Morrocco Essay

This essay has a total of 790 words and 4 pages.


Officially KINGDOM OF MOROCCO, this country of northwestern North Africa lies directly
across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. It borders Algeria to the east and southeast;
Western Sahara is to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea
to the north. It is the only African country with coastal exposure to both the Atlantic
Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. There form of government now is a constitutional Monarchy
with two legislative houses. Morocco's official language is Arabic, and Islam is the
official religion (99.8% of the nation is Islamic). The ethnic composition consists of 65%
Arabic, 33% Berber, 2% other.

There are two international crises centering on France's attempts to control Morocco and
on Germany's attempts to stop French power. In 1904 France had concluded a secret treaty
with Spain concerning Morocco. They had agreed not to oppose Britain's moves in Egypt in
exchange for a free hand in Morocco. Germany however, insisted upon an "open-door" policy
in the area; and, in a dramatic show of power, the emperor William II visited Tangier and,
from his yacht on March 31, 1905, declared for Morocco's independence and integrity. The
resultant international panic, the first Moroccan crises, was resolved in January-April
1906 at the Algerians Conference, where German and other national economic rights were
upheld and where the French and Spanish were entrusted with the policing of Morocco. On
Feb. 8, 1908, a further Franco-German agreement affirmed Morocco's independence while
recognizing France's "special political interests" and Germany's economic interests in
North Africa.

The Second Moroccan crises (1911) was brought on when the German gunboat Panther was sent
to Agadir on July 1, 1911, allegedly to protect German interests during a local native
uprising in Morocco but in reality to intimidate the French. This "Agadir Incident"
sparked an outbreak of war talk during the summer and fall, but international negotiations
continued, and the crisis subsided with the conclusion of the convention of Nov. 4, 1911.
In which France was given rights to a protectorship over Morocco and, in return, Germany
was given strips of territory from the French Congo. Spain at first objected; but, through
the intervention of Great Britain, a Franco-Spanish treaty was concluded on Nov. 27, 1912,
slightly revising the previous Franco-Spanish boundaries in Morocco. The negotiations of
1911-12 between the powers also resulted in the internationalization of the Tangier zone.

The sultan of Morocco, Muhammad V, became a focal point of nationalist aspirations.
Muhammad was the third son of Sultan Moulay Yusuf; when his father died in 1927, French
authorities chose him to be successor, expecting him to be more accommodating than his two
older brothers. The first indication of Muhammad's nationalist feelings occurred in 1934,
when he urged the French to abandon the "Berber Dahir" legislation of 1930 that had
established different legal systems for the two Moroccan ethnic groups, it divided the
country and accelerated nationalism. Wanting to make Muhammad a national symbol, the
Moroccan nationalists organized the Fete du Trone, an annual Throne Day festival to
commemorate the anniversary of Muhammad's assumption of power. On these occasions he gave
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