Modernism Essay

This essay has a total of 4792 words and 24 pages.

Modernism



. Introduction
[ ]
Print section
[ ]
Modern Art , painting, sculpture, and other forms of 20th-century art. Although scholars
disagree as to precisely when the modern period began, they mostly use the term modern art
to refer to art of the 20th century in Europe and the Americas, as well as in other
regions under Western influence. The modern period has been a particularly innovative one.
Among the 20th century's most important contributions to the history of art are the
invention of abstraction (art that does not imitate the appearance of things), the
introduction of a wide range of new artistic techniques and materials, and even the
redefinition of the boundaries of art itself. This article covers some of the theories
used to interpret modern art, the origins of modern art in the 19th century, and its most
important characteristics and modes of expression.


Modern art comprises a remarkable diversity of styles, movements, and techniques. The wide
range of styles encompasses the sharply realistic painting of a Midwestern farm couple by
Grant Wood, entitled American Gothic (1930, Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois), and the
abstract rhythms of poured paint in Black and White (1948, private collection), by Jackson
Pollock. Yet even if we could easily divide modern art into representational works, like
American Gothic, and abstract works, like Black and White, we would still find astonishing
variety within these two categories. Just as the precisely painted American Gothic is
representational, Willem de Kooning's Marilyn Monroe (1954, private collection) might also
be considered representational, although its broad brushstrokes merely suggest the
rudiments of a human body and facial features. Abstraction, too, reveals a number of
different approaches, from the dynamic rhythms of Pollock's Black and White to the
right-angled geometry of Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue (1937-1942, Tate Gallery,
London) by Dutch painter Piet Mondrian , whose lines and rectangles suggest the mechanical
precision of the machine-made. Other artists preferred an aesthetic of disorder, as did
German artist Kurt Schwitters, who mixed old newspapers, stamps, and other discarded
objects to create Picture with Light Center (1919, Museum of Modern Art, New York City).


Thus 20th-century art displays more than stylistic diversity. It is in the modern period
that artists have made paintings not only of traditional materials such as oil on canvas,
but of any material available to them. This innovation led to developments that were even
more radical, such as conceptual art and performance art—movements that expanded the
definition of art to include not just physical objects but ideas and actions as well.


[ ]
II. Characteristics of Modern Art
[ ]
Print section
[ ]
In view of this diversity, it is difficult to define modern art in a way that includes all
of 20th-century Western art. For some critics, the most important characteristic of modern
art is its attempt to make painting and sculpture ends in themselves, thus distinguishing
modernism from earlier forms of art that had conveyed the ideas of powerful religious or
political institutions. Because modern artists were no longer funded primarily by these
institutions, they were freer to suggest more personal meanings. This attitude is often
expressed as art for art's sake, a point of view that is often interpreted as meaning art
without political or religious motives. But even if religious and government institutions
no longer commissioned most art, many modern artists still sought to convey spiritual or
political messages. Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky , for instance, felt that color
combined with abstraction could express a spiritual reality beneath ordinary appearances,
while German painter Otto Dix created openly political works that criticized policies of
the German government.


Another theory claims that modern art is by nature rebellious and that this rebellion is
most evident in a quest for originality and a continual desire to shock. The term
avant-garde, which is often applied to modern art, comes from a French military term
meaning "advance guard," and suggests that what is modern is what is new, original, or
cutting-edge. To be sure, many artists in the 20th century tried to redefine what art
means, or attempted to expand the definition of art to include concepts, materials, or
techniques that were never before associated with art. In 1917, for example, French artist
Marcel Duchamp exhibited everyday, mass-produced, utilitarian objects—including a bicycle
wheel and a urinal—as works of art. In the 1950s and 1960s, American artist Allan Kaprow
used his own body as an artistic medium in spontaneous performances that he declared to be
artworks. In the 1970s American earthwork artist Robert Smithson used unaltered elements
of the environment—earth, rocks, and water—as material for his sculptural pieces.
Consequently, many people associate modern art with what is radical and disturbing.
Although a theory of rebellion could be applied to explain the quest for originality
motivating a great number of 20th-century artists, it would be difficult to apply it to an
artist such as Grant Wood, whose American Gothic clearly rejected the example of the
advanced art of his time.


