Compare and Constrast Essay on None Provided19

This essay has a total of 5546 words and 20 pages.


None Provided19







Buddhism According to Webster’s definition, Buddhism is not a religion. It states that
religion is the "belief in or worship of God or gods"(Webster’s New World Dictionary
pg.505). "The Buddha was not a god"(About Buddhism pg.1). " There is no theology, no
worship of a deity or deification of the Buddha"(Butter pg.1) in Buddhism. Therefore
"Buddhists don’t pray to a creator god"(Buddhism FAQ’s pg.1). Consequently, Buddhism is
categorized as a philosophy, but is still regarded it as a religion. "The name Buddhism
comes from the word ‘budhi’ which means to wake up and thus Buddhism is the philosophy of
awakening"(What is Buddhism pg.1). Fittingly, "Buddha literally means ‘awakened
one’"(Buddhist Basics pg.1). "Buddha are aimed solely to liberate sentient beings from
suffering"(About Buddhism pg.1). They dedicate their lives to showing others the way to
end the viscous cycle of samsara, or reincarnation. Buddha are enlightened beings who had
the opportunity to reach the ultimate goal, but turned back to help the rest of the world
get to where they were. The ultimate goal is to attain Nirvana. "Nirvana simply means
cessation"(The Goal pg.1). "It is the cessation of passion, aggression and ignorance"(The
Goal pg.1). "Nirvana is the highest happiness"(What is Buddhism pg.5). "It has become
equated with a sort of eastern version of heaven."(The Goal pg.1). The way to reach
Nirvana is " to become empty, to become empty of thirst, desire, dreams, pleasure, and
sorrow- to let the Self die"(Hesse pg.11). "Freedom from the Self liberates"(About
Buddhism pg.1). Once Nirvana is achieved one can escape the cyclical repetition of life,
in which one is reincarnated over and over again.

In Buddhism, "the world is in flux, coming into existence and passing away"(Buddhist
Basics pg.5). It is a continuous cycle. Time is often viewed to be like that of a river.
If you’ve seen a river you’d have seen that "the water continually flowed and flowed and
yet it was always there; It was always the same yet every moment it was new"(Hesse pg.83).
Breaking this cycle was the main goal of the Buddha. This has been the way of thinking in
Buddhism, since its beginning. "Buddhism emerged in India more than 2.5 thousand years ago
as a religious and philosophical teaching"(Buddhism pg.1). In fact "Buddhism is the most
ancient of the four world religions"(Buddhism pg.1). They have many followers. Although an
exact number cannot be calculated, for various reasons, "one can speak of approximately
400 billion lay practitioners and 1 billion Buddhist monks and nuns in the world"(Buddhism
pg.1). Buddhism was not started by the first Buddha, for " there have been many
Buddha"(Buddhist Basics pg.1), but by the historical Buddha. Siddartha fasting as a
Samana. "The historical Buddha was born in approximately 563 B.C.E. in Northern India"(Who
is Buddha pg.1). His birth took place "in the towm of Kapilavastu (located in today’s
Nepal)"(Introduction to Buddhism pg.2). He was named " Siddartha, which means ‘he whose
aim is accomplished’"(Introduction to Buddhism pg.2). "Siddartha’s parents were King
Shuddhodana and Queen Maya, who ruled the Sakyas"(Introduction to Buddhism pg. 2). Being
the historical Buddha, "his compassion and patience were legendary"(What is Buddhism pg.
3). He "is seen as a timeless mirror of mind’s inherent potential"(Who is Buddha pg.1).
"His teaching make being fearless, joyful, and kind"(Who is Buddha pg 1). Although Buddha
felt that "nobody finds salvation through teachings"(Buddhism FAQ’s pg.1), he did have
"Dharma, the teachings of the Buddha; the law of the Buddha"(FAQ’S pg.1). Because of the
way he felt about teachings, "Buddha strongly encouraged his followers to ‘be a lamp unto
themselves’ and put his teachings to a test"(Buddhist Basics pg.2). His Dharma consisted
of The Four Noble Truths and The Eightfold Path. "These are the central teachings of the
Buddha"(Tokyo n.pag.). Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka The First Noble Truth is that there is
suffering. If people were to look

at their own lives and the world around them they would realize that life is full of
suffering. "We suffer because we are constantly struggling to survive"(Butter pg.2).
"Suffering may be Physical or Mental"(Tokyo n.pag.). Physical suffering comes in many
different forms. An example of such

suffering is aged people. They cannot hear as well, see as far or clearly, or move as
limberly as they used to be able to. "The truth is that the suffering of birth, old age,
sickness, and death is unavoidable"(Tokyo n.pag.). Besides physical suffering, there are
also various forms of mental suffering. This suffering usually occurs due to one’s
attraction to impermanent pleasures. An

example of this is a person finding a new friend and being elated while side by side with
the new found companion, but when separated, they feel the pain of loneliness. These are
also examples of what causes the suffering, which is the next truth. The Second Noble
Truth is that suffering has a cause. "The direct causes of suffering are desire, or
craving, and ignorance."(Tokyo n.pag.)

