Naploleon Essay

This essay has a total of 2919 words and 10 pages.


naploleon





Napoleon and the enlightment
Napoleon was one of the most influential people in the history of the world. He has
affected people throughout the globe in many ways. He rose through the confusion of the
French revolution to become Emperor of the French. His goal was to conquer all of Europe.
Through out his lifetime he nearly succeeded in his goal. Napoleon was probably one of the
greatest military leaders that ever lived. Napoleon Bonaparte, who is also known as the
"little Corsican”, was born on August 15,1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica. He was known as
the “little Corsican” because of his height of 5 feet 2 inches. He had 7
brothers and sisters. His original name was Napoleon Bonaparte in Corsica but it became
Napoleon Bonaparte in French. His parents were Carlo (Charles) Bonaparte (1746-1785) and
Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte (1750-1836). His original nationality was Corsican-Italian. He
hated the French. He thought they were oppressors of his native land. His father was a
lawyer, and was also anti-French. One reason Napoleon may have been such a conqueror was
he was raised in a family of radicals. When Napoleon was nine, his father sent him to a
French military government school. He attended Brienne in Paris. While there, the French
students teased him. Because of this, Napoleon started having dreams of personal glory and
triumph. In 1784 to 1785, Napoleon attended Ecole, Militaire in Paris. That was the place
where he received his military training. He studied to be an artilleryman and an officer.
He finished his training and joined the French army when he was 16 years old. Napoleon was
a National Guard for Corsica until 1793 when Corsica declared independence. Napoleon and
his family then fled to France. He was then assigned, as a captain, to an army that was
approaching Toulon. Napoleon soon took over France. After the French monarchy was
overthrown on August 10, 1792, Napoleon decided to make his move up in the ranks. After
this, Napoleon started becoming a recognized officer. In 1792, Napoleon was prompted to
the rank of captain. In 1793, he was chosen to direct the artillery against the siege in
Toulon. He seized ground where he could get his guns in range of the British ships. Soon
after Toulon fell, Napoleon was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. In 1795, he
saved the revolutionary government by controlling a group of rioting citizens by using a
famous technique of his. He loaded a bunch of pellets into a cannon and fired it at the
crowd. Napoleon was made commander of the French army in Italy. He defeated four Austrian
generals in succession, and each army he fought got bigger and bigger. This forced Austria
and its allies to make peace with France. But after this, Napoleon was relieved of his
command. He was poor and was suspected of treason. Napoleon had no friends. No one would
have suspected what Napoleon would do next. In 1796, Napoleon was appointed to put down a
revolt in Paris. He calmly took complete control of the situation. He had his men shoot
all the rebels in the streets. The French government was saved, but they decided to form a
new government called the Directory. Under the new government, Napoleon was made commander
of the French army in Italy. During this campaign, the French realized how smart Napoleon
was. He developed a tactic that worked very efficiently. He would cut the enemy's army in
to two parts, then throw all his force on one side before the other side could rejoin
them. This method was extremely effective against the Sardinian troops, because he
defeated them five times in 11 days. This made the King of Sardinia to try to make peace
with France. Napoleon could not be stopped. He was a fast thinker who moved his troops
extremely fast. Soon, instead of taking the defensive position, Napoleon started taking
the offensive position and thus, he started his conquest of Europe. He started his attack
on Austria. It was his first big campaign. During one attack, he showed his bravery by
forcing his way across a burning bridge. After that his troops gave him the name "Petit
Caporal" or in English "Little Corporal". He then attacked the Austrians in Mantua.