Another key characteristic of modern art is its fascination with modern technology and its
embrace of mechanical methods of reproduction, such as photography and the printing press.
In the early 1910s Italian artist Umberto Boccioni sought to glorify the precision and
speed of the industrial age in his paintings and sculptures. At about the same time,
Spanish painter Pablo Picasso incorporated newspaper clippings and other printed material
into his paintings in a new technique known as collage . By the same token, however, other
modern artists have sought inspiration from the spontaneous impulses of children's art or
from exploring the aesthetic traditions of nonindustrialized, non-Western cultures. French
artist Henri Matisse and Swiss artist Paul Klee were profoundly influenced by children's
drawings, Picasso closely observed African masks, and Pollock's technique of pouring paint
onto canvas was in part inspired by Native American sand painting.


Yet another view holds that the basic motivation of modern art is to engage in a dialogue
with popular culture. To this end, Picasso pasted bits of newspaper into his paintings,
Roy Lichtenstein imitated both the style and subject of comic strips in his paintings, and
Andy Warhol made images of Campbell's soup cans. But although breaking down the boundary
between high art and popular culture is typical of artists like Picasso, Lichtenstein, and
Warhol, it is not of Mondrian, Pollock, or most other abstract artists.


Each of these theories of course, is compelling and could explain a great many strategies
employed by modern artists. Yet even this brief examination reveals that 20th-century art
is far too diverse to be fully contained within any one definition. Each theory can
contribute a part to the puzzle, but no single theory can claim to be the solution to the
puzzle itself.


[ ]
III. Origins
[ ]
Print section
[ ]
Art of the late 19th century anticipated many of the characteristics of modern art noted
above. These include the idea of art for art's sake, the focus on originality, the
celebration of modern technology, the fascination with the "primitive," and the engagement
with popular culture.


[ ]
A. Impressionism
[ ]
Print section
[ ]
Modern art's celebration of art for art's sake was initiated by French artists associated
with impressionism , including Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Berthe
Morisot. Abandoning direct references to religious and historical subjects, many of the
impressionists broke away from the French art establishment in the 1870s and exhibited
their paintings independently, anticipating the modern desire for independence from
established institutions. In painting scenes of everyday life, especially life in local
bars and theaters, the impressionists anticipated modern art's interest in popular
culture. In depicting railroads, bridges, and examples of the new cast-iron architecture,
they anticipated modern art's fascination with technology. And by pioneering new artistic
techniques (that is, applying paint in small, broken brush strokes) and by intensifying
their colors, they anticipated the modern fascination with originality. By exhibiting
quickly executed works as finished paintings, they forced the public to reconsider the
sketch, no longer as a preliminary exercise, but as an end in itself, thereby anticipating
the tendency of modern artists to change and expand the definition of art.


[ ]
B. Postimpressionism
[ ]
Print section
[ ]
In the last two decades of the 19th century a number of artists who had been inspired by
the impressionists' style and technique reacted strongly against the impressionist
example. These artists, who were eventually called postimpressionists , established a
number of alternate approaches to painting, each of which was to have remarkable
repercussions for 20th-century art. Paul Gauguin , for instance, rejected the
impressionist technique of applying touches of color in separate, small brushstrokes in
favor of using large areas comprised of a single color bound by heavy contour lines. This
innovation had an impact on Matisse and scores of later artists who used color as an
expressive device rather than as a means for copying nature. In 1891 Gauguin decided to
settle on the Pacific island of Tahiti, motivated by a desire to leave Western
civilization and embrace a simpler form of existence. His work there contributed to the
modern fascination with non-Western art.


Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh , a friend of Gauguin, used both color and brushwork to
translate his emotional state into visual form. In addition, he infused his paintings with
religious or allegorical meanings (black crows as symbols of death, for example),
countering the impressionists' emphasis on direct observation.


The work of Norwegian painter Edvard Munch was based on the assumption that painting could
sacrifice truth to nature for expressive purposes. Munch used harsh combinations of
colors, distorted forms, and exaggerated perspectives to give visual form to the
alienation of the individual in modern, industrial society. The works of Gauguin, van
Gogh, and Munch laid the groundwork for the later development of expressionism in
20th-century art.