Craving is the deeply- rooted longing, of all living beings, for the pleasures of the
senses. For instance, people always want things like delicious foods, entertaining movies,
or good company. The problem with this is that it is a continuous cycle. After you eat you
will be hungry again, after the movie will get bored, and after your friends leave, you
will be lonely. The same holds

true for people who wish to own the best and newest products. They will never be satisfied
because there will continue to be newer and better things. This is the case in America
today and look where we are. The other cause of suffering is ignorance. This is also the
cause of craving. The search to find out why we crave always leads back to ingorance. If
we knew that satisfying

those frivilous "needs" accomplished nothing we would have no reason to do so. If people
would develop their minds and acquire enough knowledge they would be able to see the
truth. They would be able see that suffering has an end, which is the Third Noble Truth.
"The end of suffering is the final goal of the Buddha’s teaching"(Tokyo n.pag.). This can
be experienced by anyone. When thoughts of anger and greed arise in one’s mind
unhappiness, suffering,

is experienced, but when they cease these thoughts the suffering temporarily
abates. To end the suffering indefinitely, one must completely remove the
desire, ill will, and ignorance. There is a path which leads to the end of
suffering and that is the Fourth Noble Truth. Kandy, Sri Lanka Buddha on hill
at Sri Maha Bodhi Vihara The path to end suffering is called the Noble
Eightfold Path. "The central theme of this path is meditation"(Butter pg.2).
During this meditation mantras are used. "They believe that when certain
sounds and words, called mantras, are said many times they arouse good
vibrations within a person"(Buddhism FAQ’s pg.1). The Noble Eightfold Path
consists of eight factors: Right Understanding Right Thoughts Right Speech
Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right
Concentration 1. Right Understanding is the knowledge of the Four Noble
Truths. In other words, it is the understanding of oneself as one really is. The
main idea of Buddhism is Right Understanding. Buddhism is based on
knowledge and practical concepts, as opposed to unsubstantiated beliefs. 2.
Right Thoughts are threefold. The first are the thoughts of renunciation. The
second are Kind Thoughts which are opposed to ill-will. Finally, the third are
thoughts of harmlessness that are opposite to cruelty. 3. Right Speech deals
with refraining from falsehood, stealing, slandering, harsh words and frivolous
talks. 4. Right Action deals with refraining from killing, stealing and unchastity.
It helps one to develop a character that is self-controlled and mindful of right
of others. 5. Right Livelihood deals with the five kinds of trades which should
be avoided by a lay disciple. They are trade in deadly weapons, trade in
animals for slaughter, trade in slavery, trade in intoxicants, and trade in
poisons. Right Livelihood means earning one’s living in a way that is not
harmful to others. 6. Right Effort is fourfold. This means the endeavors to
discard evil that has already arisen, prevent the arising of unrisen evil, develop
that good which has already arisen, and promote that good which has not
already arisen. Effort is needed to cultivate Good Conduct or develop one’s
mind, because one is often distracted or tempted to take the easy way out of
things. The Buddha teaches that attaining happiness and Enlightenment
depends upon one’s own efforts. Effort is the root of all achievement. If one
wants to get to the top of a mountain, just sitting at the foot thinking about it
will not bring one there. It is by making the effort of climbing up the mountain,
step by step, that one eventually reaches the summit. Thus, no matter how
great the Buddha’s achievement may be, or how excellent His Teaching is,
one must put the Teaching into practice before one can expect to obtain the
desired result. 7. Right Mindfulness is also fourfold. It involves mindfulness
with regard to body, feeling, mind, and mental objects. Right Mindfulness is
the awareness of one’s deeds, words, and thoughts. 8. Right Meditation
means the gradual process of training the mind to focus on a single object and
remain fixed upon the object without wavering. The constant practice of
meditation helps one to develop a calm and concentrated mind and help to
prepare one for the attainment of Wisdom and Enlightenment ultimately.
Despite all using the Noble Eightfold Path and the Four Noble Truths there is
more than one form of Buddhism. Amidst the spread of Buddhism to places
like Eastern Asia, Buddhism was varied and altered to fit different cultures.
These variations "can largely be divided into three major groups or
‘vehicles’"(Buddhist Basics pg.2). The first of the three is Hinayana school,
aslo known as the Theraveda school, School of the Elders, and the "lesser
vehicle." This school is widely practiced in Southeast Asia. This is the oldest
and probably the most strict of the three. It also regards itself as the closest to
the original teachings of the Buddha. While Hinayana focuses on the Four
Noble Truth and the Eightfold Path just like the other schools, it is still
different. "Its emphasis is on personal rather that collective
liberation"(Buddhist Basics pg.2). This is based on the Buddha’s thought that
one cannot enlighten another. This "looking out for number one" mentality is
probably why this school is the "lesser vehicle." Another reason may be that it
would take a smaller, lesser, vehicle to take only person to Nirvana, as
opposed to helping others come along. Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka This is the
desire of the "Mahayana, which means ‘great vehicle’"(Wangu pg.50), school.
This school developed in India during the first century C.E. As was
mentioned before, They "desire to liberate all beings"(Buddhist Basics pg.3).
This is based on the question of if an enlightened individual could enter
Nirvana while others are still suffering. Because of this the ideal becomes the
"bodhisattava- literally, a being of wisdom"(Wangu pg.52), or one who
postpones entry into Nirvana and who is consciously reborn to help
humanity. "The bodhisavatta is similar to the sacrificial role of Jesus in
Christianity"(Wangu pg.53). "Mahayanist strongly emphasize compassion as
the ultimate form of practice"(Buddhist Basics pg.3). This all inclusive
approach is most likely the reason as to why it is called the "great vehicle."
There is also the reason of the size of vehicle it would take to "transport" the
people to Nirvana. There is also a third school which came from the
Mahayana school. This is the Tantrayana school, also known as Vajrayana or
the "diamond vehicle." It began in India during the seventh century and is
mainly practiced in the Himalayan regions. The teachers are known as "Yoga
Guru." This school "developed out of the Mahayana teachings in Northeast
India around 500 C.E. and spread to Tibet, China, and Japan"(Buddhist
Basics pg.4). "It teaches not to suppress energy but rather to transform
it"(Buddhist Basics pg.4). Tantrayana stresses the interwoveness of things;
the interdependence of existence, and the continuity of cause and effect. The
principle meditative practice is that of the ‘sacred outlook,’ or seeing
appearances as pure. Rituals include the repeating of the sacred utterances,
mantras, emulating their gestures, mundras, and the systematic arrangement of
symbols, such as the mandala, on which the process of meditative
visualization, yantra, is based. Buddhism is very logical. It is not based on
blindly believing its teachings. The Buddha himself urged his own students to
not merely follow him, but to put his teachings to the test, study the way of
the Buddha and realize the path for themselves. "To study the way of the
Buddha is to study oneself. To study oneself is to forget oneself. To forget
oneself is to be enlightened by everything"(Buddhist Basics pg.6). Buddhism
is a philosophy, regarded as a religion that teaches you how to escape the
Self in order to attain Nirvana.

