An Alternate China AN ALTERNATE CHINA The obituaries that marked Deng Xiaoping\'s death on February 19, 1999 were extremely outspoken in their praise of the economic reforms he had unleashed on China. However, while getting rich has been glorious for many Chinese, a much larger number, although enjoying some of the reform\'s benefits live a less capital existence. We must start back a few years for a proper analysis. On June 4, 1989, there was a massacre that took place in Tinanmen Square in Be
  • Book Comparison of the Rise of Communist Parties S
    Book Comparison of the Rise of Communist Parties Soviet Union and China The first half of the twentieth century were the breeding years of Communism. The books Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini by Bruce F. Pauley and China in Transformation by Colin Mackerras both deal with the rise of Communism, the former in the Soviet Union and the latter in China. Although one book deals with the rise of Communism in the Soviet Union and the other book deals with the rise of Communism in China, both authors hav
  • China Book Report
    China Book Report China Book Report The book China Since 1945, written by author Stewart Ross, opens in a description of the Chinese Empire in the 1900’s. There it describes the terrain of the Chinese lands and thoroughly states the fact of having the Great Wall of China to keep out the barbarians at 221 B.C. The author uses a very admiring tone of the Chinese Empire and seems to think it’s one of the very few best empires that have ever formed. In fact, Rozman states, ‘ …the cultural and scien
  • Confusianism
    Confusianism A philosopher named Confucius founded Confucianism in China 2,500 years ago. Confucianism is a system of ethical behavior and social responsibility that became the great traditions of the East.1 It played an important role in the evolution in Chinese culture over the centuries. It has influenced near-by countries and had made a mark in the history of religion. There are today over six million people who call themselves Confucianists. Most Confucianists live in East Asia where Confu