Other postimpressionist artists reacted against impressionism in a different way. French
artist Georges Seurat sought to raise art to the level of science by incorporating the
latest theories about light and color into his work. He divided color into its
constituents (purple into blue and red, or green into blue and yellow, for example) and
applied these colors to his canvas dot by dot. His method, called pointillism, was meant
to eliminate all intuition and impulse from the activity of painting.


Another postimpressionist, Paul Cézanne , sought to introduce greater structure into what
he saw as the unsystematic practice of impressionism. Objects appear more solid and
tangible in his paintings than in the works of his impressionist colleagues. But despite
this increased solidity, Cézanne did more than any previous artist to destabilize the
integrity of form through subtle distortions and seeming inaccuracies in his many
still-life paintings. Objects do not rest comfortably on their bases, vases seen from the
front have rims seen from above, and the horizontal edges of tables, when projecting from
either side of a tablecloth, sometimes do not match up. It is almost as if Cézanne was
dismantling the very solidity he meant to reintroduce to the depiction of objects.


Cézanne also introduced a radical innovation in works such as his Mont Sainte Victoire
(1902-1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City): The edge of the mountain opens up
to allow areas of sky to penetrate the otherwise solid mountain. With this simple device,
Cézanne decisively changed the course of art history. Two physical entities—earth and
sky—believed to be distinct and separable were now made interchangeable. The world as it
is seen and experienced, Cézanne seemed to say, is not as important as the laws of picture
making. After Cézanne's example, the world of reality and the world of art began to drift
apart. The fragmentation initiated by Cézanne's work spearheaded Picasso's later
experimentation with form and invention of cubism.


[ ]
Cultural historians have related the fragmentation of form in late-19th- and
early-20th-century art to the fragmentation of society at the time. The increasing
technological aspirations of the industrial revolution widened the rift between the middle
and the working classes. Women demanded the vote and equal rights. And the view of the
mind presented by the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, stipulated that the human
psyche, far from being unified, was fraught with emotional conflicts and contradictions.
The discovery of X rays, physicist Albert Einstein's theory of relativity , and other
technological innovations suggested that our visual experience no longer corresponded with
science's view of the world.


Not surprisingly, various forms of artistic creativity reflected these tensions and
developments. In literature, James Joyce, T. S. Eliot, and Virginia Woolf experimented
with narrative structure, grammar, syntax, and spelling. In dance, Sergei Diaghilev,
Isadora Duncan, and Loie Fuller experimented with unconventional choreography and costume.
And in music, Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky composed pieces that did not depend on
traditional tonal structure.


Music not only took its place among the most experimental of the arts, but it also became
a great inspiration for visual artists. Many art critics in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries were influenced by German philosophers Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich
Nietzsche , who had proclaimed that music was the most powerful of all the arts because it
managed to suggest emotions directly, not by copying the world. Many painters of the
late-19th-century symbolist movement, including Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau , tried to
emulate music's power of direct suggestion. By including abstract forms and depicting an
imaginary, rather than an observable, reality in their paintings, Redon and the symbolists
paved the way for abstract art.


[ ]
A. Fauvism
[ ]
Print section
[ ]
The idea that art could approximate music is reflected in Henri Matisse's Red Room
(Harmony in Red) (1909, State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia), a painting
whose subtitle is borrowed from musical terminology. From Gauguin, Matisse borrowed large
areas of unvaried color, simplified shapes, and heavy contour lines. The simplicity of
Matisse's drawing style relates to Gauguin's fascination with the art of non-Western
cultures. Matisse also employed the abstract designs of carpets and textiles, reinforcing
the flatness of the painting rather than attempting to create the illusion of depth. His
interest in these designs demonstrates the influence of forms of creativity not often
associated with fine art.


Although Red Room was intended as a pleasing image of middle-class domesticity, Matisse's
manner of depiction was considered highly revolutionary, especially in the way he assigned
intense colors to objects arbitrarily and not according to their appearance in nature. A
scandalized contemporary critic declared Matisse and his fellow artists—André Derain,
Maurice de Vlaminck, and Georges Braque (of France), and Kees van Dongen (of the
Netherlands)—to be fauves (French for "wild beasts"). This derogatory term became the name
of their movement. Fauvism lasted only from about 1898 to 1908, but it had an enduring
impact on 20th-century art.


