Essay on None Provided1

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None Provided1

Vision and Movement

When we discuss our brain, we usually focus on the brains ability to think. That task
alone is extremely complex and involved, but the brain also has many other tasks. Most of
the time the brain is on autopilot, meaning that most of the activities preformed are just
automatic. Our five senses; sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell, are automatically
preformed in our brains. We don't have to think about how something sounds, we just hear
it and we then interpret that sound. The largest area of our brain is the area that is
set aside for vision, it is located in the occipital lobe. Dr. Gerard Guarniero has been
blind since birth, a defect in which he has never been able to fix. Recently, he has
signed up for an experiment to test whether our eyes actually do the seeing, or is it the
brain which puts the images in our head. He was hooked up to a machine that had a type of
pad on the back of the chair in which you sit in. That pad contains tiny little bumps
that move to trace the way an object would look. A type of camera is also connected to
this chair, and that captures the images that are then transferred onto the bumps. When
the camera processes an item, it will then trigger the bumps, thus putting pressure on the
person sitting on the chair. The whole point of the experiment was to try to find the
answer if we can visualize objects though touch. The experiment was a success. Not only
was Dr. Guarniero able to visualize an item, he was able to tell exactly what it was and
the details of it. The most amazing thing that he noted was a flame. He stated that he
has never imagined that a flame would have a definite shape, because of the fact that he
wasn't able to really touch a flame, the heat always got to him first. Dr. Gerard
Guarniero is living proof that our vision and our brain is flexible and can be trained.
From this experiment we are able to conclude that the brain is able to substitute
different sensations for sight.

So what is the real purpose of our eyes? Eyes are simply sensors that send information to
our brains. The eye itself is quiet interesting. The way that we process sight is this:
first, the eyes' lens turns everything we view upside down. Then the all the impulses are
cris crossed in the optic cyasim. After that, the information is passed down the optic
nerve where it finally reaches the primary visual cortex, or strenual cortex, where all of
the transformations take place. Dr. Russell DeValois held experiments in where he took a
few monkeys as his subjects, he then showed them pictures, and as he was showing the
pictures to the monkeys, he tried to see what the monkeys actually saw in there visual
cortex. He has pointed out that there is precision on what our eyes see and what we
perceive we see. Dr. David Hubel and Dr. Torsten Wiesel both received awards for there
outstanding accomplishments in their study of the primary visual cortex. The primary
visual cortex is about the size of a credit card, it lays on the posterior part of the
brain. When cut out, we see that it is a layering structure that has certain loose ends
and certain tight ends to it. In the late 1950's, many experiments were tried to see what
sort of pictures had an effect on the visual cortex. They were for the most part
unsuccessful, until one day, accidentally, they move a glass slid over the projector, and
a line appeared one the screen. That line was just what they were looking for. So they
classified the visual cortex to be associated with lines, edges, and bars. However,
reducing the visual field to bars and lines isn't enough, there are many more different
and more complicated tasks to be preformed and to be seen. DeValois stated that some of
our visual neurons deal with light rays and the strength of the light rays; however, Hubel
disagrees with DeValois on this subject. In the 19th century we see different shades and
different dots being used by impressionist artists for their paintings. They would put
together a mixture of different colors in the forms of dots. When these paintings are
viewed up close, they seem to be a blur, a person really isn't able to tell exactly one
thing from another. But when the person viewing the picture moves back, the whole
painting fits together and we are able to see what the artist wanted us to see. As much
as the visual cortex has been studied, laws for this part of the brain are extremely hard
to lay down.