Austria sent troops there four times, and every time Napoleon crushed them. In 1797, he
came within 80 miles of Vienna when Austria surrendered. Napoleon had won 14 pitched
battles and 70 combats. He had made the rich lands he conquered feed and pay the French
soldiers. Plus millions of francs were sent to France. This helped France's poor economy
tremendously. Napoleon negotiated a treaty called Campo Formio with Austria. Austria gave
up Netherlands and Lombardy to France. Austria also recognized the Rhine as the eastern
boundary of France. In return, France gave Austria most of the old Venetian Republic. When
Napoleon returned to Paris, he received a huge welcome. He then began thinking of pursuing
political power and military power. He wanted to become the next Alexander the Great, so
he asked the Directory if he could take a large army to Egypt. That way he could conquer
an empire that included Egypt, India, and other middle and Far East places. Napoleon came
up with a neat idea to accomplish this. If he conquered Egypt, he could attack the
English's route to India. He won the battle of the Pyramids in July 1798. But his fleet
was destroyed at the Battle of the Nile in Aboukir Bay. So, Napoleon decided to invade
Syria. The English and Turkish troops in Syria had held up against Napoleon. Napoleon then
retreated to Egypt. Then later in July 1799, he defeated 10,000 Turks at Aboukir. He
returned to France shortly after. Napoleon returned to find the Directory a mess. He, in
his selfish way, saw this as the perfect time for self-advancement. Napoleon worked with
Emmanuel Sieyes to overthrow the Directory, succeeding on 9 November 1799. Napoleon set up
a government called the Consulate. He was the first of three consuls. About three years
later the grateful French nation voted to make him Consul for life. Everyone in France
loved Napoleon at that time. Then he started increasing his power. Napoleon became known
as Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, instead of General Bonaparte. He had complete
political and military power in France. But alas, he still hadn't built up his great
Eastern Empire. He wanted to recreate the empire Charlemagne was ruler of many years ago.
The Austrians had been defeated at Marenegro. The German states and England were tired of
fighting so they signed a peace treaty of Aimens in 1802. This was the first time since
1792 that France was at peace with the whole world. During the next 14 months of peace,
Napoleon changed Europe greatly. He became president of the Italian Republic and reshaped
Switzerland with France. He annexed Piedmont, Parma, and the island of Elba to France.
Napoleon also reshaped a lot of France. He re-established the University of France,
reformed the education system, and founded the Bank of France and the Legion of Honor. He
also codified the Napoleonic Code: The first clear, compact statement of the French law.
The Napoleonic Code has served as a base for legal systems around the world! Napoleon's
most lasting effect on France and much of the world was the set of civil laws that he
instituted that still bears his name to this day. This code was so impressive that by 1960
over 70 different states either modeled their own laws after them or adopted them
verbatim. The Code of Napoleon took the over 14,000 decrees that had been passed under the
Revolutionary Government and simplified them into one unified set of laws. In 1803, war
broke out again, this time between France and England. Russia, Austria and Sweden allied
with Britain forming The Third Coalition against the French. Napoleon didn't have any
trouble with this. He defeated Austria and Russia at Austerlitz on December 2, 1805. He
crushed the Prussians at Pena and defeated more Russians at Friedland. He then created a
peace treaty called the Peace of Tilsit that brought all of Europe to his feet. Napoleon
had planned to invade England whom he called "a nation of shopkeepers" but the "right
moment" never showed up. In preparation for that war, he sold Louisiana to the United
States for $15 million dollars to raise funds for his wars. England's navy, under the
capable hands of Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson, crushed Napoleon’s sea power together
wit the Spanish fleet at Trafalgar Cape on October 21, 1805. With his defeat at Trafalgar,
Napoleon went back to the drawing board figure out how to defeat the British. Meanwhile
back in France, the people allowed Napoleon to remove the Consulate and turn it into an
empire. He decided to hand the throne down to his descendants. But he had no descendants.
He ended his marriage to Josephine de Beauharnais in 1809 and remarried in 1810. He
married Hapsburg Archduchess Marie Louise, who was the daughter of the Austrian emperor.
