Mining Dictionary Essay

This essay has a total of 6818 words and 63 pages.

Mining Dictionary







Dictionary
of
Mining Engineering



Nihat
Alpin
Mütevelliođlu
050990045




-A-

Adhesion : Holding surface together with an adhesive

Advance : The work of excavating as mining forward in an entry and in driving
rooms; to extract all or part of an ore


Agglomeration : A concentration process based on the adhesion of pulp particles to water in ore benefaction

Alloy : A substance having metallic properties and being composed of two or more
chemical elements of which at least one is an element of metal


Amalgamation : The production of an amalgam or alloy of mercury

Anemometer : An instrument to measure the velocity of air

Anomaly : A body, which is much different in geological and mineral content than the surrounding formations

Antimony: A trivalent and pentavalent metallic element which is rather soft
usually in metallic silvery white, crystalline


Arches: A large building with a curved top over an opening, usually as a monument

















-B-

Bagging : Flexible tubing for conducting compressed air, water, or steams usually
constructed from canvas and rubber


Ball mill : Mill which has balls inside that are used to crush big minerals

Ballast : Broken limestone pieces to carry mine track within its side

Baryte : A sulphate of Barium

Bell conveyor : A moving belt that rides on rollers and used to carry coal or
other materials to various locations


Bench : A long seat; a strong on which mechanics prepare their work

Bentonite : A montmorillonite type clay formed by the alteration of volcanic ash

Blasting : Break up and destroy

Blind shaft : A small shaft driven between two galleries

Blister copper : An impure intermediate product in the refilling of copper

Boundary : A line between areas of the earth’s surface occupied by rocks or formations
of different type and different age


Brittle : A mineralogical term meaning not flexible and ductile







-C-

Cage : The cabin in the shaft to carry men, mine cars and materials

Cave : A hollow place in earth

Ceramic : A class of inorganic, non-metallic products which are subjected to a
high temperature during manufacture or in use


Clay : A fine-grained, natural, earthy material composed primarily of hydrous aluminium silicates

Combustible : A substance that can be easily set on fire or that readily takes fire and burns

Communition : The breaking, crushing, or grinding of coal, ore, or rock

Conveying : Transporting by conveyors from the orebody to the shaft

Copper : A reddish metallic element in group IB of the periodic table

Crushing : To reduce ore or quartz by stamps, crushers or rolls

Cut-off tenor : The lowest tenor for mining

Cutting machine : A power-driven machine used to undercut or shear the coal to facilitate its removal from the face

Cyclone : Refers to the conical shapes apparatus used in dust collecting operations






-D-

Dam : A bank or mound raised to keep back

Debris : Rock fragments, sand, earth, and sometimes organic matter, in a
heterogeneous mass, as at the foot of a cliff


Detonation : An explosion or sudden report made by the inflammation of certain combustible bodies

Development : To open up a coal seam or orebody as by sinking shafts and driving
drifts, as well as installing the equipment needed


Dewatering : Removing water by pumping, drainage, or evaporation

Dilution : Mixing of ore with other material lowering the tenor of the ore

Discipline : Employee discipline implies subjection to authority or instructions given by a mine official

Dragline : A type of excavating equipment which costs a rope-hung bucket, a
considerable distance, collects the dug material by pulling the bucket toward
itself on the ground with a second rope, elevates the bucket and dumps the
material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on a pile


Drilling : The act of process of making a circular hole with a drill

Dump : Combination of all waste materials which are useless

Dust : Earth or other matter reduced to small particles which can easily be raised and carried by air

Dynamite : An industrial explosive which is detonated by blasting caps. The principle
explosive equipment is nitro-glycerine or specially sensitised ammonium nitrate




-E-

Earth : The solid matter of the globe in distinction from water and air; to the
ground; the firm land of the earth’s surface


Efficiency : The ratio of work output to work input

Environment : The aggregate of all the surrounding conditions, influences, or force
affecting a locus sedimentation


