Compare and Constrast Essay on Motivation

This essay has a total of 1756 words and 9 pages.

Motivation

Motivation Paper
Motivation is an important aspect in many organizations. In our organization motivation is
a key to the success. When evaluating administrative staff, sales people, and production
workers, each department works well utilizing different theories. One theory could not
work adequately for all three; therefore, three theories were used. Production workers
utilize the Two-factor theory; sales people use Vroom's expectancy theory and the Equity
theory works for the administrative staff. Combining all three theories into one
organization helps the organization run smoothly, while gaining successful motivation on
all levels.

Sales People
Sales people rely on motivation that is accomplished through a process; this method that
best fits them is known as Vroom's expectancy theory. The expectancy theory, as stated by
Victor Vroom, is motivation that has a high performance result due to value being placed
on the sales person and their ability (2003, p. 20).

Sales people are motivated to the degree that he or she believes "(1) effort will yield
acceptable performance, (2) performance will be rewarded, and (3) the value of the rewards
is highly positive" (2003, p.20). For sales people to reap rewards or benefits, they first
need to know the expectancy of their position. During this first stage, the managers will
layout the training that is needed and will set their goals. The managers are also
responsible for continued follow up and coaching. Often times this type of follow up is
accomplished on the sales floor, so they may continue to have a high level of performance.
The coaching is kept positive so that the sales person may continue to exert a higher
level of performance. Floor coaching and setting the standards helps sales people see and
understand the performance levels that are required. It is also up to the manager to
choose highly talented people that are able to accomplish the sales goals that are given.

The second phase of Vroom's expectancy theory is for the sales person to realize the
different outcomes that can occur with expected performance levels. This is also called
instrumentality. To help influence this phase, managers should clarify performance and
give positive feedback, or rewards that are consistent with their performance level. If
sales people see the goal as unobtainable, then their performance will be low. If they see
that they are able to achieve high results and rewards, then they will exude higher
performance, which will give them their desired outcome.

The third phase of Vroom's expectancy theory is setting their rewards. This phase is also
referred to as the valence phase (2003, p.21). Managers in this phase need to take a look
at different motivators that will help the sales person achieve higher performance. The
manager should take into consideration the different cultures, and groups that are within
the organization. According to Schermerhorn, Osborn and Hunt, researchers have defined two
separate types of rewards. They are extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards (2003, p.22).
Extrinsic rewards are when the reward is of monetary value. The sales person is motivated
by a possible promotion, or an increase in salary. Intrinsic rewards are positive work
outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of their performance. They have
a feeling of achievement or satisfaction, which is recognized by his or her managers.
Sometimes this type of reward can be of monetary value, such as a trip or added time off.
Whatever the reward, the manager should be sensitive to the different groups so that they
are able to maintain high performance levels.

When combining all three aspects of Vroom's expectancy theory, the outcome will be good if
the manager takes into consideration each work effort. If any one of the three factors is
low, then motivation in the team or group will be low. The manager needs to clearly define
expectations, set standards, recognize individual differences, and allocate the rewards
wisely once the desired outcome is given. This is how the expectancy theory works, and is
successful for sales people in an organization.

Production Workers
Production workers are different than salespeople and the administrative staff. The
production worker has different responsibilities and objectives; therefore, motivation is
also different. The Two-Factor Theory by Herzberg works well in this class of workers.

Herzberg studied motivation by simply asking workers when they felt good about their job
and when they felt bad about their work environment. Based on these studies, Herzberg
developed the two-factor theory also know as the motivator-hygiene theory by Schermerhorn,
Hunt, and Osborn, (2003, p. 16).

This theory, like its name states, has two sides or factors. The first is the hygiene
factors, which are sources that affect job dissatisfaction. These include: policies,
supervision, working conditions, salary, peer relationships, subordinates relationships,
status, and security. The other is a motivator factor, which are sources that affect job
satisfaction. These encompass: achievement, recognition, works itself, responsibility,
advancement, and growth. The two-factor theory works well with the production worker due
to the simplicity of applying these to the specific individual. However, it is very
important to carefully determine which source triggers which employee.

Hygiene Factor
The hygiene side of the two-factor theory has many sources that directly relate to the
production worker. Production workers often work on an assembly line and adhere to strict
policies due to safety factors. They are also under constant supervision and due to the
close working quarters with peers, relations must be harmonious.

These conditions fall under the job dissatisfaction side of the two-factor theory.
Herzberg claims that these factors have no bearing on the satisfaction of employees in
their jobs. However, it does prevent them from being dissatisfied. Production workers are
usually trained for specific positions or specific duties; so repetition is common. The
everyday repetitive activities can make ones job seem unsatisfying; therefore, the hygiene
Continues for 5 more pages >>




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