Well, he got what he wanted, a son. He named his son King of Rome. Napoleon had also made
all the rulers of his kingdom either family members or good friends. This made him very
Continues for 5 more pages >>




  • Ayasofya
    ayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: "Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight." More prosaically,
  • Mariano Escobedo
    Mariano Escobedo Mariano Escobedo Mariano Escobedo was a healthy man he was my Grandparents great great grandparent. He was a Mexican General from Mexico. He wanted to govern Mexico, he fought against dynasty and he won. Escobedo fought against the French Invasion in Mexico to govern Mexico. He became a great general who fought against Napoleon III (French.) In Mexico City airport and in Monterey his name is printed and also in some streets of difference parts of Mexico. Mexico had borrowed mone
  • The History Of amsterdam
    The History Of amsterdam An Investigation into the Historical Development of Amsterdam. 1. Introduction This project focuses upon the development of Amsterdam between the years 1200 and 1800 AD. The city of Amsterdam is of great importance to the Netherlands, as it is the country´s nominal capital (the political centre is Den Haag). Alongside being the most carefully constructed Dutch city, Amsterdam attracts the highest number of foreign visitors to the Netherlands. The city itself stands upon
  • Seville
    Seville Spanish SEVILLA, ancient Hispalis, city and capital of the provincia of Seville, in the Andalusia comunidad autónoma ("autonomous community") of southern Spain. Seville lies on the left (east) bank of the Guadalquivir River at a point about 54 miles (87 km) north of the Atlantic, and about 340 miles (550 km) southwest of Madrid. An inland port, it is the chief city of Andalusia and the fourth largest in Spain. It was important in history as a cultural centre, as a capital of Muslim Spain
  • Seville1
    Seville1 Spanish SEVILLA, ancient Hispalis, city and capital of the provincia of Seville, in the Andalusia comunidad autónoma ("autonomous community") of southern Spain. Seville lies on the left (east) bank of the Guadalquivir River at a point about 54 miles (87 km) north of the Atlantic, and about 340 miles (550 km) southwest of Madrid. An inland port, it is the chief city of Andalusia and the fourth largest in Spain. It was important in history as a cultural centre, as a capital of Muslim Spai
  • Roman Law
    Roman Law Introduction Roman Law was the law that was in effect throughout the age of antiquity in the City of Rome and later in the Roman Empire. When Roman rule over Europe came to an end, Roman law was largely--though not completely--forgotten. (Ancient Rome, Compton\'s 96) The earliest code of Roman Law was the Law of the Twelve Tables. It was formalized in 451-450BC from existing oral law by ten magistrates, called decemvirs, and inscribed on tablets of bronze, which were posted in the prin
  • Early Civilizations1
    Early Civilizations1 EARLY CIVILIZATIONS AND THE DAWN OF THE MEDIEVAL AGE 1.0 Introduction History is an account of mans achievements during the last five thousand years. Though man has been on this planet for about 500,000 years, history only covers a part of this period. The reason for this is that history is essentially based on written documents However the art of writing become known to man, only after 3000 B. C. 1.1 History : Meaning and Importance The word history is derived from the G
  • Napoleons Russian Campaign
    Napoleons Russian Campaign Napoleons Russian Campaign Eli Kamara The peace between France and Russia in 1807 lasted for five years but was not satisfactory to either side. The Tilsit settlement was thought of by Napoleon as no more than a convenient truce. In 1807 he had been in no position to invade Russia but there was no way that he could tolerate another European power for very long. Napoleon felt that a war with Russia was necessary ‘for crushing England by crushing the only power still str
  • Nationalism
    nationalism Nationalism is a popular sentiment that places the existence and well-being of the nation highest in the scale of political loyalties. In political terms, it signifies a person\'s willingness to work for the nation against foreign domination, whether political, economic, or cultural. Nationalism also implies a group\'s consciousness of shared history, language, race, and values. Its significance lies in its role in supplying the ties that make the nation-state a cohesive viable entit
  • Nationalism
    nationalism Nationalism is a popular sentiment that places the existence and well-being of the nation highest in the scale of political loyalties. In political terms, it signifies a person\'s willingness to work for the nation against foreign domination, whether political, economic, or cultural. Nationalism also implies a group\'s consciousness of shared history, language, race, and values. Its significance lies in its role in supplying the ties that make the nation-state a cohesive viable entit
  • None Provided21
    None Provided21 The Egyptians had never willingly submitted to the rule of their Semitic shepherd kings and around 1600 A.D. a long patriotic movement got rid of these foreigners. Followed by a new phase or revival for Egypt, a period known to Egyptologists as the New Empire. Egypt, which had not been closely combined before the Hyksos invasion, was now a united country; and the phase of subjugation and insurrection left her full of military spirit. The Pharaohs became aggressive conquerors. The