Excavation : Digging and removing soil

Explore : To search, develop or prospect

-F-

Fault : Breaking plane of a vein or seam

Fault line : The intersection of a fault surface or a fault plane with the surface of
the earth or with any artificial surface of reference


Feldspar : One of a group of rock-farming minerals which includes microline,
orthoclase, plagioclase and anorthoclase


Filtration : A process for separating solids from the liquid

Firedamp : Mixture of methane and air

Flint : A variety of quartz, a cryptocrystalline substance composed of silica

Flocculation : The gathering of suspended particles into aggregations




-G-

Gallery : An excavation carried from the shaft horizontally to reach the orebody

Gateway : A gallery driven horizontally to follow a seam or a vein

Geological reserve : An unknown reserve but the geological information
indicating the possibility of such reserve


Grinding : Size reduction of ore and other materials into idatively fine particles

-H-

Hand picking : Manual removal of ore from the soil

Haulage : Transportation of cars and miners horizontally

Headframe : Steel or concrete tower to carry the hoisting forces

Helmet : A covering which protects the head

Hoisting : Lifting something upwards from the earth

Humidity : The quantity of moisture in the air

Hydraulic Transport : Transportation of ore from the working places to the processing plant in pipes






-I-

Inclination : The angular depth of vein, bed and etc.; measure in degree from the horizontal plane

Incline: A gallery driven from the surface downward to reach the orebody at an inclination of 10-30 degrees

Isomorphism : The name given the phenomenon where two ro more minerals which are very
similar in their chemical properties, crystallize in class of the same system of symmetry


-J-

Jigs : Devices which separates coal from foreign substances by the help of density using water

Junctions : Combination; the act or operating of joining

-L-

Level : Galleries driven from the shaft at different elevation

Locomotive : A car with an engine usually used to carry mine cars from one place to another on tracks





-M-

Magnetic separator : A machine which is used to separate magnetic minerals found in nonmagnetic substances

Malleable : Capable of being extended or shaped by beating with a hammer, for example gold, silver etc

Metal : The pure element of a mineral, mostly having special physical and electrical properties

Mine : Location and installation, from which ore is extracted and a saleable product is obtained

Mine car : A container holding the ore

Mineral : Any natural product having a chemical formula with proper physical characteristics

-O-

Ore : A mass of valuable minerals from which a saleable product can be obtained

Orebody : A solid with enormous mass of ore which looks like a big rock

Outburst : The name applied to violent evolution of firedamp from working fact

Overflow : To come out in big mass





-P-

Panning : Washing earth or crushed rock in a pan by agitation with water to obtain
the particles of greatest specific gravity in it


Parachute : A safety device to keep the cage or skip in the shaft in case of rope breaking

Pelleziting : A method in which finely divided material is rolled in a drum or in an
inclined disk so that theparticles cling together and roll up into small spherical
pellets


Pillar : The area of coal or ore left to support thte overlying strata or hanging wall in a mine

Polymorphism : The property of presenting many forms, especially in
crystallography the ability of certain substances to crystallize with different
ratios without changing chemical properties


Possible reserve : An orebody determined in one dimension. Mostly depth

Potential reserve : A proven reserve but not economic under the prevailing conditions

Power plants : Buildings that are producing electrical power

Probable reverse : An orebody determined in two dimensions; length, width. The depth isn’t fully determined

Profit : The money earned when you subscribe lost money from total earnings
Proven reserve : A visible reserve on which the tonnage, tennor, mineralogical investigation have been compiled

Pulp density : The amount of valid in a pulp ranging from 10 to 25 percent by weight in flotation


-R-

Railroad : The road or steel bars which carry mine cars

Raise : A gallery driven upward to make connection with the upper level

Ramp : A gallery of small inclination in spiral form

Recovery : The percentage of the recovered metal versus the total metal content of the ore

Refrigeration : Cooling of air before it gets more hot

Regulator : A sliding door opening to regulate the amount of air

Reservoir : A natural underground container of liquids, such as all or water and gases

Retreating longwall : First driving haulage road and airways to the boundary of
a track of coal and then mining it in a single face without pillars back and
toward the shaft