[ ]
Continues for 12 more pages >>




  • Il Gesu
    Il Gesu Resource Name: Il Gesu Location: Rome, Italy Architect: Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola; born 1507, died 1573. His career illustrates the rigidity of Mannerist art in the later half of 16th century. His design of Il Gesu meant that Jesuit missionaries carried copies of his design all over the world. His first major work was the villa (Rome) built for Pope Julius III, but Il Gesu was the most influential, although considered architecturally less adventurous. Vignola published his own treatise,
  • Pyramids
    Pyramids PYRAMIDS INTRODUCTION ANCIENT EGYPT- "PYRAMIDS" There are days when the sand blows ceaselessly, blanketing the remains of a powerful dynasty that ruled Egypt 5,000 years ago. When the wind dies down and the sands are still, a long shadow casts a wedge of darkness across the Sahara, creeping ever longer as the north African sun sinks beyond the horizon. This is where our history of Egypt begins, in the shadow of the Great Pyramid of Giza, where stone meets sky as a testament to one of th
  • Haha
    haha Essay Trader Home Page | Submit an Essay | Links You currenctly have 8 credits left! Differences Between Java and C++ Description of this essay : Compares java and C++ DIFFERENCES BETWEEN JAVA AND C++ 1 INTRODUCTION Since its release in 1995, Java has been hyped in many places, including computer magazines, broadcast news, and the Internet, as the solution to all problems in the application development community. As it has only been around for approximately 4 years now, it is still emerging
  • Ancient Greek Theater Architecture
    Ancient Greek Theater Architecture Ancient Greek Theater Architecture Many aspects of ancient Greek theaters have long been studied and debated. Much of the information about these theaters is based on speculation due to the fact that so little of them still exist today. This lack of remnants especially applies to the architecture of the early Greek Theaters. However, through archeological finds and years of studying the people, the plays, and the architecture of the time, we are able to make m
  • Historic homes of PEI
    historic homes of PEI H.M. Scott Smith\'s, the Historical Houses of Prince Edward Island, is a candid look into the more architecturally and historically significant buildings located on Prince Edward Island. Focusing particularly on those constructed in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Historical Houses of Prince Edward Island, features structures from the early days of the Micmac wigwams to the elegance of the Victorian presence. His purpose is to trace the evolution of the Islands housing
  • Il Gesu Italy
    Il Gesu Italy Resource Name: Il Gesu Location: Rome, Italy Architect: Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola; born 1507, died 1573. His career illustrates the rigidity of Mannerist art in the later half of 16th century. His design of Il Gesu meant that Jesuit missionaries carried copies of his design all over the world. His first major work was the villa (Rome) built for Pope Julius III, but Il Gesu was the most influential, although considered architecturally less adventurous. Vignola published his own tr
  • Roman Architecture
    Roman Architecture Roman Architecture Many centuries before the birth of Christ, the city of Rome grew, prospered, and developed into a thriving Republic. As in most cultures, Rome\'s buildings became more elaborate and impressive. They developed fantastic building technologies and ideas. The feats of Roman engineers were groundbreaking, and many structures built by this culture still stand today. With knowledge borrowed from the Greeks, Rome made impressive architectural achievements, these we
  • The US Capitol building
    The US Capitol building Our nation\'s revolutions was a great achievement in U.S History. With the dawn of a new nation, there would have to be a central location to make the new decisions of our country. Our capitol has stood as the heart of our country since the late 1700s. The United States capitol is among the most architecturally impressive and symbolically important buildings in the world. For almost two centuries it has housed the meeting chambers of the senate and the House of Represent
  • Windows NT
    Windows NT The history of Windows NT The features of Windows NT The history of Windows NT: The history of Windows NT goes back to the early 80\'s, when Microsoft was working on the original Windows system to run on top of DOS. They joined forces with IBM in order to create a more powerful DOS replacement that would run on the Intel x86 platform. The resulting operating system was to be known as OS/2. At the same time OS/2 was being developed, Microsoft was busy working on a new OS, more powerfu
  • Georgia Okeefe
    Georgia Okeefe Georgia O\'Keeffe Born in 1887 in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, studied at the Art Institute of Chicago during 1905 and the Art Students League in New York City from 1907-1908. She worked briefly as a commercial artist in Chicago, and in 1912 she became interested in the principles of Oriental design. After working as a public school art supervisor in Amarillo, Texas from 1912-1914 she attended art classes conducted by Arthur Wesley Dow at Columbia University. She instituted Dow\'s sys