  • None Provided9
    None Provided9 Prior to the 1800\'s, and before foreign influence, China was a powerful country, and had been ruled by many different dynasties starting with the Hsia dynasty in the second millenium B.C. to the Ching dynasty ending in 1911. (A Short History of China, pp. 12, 166.) Although dynasties had changed and several dynasties had been foreign, the Manchus (Ching dynasty) were the last foreign people to rule over China. The Manchus kept their own language and ethnic identity but maintained
  • Protestant reformation
    protestant reformation The Reformation of the Roman Catholic Church was a major 16th-century religious revolution. A revolution, which ended the ecclesiastical supremacy of the pope in Western Christendom and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant, churches. With the Renaissance that preceded and the French Revolution that followed, the Reformation completely altered the medieval way of life in Western Europe and initiated the era of modern history. Although the movement dates from the
  • Roman Architecture
    Roman Architecture The Roman society, like any other, had its humble beginnings. The history of their architecture runs virtually in step with the history of their empire to an extent. As the Empire expanded so did the architecture, and as Romans became more magnificent their architecture followed. Roman architecture had its humble beginnings as a form of worship. The first Roman architects were the ancient priests and dwellers who made areas of sacrifice and worship for their gods. At first, th
  • Roman History
    Roman History Rome The Land Italy is a peninsula jutting out into the Medditerranean sea west of Greece. Italy has poor mineral resources and very few useful harbors, however it is wealty in both fertile land and precipitation. Three - quarters of the peninsula is covered in foothills and mountains. The alps, a mountian range to the north of Italy, cut off the peninsulas only land connection, which resulted, in the times of Ancient Rome, in the people trading amonst themselves. The Early People
  • World war 11
    world war 11 World War I, the first globally destructive conflict that the Western Civilization produced, has been the subject of various analysis, interpretations and reevaluations of the various causes that led to it. Initially, the guilt was placed upon Germany and its allies. Eventually, historical analysis conducted in decades after the event, lead to a shift from the guilt perspective, to a broader one of various interacting factors. Although almost nine decades have elapsed, one question
  • John Keegan
    John Keegan War and Politics: Are both one in the same? “I was not fated to be a warrior. Fate, nevertheless, cast my life among warriors.” –John Keegan His home in England was near the main gathering point for the D-Day invasion. Along with his father’s service in World War I, Keegan felt himself drawn towards the military and it’s workings. Unfortunately Keegan was unable to serve in the British Military due to a childhood illness. Although Keegan was unable to serve his country, he was determ
  • Napoleon its incomplete right now
    napoleon its incomplete right now There is no doubt that Napoleon’s life left a huge impact on Europe. People have called him “The greatest man of action born in Europe since Julius Caesar”(Winston Churchhill) The campaign of 1812 was more frankly imperialistic than any other of Napoleon\'s wars; it was more directly dictated by the interests of the French upper class. The basic purposes of the war were to subject Russia to the economic interests of the upper class and to create an eternal threa
  • Role of the emperor in meiji japan
    Role of the emperor in meiji japan Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. Two of the most important traditions and symbols in Japan; the Emperor and Confucianism have endured through Shogunates, restorations of imperial rule, and up to present day. The leaders of the Meiji Restoration used these traditions to gain control over Japan
  • Spains Golden Age
    Spains Golden Age 3 NOTE: The information on this site is painfully incomplete and not well-referenced. If you are looking for a good informational site, I strongly recommend you look elsewhere. This site was never really meant for general consumption, hence the poor attention to detail and research. It was an incomplete project which somehow got picked up by the search engines. Please, please, please consider looking at other sites, at least until I revise this site so that it does justice to g
  • World War I
    wwI World War I (The Great War) By: Jesse Cody World War I, the first globally destructive conflict that the Western Civilization produced, has been the subject of various analysis, interpretations and reevaluations of the various causes that led to it. Initially, the guilt was placed upon Germany and its allies. Eventually, historical analysis conducted in decades after the event, lead to a shift from the guilt perspective, to a broader one of various interacting factors. Although almost nine d
  • World War I
    wwI World War I (The Great War) By: Jesse Cody World War I, the first globally destructive conflict that the Western Civilization produced, has been the subject of various analysis, interpretations and reevaluations of the various causes that led to it. Initially, the guilt was placed upon Germany and its allies. Eventually, historical analysis conducted in decades after the event, lead to a shift from the guilt perspective, to a broader one of various interacting factors. Although almost nine d
