Compare and Constrast Essay on None Provided18

This essay has a total of 1353 words and 6 pages.


None Provided18






Can there be a Relationship between Ecstasy and Memory in the Human Body?
Target Article: Parrott, A.C & Lasky, J. (1998) Ecstasy (MDMA) effects upon mood and
cognition: before, during and after a Saturday night dance. Psychopharmacology, 139,
261-268.


Additional Article: Parrot, A.C., Lees, A., Garnham, N.J., Jones, M., & Wesnes, K. (1998).
Cognitive performance in recreational users of MDMA of ‘ecstasy’: evidence for
memory deficits. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 12, 79-83.


Rationale and Variables: The Experiment that was conducted in class determined the affects
of ‘ecstasy’ or MDMA on the participants’ memory. In addition to testing
for their ability to recall information it also looked at the number of false memory that
were related to the actual word “slow” in the class study. In the experiment
Dr. Earleywine used a list of words that were to be memorized, and recall in a given time.
This study is related to another experiment conducted by A.C Parrott and J. Lasky. In
their study they looked at the effects of “ecstasy” or MDMA on mood and
cognition. They tested three groups: non- MDMA, novice-MDMA users, and regular MDMA
users. They used different methods to test the three groups, included in the methods was
word recall, which was also used in the class study by Dr. Earleywine. The result from
that experiment showed that “ecstasy” or MDMA users did have memory problems.
Another study was also conducted by A.C. Parrott, A. Leess, N.J Garnham M. Jones, and K.
Wesnes, which was relate also to the other experiments. This experiment was conducted
using three groups: non-MDMA, novice-MDMA and regular MDMA users. They used series of
methods to conduct their study, and found their results similar to the earlier study.
Analyzing the finding of the two studies, Dr. Earleywine decided to do a study with the
mind set of making a connection between the rates of intrusions that participants who have
used MDMA, compared with the rate of intrusions with participants, who did not use MDMA.
The independent variables were the two groups MDMA users and non-MDMA users, and the
dependent variables are the intrusions, and words recalled.


Methods: The data for the experiment was collected form students that were taking
psychology at University of Southern California. The participants included 145 women and
92 men. The ethnicity background included Caucasian, African/Caribbean, Asian/Pacific
Islander, Latino, Native American, and others, which were not specified. The age of the
participants averaged 19.578 years. The procedure of experiment started when Dr.
Earleywine distributed the surveys to the participants. In the survey, questions regarding
ecstasy and other drugs were asked. The participants were asked to put a check next to
statements that were true to them. In the statement the participants were asked if they
used MDMA in there life time or if they have never used it. They were also asked their
race, age, sex and year in school. When the participants completed the questioner, Dr.
Earleywine read a list of 16 words, pausing a few seconds between each word. When he was
done reading the list, there was a 30-seconds period of silence in the lecture room. After
the 30-secondes, the participants were asked to recall words that they believed were read
and to write them on the back of one of the surveys.

Results: The study that was conducted produced results that were not very significant to
our predicament. We predicted that the data we would receive would back up the two studies
that were conducted, and would also be strong enough to make a statement of it’s
own. But our prediction was far form backing up the two articles that we read. It was
stated that 63.7% never used MDMA and 36.3% used MDMA in their lifetime. When the data was
analyzed between the two groups, for intrusions and target intrusions they were identical
for the most part. The MDMA users in our study were not more likely to make target
intrusions. In the recall area of the study, the non-MDMA users recalled an average of
8.8600 words out of 16, and MDMA users averaged 8.1125 words. For the intrusion part of
the study the non-MDMA users made 1.0200 intrusions on average and the MDMA users averaged
1.0000 intrusions. This result for the intrusion was so similar it would not be considered
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