Hinduism
hinduism The term Hinduism refers to the civilization of the Hindus (originally, the
inhabitants of the land of the Indus River). Introduced in about 1830 by British writers,
it properly denotes the Indian civilization of approximately the last 2,000 years, which
evolved from Vedism the religion of the Indo-European peoples who settled in India in the
last centuries of the 2nd millennium BC. The spectrum that ranges from the level of
popular Hindu belief to that of elaborate ritual technique and philosophical speculation
is very broad and is attended by many stages of transition and varieties of coexistence.
Magic rites, animal worship, and belief in demons are often combined with the worship of
more or less personal gods or with mysticism, asceticism, and abstract and profound
theological systems or esoteric doctrines. The worship of local deities does not exclude
the belief in pan-Indian higher gods or even in a single high God. Such local deities are
also frequently looked down upon as manifestations of a high God. In principle, Hinduism
incorporates all forms of belief and worship without necessitating the selection or
elimination of any. It is axiomatic that no religious idea in India ever dies or is
superseded-it is merely combined with the new ideas that arise in response to it. Hindus
are inclined to revere the divine in every manifestation, whatever it may be, and are
doctrinally tolerant, allowing others - including both Hindus and non-Hindus - whatever
beliefs suit them best. A Hindu may embrace a non-Hindu religion without ceasing to be a
Hindu, and because Hindus are disposed to think synthetically and to regard other forms of
worship, strange gods, and divergent doctrines as inadequate rather than wrong or
objectionable, they tend to believe that the highest divine powers are complement one
another. Few religious ideas are considered to be irreconcilable. The core of religion
does not depend on the existence or nonexistence of God or on whether there is one god or
many. Because religious truth is said to transcend all verbal definition, it is not
conceived in dogmatic terms. Moreover, the tendency of Hindus to distinguish themselves
from others on the basis of practice rather than doctrine further de-emphasizes doctrinal
differences. Hinduism is both a civilization and a congregation of religions; it has
neither a beginning or founder, nor a central authority, hierarchy, or organization.
Hindus believe in an uncreated, eternal, infinite, transcendent, and all-embracing
principle, which, "comprising in itself being and non-being," is the sole reality, the
ultimate cause and foundation, source, and goal of all existence. This ultimate reality is
called Brahman. As the All, Brahman causes the universe and all beings to emanate from
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