  • History of Chemistry
    History of Chemistry History of Chemistry Introduction: Humans have always been very curios creatures. The have always wondered about what they are and why they are here. Our limited knowledge of the environment has always urged for new things to be discovered. The desire to understand the world better has made people search for rational answers, for principles and laws. For centuries people have tried to unlock the mysterious world that surrounds them. History: Because myths did not explain thi
  • A Life Of Napoleon Bonaparte
    A Life Of Napoleon Bonaparte A Life Of Napoleon Bonaparte Written By: Ida M. Tarbell In the biography A life of Napoleon Bonaparte, written by Ida Tarbell, explains the life that the great French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, led. He goes into extreme detail and counts for pretty much everything thing that Bonaparte accomplished in his life. Starting off when he was a young boy going to Military school and ending up when he passed away in Helena Island on May 5, 1821. Tarbell writes this biograph
  • Daudi Bohra English as spoken in Sri Lanka
    Daudi Bohra English as spoken in Sri Lanka Daudi Bohra English as spoken in Sri Lanka Just a few centuries ago English was only spoken by about five to seven million people on Britain, which was merely one, relatively small island. The language at that time only consisted of dialects spoken by monolinguals. But the story of English is quite different today. There are more non-native than native speakers of English, and it has become the linguistic key used for opening borders. It is now a globa
  • Seville
    Seville Spanish SEVILLA, ancient Hispalis, city and capital of the provincia of Seville, in the Andalusia comunidad autónoma ("autonomous community") of southern Spain. Seville lies on the left (east) bank of the Guadalquivir River at a point about 54 miles (87 km) north of the Atlantic, and about 340 miles (550 km) southwest of Madrid. An inland port, it is the chief city of Andalusia and the fourth largest in Spain. It was important in history as a cultural centre, as a capital of Muslim Spai
  • Hisroy
    hisroy Early Civilizations By: Jeff EARLY CIVILIZATIONS AND THE DAWN OF THE MEDIEVAL AGE 1.0 Introduction History is an account of mans achievements during the last five thousand years. Though man has been on this planet for about 500,000 years, history only covers a part of this period. The reason for this is that history is essentially based on written documents However the art of writing become known to man, only after 3000 B. C. 1.1 History : Meaning and Importance The word history is de
  • Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan
    Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. Two of the most important traditions and symbols in Japan; the Emperor and Confucianism have endured through Shogunates, restorations of imperial rule, and up to present day. The leaders of the Meiji Restoration used these traditions to gain control over Japa
  • Similarities and difference of Japan and Western E
    Similarities and difference of Japan and Western Europe POLITICS: Both Japan and Europe were politically similar for many reasons: Each strove to maintain a centralized government. For Japan the leader was to be called an emperor or empress who could only be a part of the royal family if they were related to the Shinto sun goddess. As for Europe, the leader was to be called a king or a queen. Like Japan, not just anybody could become royalty. Kings and queens came from a long descent of an Impe
  • Mariano Escobedo
    Mariano Escobedo Mariano Escobedo Mariano Escobedo was a healthy man he was my Grandparents great great grandparent. He was a Mexican General from Mexico. He wanted to govern Mexico, he fought against dynasty and he won. Escobedo fought against the French Invasion in Mexico to govern Mexico. He became a great general who fought against Napoleon III (French.) In Mexico City airport and in Monterey his name is printed and also in some streets of difference parts of Mexico. Mexico had borrowed mone
  • A Consise History Of Germany
    A Consise History Of Germany IMPORTANT DATES AD 9 Germanic warriors decisively defeated Roman forces at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest. 486 The Frankish king Clovis overran the Roman province of Gaul. Clovis introduced features of Roman life into western Germany. 843 The Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne\'s empire into three kingdoms. The German kingdom soon divided into five duchies. 962 Otto I was crowned Holy Roman emperor in Aachen. 1075 A dispute between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII mar
  • Constantinopolis
    Constantinopolis Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight. More prosaic
  • Saint Francis Of Assissi
    Saint Francis Of Assissi Saint Francis of Assissi 1. Birth Saint Francis was born Giovanni Bernadone in either 1181 or 1182 in the Italian hill town of Assisi. His parents, Pietro and Pica, were members of the rather well-to-do merchant class of the town. Pioetro Bernadone was away in France when his son was born. On his return, he had the boy\'s name changed from Giovanni to Franceso ("The Little Frenchman"-perhaps a tribute to France, a country he loved and from which his wife\'s family came).