Roadway : An underground platform

Rock : Naturally formed matter that is a part of the earth’s crust


Roof bolts : Long steel bolts driven into walls or roof of underground excavations to
strengthen the pinning of rock strata


Rope : A bunch of steel wires wound to carry the cage and the skip






-S-

Seam : Bed of coal or other mineral generally applied to large deposits of coal

Selective mining : A method of mining whereby ore of unwarranted high value is mined
in such manner as to make the low grade ore left in the mine incapable of future
profitable extraction


Shaft : Excavation usually carried vertically to reach lowest position of orebody

Shaking table : A table which eliminate the reduction by their density

Shovel : An instrument used for lifting earth or other loose substances

Skip : A large container to carry the ore to the surface inside the shaft

Slime table : A table for the treatment of slime; a buddle

Slury : A suspension in a liquid especially water of a solid

Spraying : The application of enamel slip or glaze to surface by using spraygun

Stope : Place where ore production is made

Stowing : The material brought from the surface or from other part of the mine to replace the ore taken out

Stripping : An excavation with power shovels in which the coal seams are laid
bore by stripping of the surface soil and rock strata


Strontium : A bivalent metallic element in group II of the periodic system





-T-

Tailings : The parts, or a part, of any incoherent or fluid material separated as
refuse, or fluid material separated as refuse, or separately treated as inferior
in quality


Tenor : The percentage of the valuable element in the reserve

Tie : Wooden or steel pieces on which the rails are placed

Tool grinder : One who grinds the cutting tools for stone working planers and clothes in stonework industry

Track : The system composed of rails, ties and ballast on which the mine car are rolled

-V-

Vein : A zone or belt of mineralised rock lying within boundaries clearly separating it from neighbouring rock

Ventilator : A mechanical apparatus for producing a current of air in
underground as a blowing or exhaust fan

Ventube : Flexible pipe which is used to convey the air blowing from a ventilator
Visible reserve : An orebody determined in all dimensions; depth, length, width, thickness





-W-

Wet cutting : A method of dust prevention in which water is delivered onto the moving
cutter chain, through water pipes and is carried into the cut where it is intimately
mixed with the cuttings


Wet drilling : Drill by using the pressure of water which is good for pretending dust

Winder : An electrically driven winding engine for hoisting a cage or cages up vertically in a mine shaft

Winding : Vertical transport through the shaft

Winze : A gallery driven downward to make connection to the lower level

































“ Sentences with the words used in the dictionary including mining & related terms “

-A-

Adhesion : 1) Adhesion is the work of holding surface

2) In adhesion the effect is produced by forces between molecules

3) Shearing resistance between soil and another material under zero is called adhesion

Advance : 1) To advance galleries either drilling, blasting or mechanical excavation method can be used

2) Role of advancing is very important in order to reach orebody

3) Mechanical gallery advancing is the most effective way


in long distanced galleries


Agglomeration : 1) Agglomeration is a kind of a concentration process

2) Agglomeration also refers to briquetting, nodulizing, sintering, etc.

3) Agglomeration is based on adhesion of pulp particles to water

Alloy : 1) An alloy may be a compound of the metals

2) An alloy may be a solid mixture of the metals

3) An alloy may be a heterogeneouse mixture






Amalgation : 1) Gold is treated with mercury in order to obtain amalgam on the surface

2) Amalgation process for gold is done to mix gold with mercury

3) The process by which mercury is alloyed with some other metal is called amalgation

Anemometer : 1) Speed of wind and other moving gases are measured using an anemometer

2) Anemometer consists of a small fan from 7.6 to 15.2 cm in diameter that is rotated by the air current

3) Anemometer is held in the mine airway for the exact number of minutes

Anomaly : 1) Drilling for economic mineral deposits might be conducted in the
area of a geophysical anomaly

2) In seismic usage anomaly is generally synonymous with subsurface structure

3) A crystallographic anomaly is the lack of agreement between the apparent external
symmetry of a crystal and the observed optical properties