  • Anasazi
    Anasazi About 1400 years ago, long before any European exploration of the New World, a group of Indians living in the Four Corners region chose Mesa Verde for their home. For over 700 years their descendants lived and flourished here, eventually building elaborate stone cities in the sheltered recesses of the canyon walls. Then in the late 1200’s, within the span of one or two generations, they abandoned their homes and moved away. Crossing an imaginary boundary into the region known as the Ame
  • Eartquek
    eartquek Earthquake Design Benjamin Mallah Geology is the study of the earth\'s landmasses. The earth is constantly changing. These changes are to slow for one person to see in his or her lifetime. Forces cause different things to happen on the surface of the earth. Such as mountains growing and eroding. The earth is broken down into layers lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The lithosphere is the dense, solid layer that surrounds they earth. Which we call the ground. Scientists believe
  • None Provided50
    None Provided50 Roman Architecture By: Stephen Schafer Roman Architecture Many centuries before the birth of Christ, the city of Rome grew, prospered, and developed into a thriving Republic. As in most cultures, Rome\'s buildings became more elaborate and impressive. They developed fantastic building technologies and ideas. The feats of Roman engineers were groundbreaking, and many structures built by this culture still stand today. With knowledge borrowed from the Greeks, Rome made impressive
  • Windows NT 40 Verses Lynix
    Windows NT 40 Verses Lynix Windows 2 Abstract Founded in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq "MSFT") is the worldwide leader in software for personal computers. The company offers a wide range of products and services for business and personal use; each designed with the mission of making it easier and more enjoyable for people to take advantage of the full power of personal computing every day. The Linux operating system is not suitable for mainstream usage by business or home users. Today with Windows NT
  • Greek Theater
    Greek Theater Ancient Greek Theater Architecture Many aspects of ancient Greek theaters have long been studied and debated. Much of the information about these theaters is based on speculation due to the fact that so little of them still exist today. This lack of remnants especially applies to the architecture of the early Greek Theaters. However, through archeological finds and years of studying the people, the plays, and the architecture of the time, we are able to make many conclusions about
  • Seven Wonders: Stonehenge
    Seven Wonders: Stonehenge Stonehenge is hailed as one of the seven wonders of the world. But why is it called a "wonder" ? With science so advanced as to being able to clone mammals, one would thing their would be rarely any discoveries left to be made. However Stonehenge is shrouded in nothing more than merely theories and guesses based on little or no fact. Being that we do know very little, You have to ask yourself a few questions. What was the purpose of Stonehenge being built, and that bein
  • Marketing process
    Marketing process The tourist potential of the climatic, landscape, historical cultural resources of Canada, New York (USA) The designations I have chosen are both on the American continent. The statistics used are based on the European traveller. Because of the vast difference in population density of Canada and the U.S.A, I have decide to centre my comparison around the vast metropolis of New York and western Canada (Calgary-lively city lake Louise-scenic resort) Canada is situated in the nort
  • The I&m Canal
    The I&m Canal "Didn\'t expect no town" -Early Chicago Settler Mark Beaubien The I M Canal is universally considered the driving force behind the huge surge of growth that turned the tiny hamlet on the banks of Lake Michigan named Chicago, in to a huge metropolis and bustling center of trade. Ever since Joliet first crossed the portage between the Chicago river and the Des Plaines river in 1673, explorers, investors, politicians, and farmers alike all agreed that constructing a canal across the c
  • Software Engineering
    Software Engineering Project 5: Good Neighbors Campaign Project Description: Develop a database to keep track of 20 data points for each of USC\'s 10,000 employees for the past 10 years (and years to come). This database would need to have the ability to generate reports based on various queries in order to answer questions about donation trends among the University employees. Team Members: David Stark David Jeng Steven Cao Jamal Madni Contact: Aggie Afarinesh Campaign Finance Manager/Program Sp
  • Analyzing User Requirements by the Unified Process
    Analyzing User Requirements by the Unified Process and Total Quality Management Analyzing User Requirements by the Unified Process and Total Quality Management Summary A successful project demands a correct and thorough requirements analysis. This paper proposes a refined requirements workflow, TQM/UP, to analyze requirements systematically. This workflow integrates five management and statistical analysis tools of Total Quality Management (TQM)—Affinity diagram, Tree diagram, Brainstorming, P
