Essay on McDonaldization of Society

This essay has a total of 2198 words and 24 pages.

McDonaldization of Society

Bosnia-Herzegovina is a country

located in southeastern Europe. Bosnia- Herzegovina

declared its independence in March of 1992. Usually, this

country is referred to as Bosnia, but is officially named

Bosnia-Herzegovina. In 1918, Bosnia-Herzegovina became

part of the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes,

which later became known as the country of Yugoslavia. In

1946, Yugoslavia became a federal state consisting of six

republics, one of which was Bosnia-Herzegovina. Slavic

people make up most of the counties population. The largest

groups are the Bosnia Muslims, the Serbs, and the Croats.

Much of the Serbian population opposed to Bosnia's

independence and a civil war erupted in the Spring of 1992.

Serbian forces soon occupied about two-thirds of the

country. About one-fifth was soon held by Bosnian

Croatians. The remainder of the country was held by

Bosnian government troops, mainly Bosnian Muslims. From

1945, till 1990, communists held a monopoly on powers in

all of Yugoslavia, including Bosnia-Herzegovina. In 1990,

non-communists gained a majority of seats in Bosnia's first

multi-party election. Bosnia-Herzegovina's capitol city is

Sarajevo, which can be found in the center of the country.

Although many languages are spoke there, the main language

is Serbo-Croatian. In a 1991 census, there was a reported

4,365,639 people living in the borders of

Bosnia-Herzegovina which has an area of 19,741 square

miles, and in 1995 there was an estimated 4,454,000 people

in the country (Twenty-two people per square mile.)

Sixty-six percent of those people live in rural areas, leaving

only thirty-four percent living in urban areas. Bosnia-

Herzegovina's money system is based on the Dinar. Their

main agricultural exports are cattle, cherries, corn, grapes,

hogs, peaches, pears, plums, potatoes, sheep, soybeans,

tobacco, walnuts, and wheat. As a developing country, their

industrial production is slightly limited, producing mainly

electrical appliances and textiles. There is also a lot of mining

of coal and iron ore which also contributes to the countries

economy. Bosnia's government is headed by a seven

member collective presidency. The presidency consists of

two Croats, two Bosnian Muslims, two Serbs, and one

individual who is not affiliated with a specific ethnic group.

Voters elect members to a four year term. The members

then elect a president who serves a one year term, but then

may be later reelected. The Bosnia-Herzegovina government

also consists of a two-house legislature. The chamber of

citizens has 130 members and the Chamber of municipalities

has 110 members. All are elected for a four year term.

There are, as in the United States, different political parties in

Bosnia-Herzegovina. These parties are recognized as the

Party of Democratic Action, the Serbian Democratic party,

and the Croatian Democratic Union. About forty-four

percent of Bosnia-Herzegovina's population are Bosnian

Muslims. Serbs make up about thirty-two percent, and

Croats account for roughly seventeen percent. The remaining

seven percent include Albanians, Gypsies, and Ukrainians.

Since the civil war began, large numbers of people have fled

the county. Most of Bosnia-Herzegovina's people speak a

language called Serbo- Croatian. In writing though, Serbs

traditionally use the Cyrillic alphabet. On the other hand,

Bosnian Muslims, Croats and the majority of others living in

Bosnia use the Roman alphabet. The main religions of

Bosnia are Islamic, practiced by the Bosnian Muslims,

Roman Catholic, practiced by the Croats, and the main

religion of the Serbs is Serbian Orthodoxy. Another aspect

of the Bosnian people's culture is their food. Bosnian

cooking reflects Turkish and Muslim influences. Musaka,

roasted meat and eggplant, and kapama, mutton with

spinach and green onions, are just two of the dishes

commonly found there. An excellent white wine is also

produced in Mostar. School life in Bosnia is different then

that of the United States. Children of Bosnia are required to

take eight years of elementary school. Some students will

then attend universities, but most will stay and take over the

family property. Bosnia-Herzegovina consists of two-land

regions. (Refer to map below.) Bosnia, the northern section,

is a mountainous region covered with thick forests.

Herzegovina, the southern section of the country, is

composed largely of rocky hills, and flat farmland. The major

rivers or Bosnia-Herzegovina are the Bosna, Neretra, and

Vrbas. The winters of Bosnia-Herzegovina are exceptionally

cold and snowy. Contrasting, the summers are warm in the

mountain valleys, but milder in the higher elevations. In

Sarajevo, the average climate in January in 30§ F, and in

July 68§ F. Prior to the war, Bosnia's mountains were full of

visitors taking advantage of the vast range of ski slopes.

Bosnia-Herzegovina is rich in natural resources. It has vast

forests, large iron ore reserves, and plentiful sources of coal

and hydroelectric power. As stated before

Bosnia-Herzegovina's main exports were a sum of their

industrial and agricultural products. Bosnia's chief trading

partners have been Austria, Germany, and Italy, but has also

traded with Muslim nations of the Middle East such as Syria

and Turkey. Before the war, Bosnia-Herzegovina had a well

developed system of roads linking it to bordering nations of

Croatia and Serbia. However, these roads were destroyed

by attacking Serbian armies. Bosnia-Herzegovina also has a

large system of railways. These railroads connect cities such

as Sarajevo to other large cities and neighboring countries.

Although small, Bosnia does contain airports, which can be

found in the capitol Sarajevo and other main cities like

Monstar. These airports do not have any departing or

arriving commercial flights, and in fact, the airports were

reopened by the United Nations in 1992, after being shut

down due to the violent conflicts. Planes now containing

food and supplies are now able to bring the food and

medicine that is greatly needed by the people of the country.

Bosnia has a long history of heart-aches and changes in

power. People called the Illynans lived in what is now called

Bosnia-Herzegovina beginning about 3000 years ago. The

region became part of a Roman province in about 11 B.C.

From the 900's to the 1100's rule shifted between the

Byzantine Empire, the Croats, and the Serbs. Hungary's king

claimed control over most of Bosnia from the 1100's to

about 1400, but local nobles called Bans, were able to act

independently most of the time. Hum, now known as

Herzegovina, was under Serbian or Hungarian rule from the

1100's until 1326. Bosnia controlled it from 1326 until 1463,

when its local rulers declared its independence, and adopted

the title herzeg which means duke. The Ottoman Empire

gained control of most of Bosnia in 1463, and seized

Herzegovina in the 1480's. After the invasion, some Slavs in

the region converted to Islam. The Ottomans made Bosnia

and Herzegovina one political unit in the mid-1800's.

Bosnia-Herzegovina remained part of the Ottoman Empire

until the Congress of Berlin, a meeting of major European

leaders in 1879 that gave temporary control of the region to

Austria- Hungary. In 1908, Austria-Hungary formally took

over the region. In June of 1914, Archduke Francis

Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated in Sarajevo

by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian from Bosnia-Herzegovina. The

assassination led to the outbreak of World War I. After the

war ended in 1918, Bosnia-Herzegovina became part of the
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