Antimony : 1) Antimony is extracted from ore by roasting the ore and reducing with carbon

2) Antimony expands on solidifying

3) Antimony can be found in element, oxide and sulphide forms

Arches : 1) Steel arches are used to support galleries

2) The steel arches are needed to carry forces applied by rocks

3) Supporting galleries with steel arches reduces the accident rate



-B-

Ball mill : 1) Ball mill is a type of a crusher which has balls inside

2) In order to crush big substances ball mills are used

3) Crushed particles of a given size range are placed in a ball mill

Ballast : 1) In railways ballast are used to support rails

2) Putting ballast under wooden ties is very important in rail laying
3) Broken rock pieces used in railways are called ballast

Baryte : 1) Natural barium oxide (BaSO4) is called baryte

2) Baryte is also used in medical industry in X-ray diagnosis

3) Baryte is usually found in a white crystalline powder form

Bell conveyor : 1) Bell conveyor is used in the transportation of materials inside mines & factories

2) Bell conveyors are the most efficient and cheapest way of transport

3) Bell conveyors work with an angle between 0-17 degrees

Bench : 1) Mechanics prepare their work on benches

2) Benhes are a type of seats which are strong and long

3) Place where mechanics prepare their work is called bench

Bentonite : 1) Bentonite is a clay called material similar to fuller’s earth

2) Bentonite is formed by the alternation of volcanic ash

3) Bentonite is used to absorb oil and grease


Blasting : 1) Blasting is a method used in advancing

2) In blasting method different types of explosives are used

3) ANFO ( Amonium nitrate 94% Fuel 6% ) is often used in blasting

Blind shaft : 1) Blind shaft is a kind of a shaft

2) Blind shaft is used between two levels

3) By enlarging a vertical drillhole blind shaft can be made

Blister copper : 1) Blister copper is produced by blowing copper matte in a converter

2) Blistered copper ore is a reniform variety of chalcopyrite

3) The blister of copper are formed by gas escaping from within copper

Boundary : 1) Films of one constituent of an alloy surrounding the crystals of another are called boundary films

2) A map created for the purpose of delineating a boundary line and the adjacent territory are called boundary maps

3) A major fault with a considerable displacemen is called boundary
fault

Brittle : 1) The quality of a material that leads to crack propagation without
appreciable plastic deformation is called brittle


2) Chloritoid, basic silicate of aluminum, iron, and magnesium are some of the micas having brittle laminae

3) A nonductile material that fails catastrophically under dynamic loading is called a brittle material





-C-

Cage : 1) Cages usually designed to take one or two cars per deck

2) There is a guide found to prevent cages from swinging and colliding

3) There is short prop or catch on which cage stands

Cave : 1) Collapse of the walls on root of a mine is called cave-in

2) A person whose hobby is to explore caves is a caver

3) A compact bended deposit of calcite or araginot ( cave marble ) can be found in caves

Ceramic : 1) Ceramic is any of a class of inorganic, nonmetallic products that are
subjected to a high temperature during manufacture or use


2) The work of ceramics is the pertaining to products or industries involving the use of clay or other silicates

Clay : 1) Kaolinite and china clay are good examples of clay

2) Clay is a calss of complex silicate

3) Clay seam or gauge found along the sides of veins are called clay
course

Combustible : 1) Combustible gasess form a layer under the roof of a mine roadway

2) Combustible gases in mines are very dangerous and need to taken out

3) Methane is an example of combustible gases





Communition : 1) To obtain proper material size for machinery is purpose of communition

2) To prepare material for marketing is a purpose of communition

3) To provide a certain degree of liberation is a purpose of communition

Conveying : 1) There are two types of conveying ; hydraulic, pneumatic conveying

2) Conveying is done by the help of compressed water or air

Copper : 1) Copper is used in steam boilers, eletric wire and in numerous alloys

2) Copper is the best conductor of electricity after silver

3) Copper is a free metal and unaffected by water or steam

Continues for 32 more pages >>




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