  • Bayezid I
    Bayezid I Bayezid I- (r.1389-1402) Ottoman ruler who started to besiege Constantinople in 1395. The Europeans saw him as a new threat to Christendom, and Hungary\'s king led English, French, German, and Balkan knights in a crusade against the Turks. He defeated them at Nicopolis, and moved their capital from Bursa to France. If Bayezid had not defeated the Christians, the Ottoman Empire might not have taken Constantinople. The armies of Timur defeated him near Ankara in 1402 where he was taken p
  • The Roots Of Judaism And Christianity
    The Roots Of Judaism And Christianity The Roots of Judaism and Christianity (i) Judaism: The Jews are a people who trace their descent from the biblical Israelites and who are united by the religion called Judaism. They are not a race; Jewish identity is a mixture of ethnic, national, and religious elements. An individual may become part of the Jewish people by conversion to Judaism; but a born Jew who rejects Judaism or adopts another religion does not entirely lose his Jewish identity. In bibl
  • Development of Peace Idea
    Development of Peace Idea THE HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEACE IDEA 1 PEACE is not only a fundamental doctrine of Christianity; it is equally a fundamental doctrine of humanity in its essential constitution. Hence peace, both as an idea and as a social attainment, has had a natural historic development, in which other forces than Christian teaching, or any other religious teaching, technically such, have played a powerful and incessant part. These natural forces began to act earlier, perhaps, t
  • Italy
    Italy Italy Italy is a country located in southern Europe. Italy occupies a boot- shaped peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean sea from southern Europe. The country also includes two large islands, Sicily and Sardinia. The History Italy has had a long and colorful history. For much of its history, Italy has been divided into many small and often warring city states. This occurred after the break up of the Roman Empire when much of Europe became feudal. In 476, Odoacer defeated the last e
  • How Western Imperialism Affects China And Japan
    How Western Imperialism Affects China And Japan How Western Imperialism affects China and Japan China and Japan had very different experiences with Western Imperialism . Their reactions to western interference would lay a foundation for their destiny in a world that was rapidly progressing forward , leaving the traditional world behind . China viewed themselves as totally self sufficient , superior , and the only truly civilized land in a barbarous world. They were inward looking and were encour
  • Ancient Rome
    Ancient Rome The story of ancient Rome is a tale of how a small community of shepherds in the central Italy grew to become one of the greatest empires in history, and then collapsed. According to Roman legend. Rome was founded in 753 B.C. By 275 B.C., it controlled most of the Italian Peninsula. In the A.D. 100\'s, the Roman Empire covered about half of Europe, much of the Middle East, and the northern coast of Africa. The empire then began to crumble, party because it was too big for Rome to go
  • Oliver Twist: Name etymology
    Oliver Twist: Name etymology Name Analogies of: Oliver Twist A story of an orphan, lost and found. Written by: Charles Dickens Summary: Oliver Twist is a poor orphan boy cruelly treated in the public workhouse. Pennyless and hungry, he runs away to London, only to fall into the clutches of a gang of thieves and pickpockets led by the master criminal, Fagin. Befriended by a man robbed by the gang, Oliver ultimately learns his true identity and gains a new home, a fortune and a brand new family! N
  • Collapse of Civilizations
    Collapse of Civilizations The factors that lead to the "collapse" of civilizations are almost directly related to those that created it. Archaeologists characterize collapse by a number of elements, some of which we have evidence for, others we do not. Most archaeologists are unsure of exactly what caused the decline of most civilizations in the ancient world, yet there are many clues to some of the events that could have contributed. The collapse of the ancient Roman Empire, the Mesoamerican Ma
  • Q: European monarchs of the late fifteenth and ear