  • Medieval Art
    Medieval Art In the art world, the medieval periods were traditionally though to be the unproductive phase of Europe between the decline of Rome and the Renaissance. Our modern feelings toward medieval art are far more appreciative. The main intent of Medieval art was to express Christianity which was also a common bond between a wide spread and diverse Europe. For this reason most of the art found from medieval times originated in monasteries and churches. European art during the Middle Ages ca
  • History Of Stonehenge By: Pat Hillmann
    History Of Stonehenge By: Pat Hillmann Stonehenge is hailed as one of the seven wonders of the world. But why is it called a "wonder" ? With science so advanced as to being able to clone mammals, one would thing their would be rarely any discoveries left to be made. However Stonehenge is shrouded in nothing more than merely theories and guesses based on little or no fact. Being that we do know very little, You have yo ask yourself a few questions. What was the purpose of Stonehenge being built,
  • Historical and cultural comparisom between Canada
    Historical and cultural comparisom between Canada and USA The tourist potential of the climatic, landscape, historical cultural resources of Canada, New York (USA) The designations I have chosen are both on the American continent. The statistics used are based on the European traveller. Because of the vast difference in population density of Canada and the U.S.A, I have decide to centre my comparison around the vast metropolis of New York and western Canada (Calgary-lively city lake Louise-sceni
  • The Music of Issac Albeniz
    The Music of Issac Albeniz Isaac Albeniz was a nationalist composer, and one of the greatest composers Spain has ever produced. Among the many musicologists who have researched and written about the music of Albeniz, and the many pianists who have had occasion to comment on it, there is universal agreement regarding the artistic merit of his magnum opus, Iberia. Its rich harmonic vocabulary, rhythmic complexity, extensive dynamic range, and the ambitiousness of its architectural design are indee
  • Cpu information
    Cpu information One of Intel\'s major marketing pushes for the Pentium 4 processor has been its ability to scale to incredibly high clock speeds. Architecturally we\'ve explained countless times how Intel is able to accomplish this through the lengthening of the CPU\'s primary pipeline and the use of low latency caches. To the end user however, all that is understood in the end is a higher clock speed. A side effect of Intel\'s intense marketing focus on clock speed (and AMD\'s marketing focus o
  • St. Peters Basilica
    St. Peters Basilica St. Peters Basilica St. Peters basilica In the Middle of the 15th century it was becoming very evident that the Old St. Peters Basilica was in a bad state. By this time it was more than a thousand years old. Pope Nicholas V began some foundations for a remodeling of the choir space, but after his death in 1455 nothing more was done until the election of Julius II in 1503. The original intent of Julius II was to continue propping up the old basilica and to rebuild only where n
  • Greek Art and Architecture Essays
    Greek Art and Architecture Essays Essay #1 The Palace of Knossos, a Minoan mud brick and timber structure on a shallow stone foundation, featuring a central courtyard, was constructed on an acropolis. It was a place for rulers to reside, shrines for religious ceremonies to be worshipped, the industrial production of objects, and administrative duties. Ample hallways, stairways, chambers, and light wells supplemented the ambitiously built structure. There were plenty of columns to mark he four aw
  • The I&M Canal
    The I&M Canal “Didn’t expect no town” -Early Chicago Settler Mark Beaubien The I&M Canal is universally considered the driving force behind the huge surge of growth that turned the tiny hamlet on the banks of Lake Michigan named Chicago, in to a huge metropolis and bustling center of trade. Ever since Joliet first crossed the portage between the Chicago river and the Des Plaines river in 1673, explorers, investors, politicians, and farmers alike all agreed that constructing a canal across the co
  • Science and inventions
    science and inventions Leonardo Da Vinci is one of the greatest and most ingenious men that history has produced. His contributions in the areas of art, science, and humanity are still among the most important that a single man has put forth, definitely making his a life worth knowing. Da Vinci, born on April 15, 1452, is credited with being a master painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist. He was born an illegitimate child to Catherina, a peasant girl. His father was Ser
  • American bungalow
    american bungalow The article “Manufacturing and Marketing the American Bungalow” by Scott Erbes discusses the effects that The Aladdin Company had on the American Bungalow. The Aladdin Company was a main manufacturer of these mail order homes. By intense marketing and propaganda the Aladdin Company, along with several others, was able to promote and sell these precut homes by mail. The Aladdin Company was founded in 1906 in Bay City, Michigan by William and Otto Sovereign. William and Otto star
