Nacl Essay

This essay has a total of 1278 words and 6 pages.

nacl

DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
The Effect of Different Amounts of Sodium Chloride on the displacement of oxygen.


INTRODUCTION

The dependability of the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction is based on two factors: the
substrate concentration and the concentration and action of the enzyme that catalyzes the
reaction (Vander, et. al., 2001). Enzymes are catalysts that produce chemical reactions in
cells. Enzymes which are large proteins perform a reaction which acts upon a substance
known as a substrate. When combined, the substrate bonds to the active site on the enzyme
creating an enzyme-substrate complex. It is from this complex that specific products are
created.

Sodium Chloride is a compound known commonly as table salt. This compound is used for many
things, including food flavoring, a means of preservation and to aid or inhibit a chemical
reaction. Saline concentrations have been shown to affect certain enzymes by a process
known as denaturing. This process can change the shape of the enzymes active site,
possibly minimizing the ability of the substrate to bond to that specific enzyme (Starr
and Taggart, 2001).

When specific enzymes are combined with hydrogen peroxide as a substrate, the resulting
products are water and oxygen (Mader, Sylvia, 1998). By introducing sodium chloride, the
predicted outcome would be the decreased production of oxygen as a product. By denaturing
the enzyme, the reaction rate will decrease because sodium chloride will prevent the
hydrogen peroxide from binding to the active site on a given number of the enzymes. This
decrease in binding will inhibit the production of water as well as oxygen.

MATERIALS AND METHOD
• 2 POTATOS / KNIFE / ICE BATH WITH ICE
• TABLE SALT (NaCl) 6-10 grams
• 1% HYDROGEN PEROXIDE / Distilled Water (200ml each)
• 1-1000ml BEAKER / 8-SMALL BEAKERS (40ml)
• 1-STOPPER / 1- RUBBER HOSE / 1-GAS BOTTLE
• 1-INVERTED GRADUATED CYLINDER / 1-PLASTIC TUBE
• 1-WEIGHT SCALE / 1-WATER PAN / 1-BLENDER
We started by cutting the potato in pieces and weighing them until they weighed at 200
grams. While the potatoes were being done, we filled the blender with 2 handfuls of ice
and 200 ml. of cold distilled water. Then we mixed the potato pieces, ice and 200 ml. of
cold distilled water for about 15-20 seconds at high speed. I then grabbed the 1000 ml.
beaker so I could pour the solution from the blender and place it in the ice bath. Next we
took the 4-40 ml. beakers and labeled them A-D. The other 4-40 ml beakers were marked as
1-4. We measured 40 ml. of the potato extract and poured it in each beaker labeled A-D.
Next we poured 40 ml. of hydrogen peroxide in each beaker labeled 1-4. The water pan
should be filled with tap water or distilled water so we could invert the graduated
cylinder so you have captured enough water in the cylinder to conduct the experiment.

The more water captured the better of you are. As we practiced inverting the cylinder,
another person prepared the hose by placing one end of the hose underwater in the pan and
underneath the cylinder. The other end of the hose was connected through the stopper. Now
we were ready to start the trials. We added the hydrogen peroxide first to the gas bottle
and made sure that one of us was the time keeper to notify the others of 30

seconds intervals. The other person who is either not as busy has less to do then others
should pour the catalyst (potato extract) into the gas bottle and place the rubber stopper
on the bottle with the clock starting. The one thing that we remembered was that if we
noticed any foam appearing to be in the hose we had to stop and remove the hose, clean out
the foam by rinsing it and restarting the experiment from the very beginning.


RESULTS
At the conclusion of the experiment we summarized and calculated our results of the oxygen
produced in ml. versus the concentration of the sodium chloride. The first beaker, which
did not include any additional sodium chloride provided, other what the hydrogen peroxide
and catalyst had already, generated the most significant displacement of oxygen. The
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