    Q: European monarchs of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuri In northern Europe after the Middle Ages, monarchies began to build the foundations of their countries that are still in affect today. During the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries these "New Monarchs" made many relevant changes in their nations. During the middle of the fifteenth century Europe was affected by war and rebellion, which weakened central governments. As the monarchies attempted to develop into central
  • Rome
    Rome The Greeks, after their country had been reduced into a province, imputed the triumphs of Rome, not to the merit, but to the FORTUNE, of the republic. The inconstant goddess, who so blindly distributes and resumes her favours, had now consented (such was the language of envious flattery) to resign her wings, to descend from her globe, and to fix her firm and immutable throne on the banks of the Tiber.[1] A wiser Greek, who has composed, with a philosophic spirit, the memorable history of hi
  • The Role Of The Emperor In Meiji Japan
    The Role Of The Emperor In Meiji Japan The Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. Two of the most important traditions and symbols in Japan; the Emperor and Confucianism have endured through Shogunates, restorations of imperial rule, and up to present day. The leaders of the Meiji Restoration used these traditions to gain control ov
  • Napolean
    Napolean How Napoleon\'s Invasion of Russia Led To His Downfall How Napoleon\'s Invasion of Russia Led To His Downfall Napoleon Bonaparte\'s invasion of Russia was a major factor in his downfall. In 1812, Napoleon, whose alliance with Alexander I had disintegrated, launched an invasion into Russia that ended in a disastrous retreat from Moscow. Thereafter, all of Europe, including his own allies, Austria and Prussia, united against him. Although he continued to fight, the odds he faced were impo
  • Mughal Emperor Akbar
    Mughal Emperor Akbar Topic: What were the contribution of the Mughal emperor Akbar to the creation of an Indian national Identity? What were the greatest obstacles to his achievement in this? The greatest of the Mughal\'s emperors, Akbar, attempted the creation of a national identity for India by his numerous reforms, literal and cultural development, and policies of integration and organization. His reforms included a liberal policy toward the non-Muslims, religious innovations, the land revenu
  • Severan Copy Of Athena Parthenos And 13th Century
    Severan Copy Of Athena Parthenos And 13th Century Virgin And Comparison of Severan copy of Athena Parthenos and 13th century Virgin and Mary The Severan copy of Athena Parthenos and an early 13th century Virgin child are two pieces at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts that compare and contrast in several ways. Their historical importance as symbols, their sculptural mediums, styles and dimensions, and their functions make them historically relevant. The Reduced Replica of Athena Parthenos - at the
  • Crusades
    crusades A major turning point in Medieval history were the Crusades. The Crusades were a series of wars fought between the Christian Europeans and the Muslim Turks, which occurred between the years of 1096 to 1272. In this Holy War the Christians goal was to obtain the Holy Land from the Turks, in which they did not succeed. Although the Christians did not meet their goal, many positives did come out of their attempt. Due to the reason that they did not meet their goal, yet numerous positives c
  • Jihad.
    Jihad. Jihad. It was once a word unfamiliar to American ears. But in recent years it has become all too familiar. The actions of Muslim militants and terrorists have seared the word into American consciousness. Yet even with thousands of innocent civilians killed on American soil by Islamic terrorists, the full significance of the Muslim concept of jihad has not been grasped by the American public. In the days after September 11, 2001, American leaders rushed to portray Islam as a peaceful relig
  • The Rise Of The Manchus
    The Rise Of The Manchus The Rise of the Manchus Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese and were strongly resisted, especially in the south, they had assimilated a great deal of Chinese culture before conquering China Proper. Realizing that to dominate the empire they would have to do things the Chinese way, the Manchus retained many institutions of Ming and earlier Chinese derivation. They continued the Confucian court practices and temple rituals, over which the emperors had traditionally pr