  • Architecture An excellent career choice
    Architecture An excellent career choice The career I have chosen for this project is Architecture. A building architect to be more specific. The career has many characteristics of work that I wish to pursue as I grow up. The main idea is thinking of new, and visually nice designs to grab your client’s attention for them to buy your design. It also is a job were mathematics and now computer training is needed. The nature of work of an Architect is basically the design of building and other struct
  • Between Silence and Light
    Between Silence and Light Between The Silence and The Light Introduction Architecture is a meeting place between the measurable and the unmeasurable. The art of design is not only rooted in the aesthetic form, but in the soul of the work. In Phenomena and Idea, Stephen Holl once wrote, " The thinking-making couple of architecture occurs in silence. Afterward, these "thoughts" are communicated in the silence of phenomenal experiences. We hear the "music" of architecture as we move through spaces
  • Bruce Goffs Bavinger House
    Bruce Goffs Bavinger House Introduction: Bruce Goff¡¦s working career spanned sixty-six years, from 1916, when he began working in an architect¡¦s office, until his death in 1982. During that time he received more than 450 commissions for buildings and related designs, resulting in more than 500 proposals of which at least 147 were realized. Bruce Goff occupied a unique place in American architecture. His buildings looked like those of no other architect. His idiosyncratic designs juxtaposed sha
  • Early Roman Architecture
    Early Roman Architecture DAVID HATFIELD ART HISTORY I FALL 2000 The Romans gained much of their engineering skill from the Etruscans and drew on Etruscan and Asian models for the semicircular arch. From them, the Romans learned the use of the keystone arch, which enabled them to build extremely strong and durable structures. Many of these engineering and architectural projects are still standing. Some are still in use after two thousand years like this bridge in Spain. Early Roman architects wer
  • Essay why its good
    essay why its good My future as an architect. That is now my goal that I hope to reach hopefully very soon, at first I hadn’t considered architecture has a career. When I started high school I was really thinking about becoming a chef because I like to make my own creation in food but then I changed my mind when I explored drafting now I can still design or create but only now in house which is more interesting. I choose drafting because it was a shop that I like and I was good at. From my 4 yea
  • Feminism
    Feminism Of what historic and contemporary concern is it that the architecture profession has been, and continues to be, strongly male dominated in Australia (currently 90% of registered architects in NSW are men). Ideally, what proportion of the profession should women occupy and why? From the start of human history, we always experience certain level of inequality between sexes. It can be seen everywhere around the world and is a concern to everyone, both men and women. This inequality is an i
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
    Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright was born as Frank Lincoln Wright on June 8, 1867. He was born in Richland Center, which is in southern Wisconsin. His father, William Carey Wright, was a musician and a preacher. His mother, Anna Lloyd-Jones was a teacher. It is said that his mother placed pictures of great buildings in young Frank’s nursery as part of training him up from the earliest possible moment to be an architect. Wright spent some time growing up on a farm owned by his uncle, which w
  • Frank Lloyd Wright1
    Frank Lloyd Wright1 NOTE: Received an "A" with some corrections. If your professor is one who checks bibliography\'s be careful with mine. Art History 5 December 2000 Frank Lloyd Wright American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright is considered the pioneer in modern style and one of the greatest figures in twentieth-century architecture (Twombly, 16). According to Frank Lloyd Wright: “…having a good start, not only do I fully intend to be the greatest architect who has yet lived, but fully intend to b
  • Gothic Architecture Vs Egyptian Architecture
    Gothic Architecture Vs Egyptian Architecture Gothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian Architecture The sediment richens the soil year after year by the Nile that floods the valley and rises twenty to thirty feet high. African villagers expect the seasonal rains; the precipitation determines the crops productivity. The valley cut by this dominating river is also where one of the greatest Neolithic civilizations grew. The originals were of mixed races but all derived from the white races. By 4000 B.C. the
  • Gothic Architecture Vs Eqyptian Architecture
    Gothic Architecture Vs Eqyptian Architecture Gothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian Architecture The sediment richens the soil year after year by the Nile that floods the valley and rises twenty to thirty feet high. African villagers expect the seasonal rains; the precipitation determines the crops productivity. The valley cut by this dominating river is also where one of the greatest Neolithic civilizations grew. The originals were of mixed races but all derived from the white races. By 4000 B.C. the
  • Michael Graves
    Michael Graves Michael Graves Michael Graves, born the summer or 1934 in Indianapolis, knew he wanted to be an artist by the age of six. Encouraged by his mother to seek a more practical career, Graves choose architecture. After studying at the University of Connecticut, he got his master\'s degree at Harvard University. After finishing school in 1959, he moved to New York City where he worked at the office of George Nelson. While working in New York, Graves received a fellowship to study at Ame
  • Palazzo Ruccelai
    Palazzo Ruccelai The Palazzo Ruccelai was one of the first works by Leon Battista Alberti. He was an Italian architect, architectural theorist, and universal genius. Albert was the most important early Renaissance architect after Filippo Brunelleschi (Gympel, 44). The "Palazzo" originated in Florence. The monumental private building is derived from "palatium." This Latin word comes from the Roman hill which Emperor Augustus and his successors lived. During the 13th and 14th centuries, many of It
  • Roman Architecture
    Roman Architecture The architectural style of Rome was firmly rooted in the Hellenistic traditions. However, Roman culture is probably more accurately reflected in the development of new engineering skills and secular monuments. The style and construction progress of Roman architecture was different from other styles, even though the origin of their ideas came from the Greek architecture. The Romans were first to use math seriously for the arches, bridges, aqueducts, roof, and mainly the dome. T
  • Roman Architecture
    Roman Architecture The architectural style of Rome was firmly rooted in the Hellenistic traditions. However, Roman culture is probably more accurately reflected in the development of new engineering skills and secular monuments. The style and construction progress of Roman architecture was different from other styles, even though the origin of their ideas came from the Greek architecture. The Romans were first to use math seriously for the arches, bridges, aqueducts, roof, and mainly the dome. T
  • Roman Colusseum
    Roman Colusseum Architecture of the ancient Roman Empire is considered one of the most impressive of all time. The city of Rome once was home to more than one million residents in the early centuries AD1. The Romans had a fine selection of building monuments in the city of Rome including the forums for civic services, temples of worship, and amphitheaters for recreation and play. The Romans made great use and pioneered great architecture mechanisms including arches, columns, and even mechanical
  • Roman influence on architecture
    roman influence on architecture Roman Influence on Architecture The world of architecture has been greatly influenced and affected by Roman architectural design and development. Their innovative designs and influential developments developed centuries ago have provided a basis for architectural masterpieces found across the planet and, what\'s more, have remained relevant into the 21st Century. While the Romans borrowed many architectural designs from the Greeks and Etruscans, the additions that
  • Skyscrapers
    skyscrapers skyscraper architecture "http://www.coshe.com/search/" The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. Benny Louie Humanity 450 Dr. Maureen Schmid 17 May 1999 The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. In our modern society, the architectural design of skyscrapers is changing the downtown landscape of metropolitan areas. Due to
  • The Duomo of Florence
    The Duomo of Florence In the Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, there is a cathedral church whose octagonal dome, built without the aid of scaffolding, was considered the greatest engineering feat of the early Renaissance. Dedicated to Santa Maria del Fiore, Our Lady of the Flower, it is also known as the Duomo, after the Italian word for cathedral. Created by many great Early Modern artists, this piece of architecture is a perfect example the Renaissance style. We can come to a better underst
  • A Cultural Experience at the San Diego Museum of A
    A Cultural Experience at the San Diego Museum of Arts A Cultural Experience At The San Diego Museum of Arts On the 26th of January I decided to visit for the first time the San Diego Museum of Arts. When I came upon the museum which from a view was an astonishing piece of architectural exquisiteness. This extravagant building was amazingly distinguishable from all the other ill-rooted, stucco wall structures surroundings. I arrived at the admission desk and upon purchasing my 6$ ticket the young
  • Ayasofya
    ayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: "Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight." More prosaically,