Our eyes turn all of the images we see upside down. Now what if we were to reverse that,
meaning what if we saw everything upside down. Susan was a volunteer who agreed to have a
certain pair of glasses be put on her that would make her se everything as if it were
upside down. The reason of this experiment was to see if our brain truly is able to
change for our surroundings. At first everything was hard for her, she had difficulty
walking, sitting down, even pouring a liquid became a complicated task. After 3 days, she
was able to write her name perfectly while looking. Then after several days, she could
draw a picture and sign her name on the bottom right-side-up. When the day came to take
the glasses off, her brain now had to go back to normal so to say. At first everything
felt weird, but the transformation process back to normal took only about an hour. From
this experiment it is safe to state that our vision and even our brain is very adaptable
to our surroundings. But we must keep in mind that seeing is a very small part of

Dr. Mortimer Mishkin says that the visual cortex sends information through two parts of
our body: one is the parietal lobe, the other is the ventricle part of the temporal lobe.
The parietal lobe has the role of telling use where things are, in other words, how far
away we have to move our arms to reach a glass. The temporal lobe helps use explain what
objects really are. The most stimulating objects would have to be faces. One theory
exists that our grandmothers light up certain neurons, which in turn are called
"Grandmother cells". These grandmother cells are commutative cells, meaning that they
need other cells in order to preform a task. We truly have no real explanation to how
this works, but damage to this part of the brain will cause difficulty recognizing
familiar objects.

Now the process of seeing something and then processing it takes about three tenths of a
second. Movement of the impulse first starts at the back of the brain, then it moves its
way forward to the frontal lobe, and when it gets there, that is where it is decided on
what we exactly saw and how to act towards it. Now normal everyday movements occur
vertically, unlike vision, which occurs horizontally. We must master both in order to
survive in this world, therefore cooperation between the two senses is very necessary.
Things like walking and sneezing have been discovered not to be learned, but inherited
through genes. They are both reflexes, and we don't learn them, we just inherit them and
execute them on almost a daily basis.

Dr. Rodolfo Llinas has been visiting Cape Cod for quite some time now in order to study
the sea squid. The sea squid contains three neurons, but the two main neurons that we are
going to be explaining are huge. They are so large in fact, that you can see the synapses
between the two with your naked eye. A synapses lasts for just about one thousandth of a

Neurons pass information through three parts of the brain: 1)primitive brain stem, 2)
cerebellum (fundamental for movement) 3) visual cortex. If a disease is acquired in the
cerebellum, the person will have difficulty with the depth perception of an object for the
rest of their life. The Phazel Ganglia is the unthinking and automatic response area. If
this fails, a person has now gotten Parkinson's disease. The main reason for getting
Parkinson's disease is that the chemical Dopemine isn't being produced anymore in the
Phazel Ganglia. Terry Thomas has received Parkinson's disease. His life has drastically
changed right before his eyes. He doesn't sleep well at night, and when he does he has a
yearning for chocolate. A person with Parkinson's also has difficulty crossing streets or
even walking through a doorway, they have to be given small goals in order for them to do
such a big task as doing through a door. In 1970, a new miracle drug come on the scene,
L-Dopa. The way that this drug works is that it produces Dopemine in excess, now allowing
the brain to function somewhat normally. The drug gives a gradual relief of the
difficulty, but it isn't a cure for Parkinson's. Another type of medication that has been
considered is brain cell implants. The first brain cell implant was in 1982. It was
given to a patient with Parkinson's, and he survived the operation with a visible
improvement. One positive idea to note about brain cell implants is that the brain
doesn't reject tissue as easily as the rest of our body does. But the critics started
writing that taking brain tissue from one person and inserting it into a stranger is
completely unethical and immoral. So a alternative had to be found. The alternative
would come from our adrenal gland, which lies next to our kidneys. The makeup of the
adrenal gland neurons is very similar to that of the original brain cell, and there
weren't any rejections either when the experiment was preformed on mice. This procedure
offers hope for the future. The doctors in charge of the operations have already
completed two such operations, the first on in a male, didn't help much, because not to
long after the operation he had gone back to the same stage of Parkinson's as he was
before the operation. One thing is that he says that if he would be offered another
operation, he wouldn't hesitate. The other patient was a female, and her changes stayed
with her. She has slightly improved, and now she is leading a better life because of it.
What the future awaits us, no body knows, but the doctors are already planning patient
number 3, 4, even 18.

"Rhythms and Drives"

What does it mean to be human? The answer to this question can have many meaning. One
answer might be that our whole existence as human beings is based on our animal instincts.
We are of course animals, and we have evolved over the hundreds of years to be what we
are today. The foundation of our basic human life would probably have to be the cerebral
cortex. It basically does everything we need done to survive on a daily basis: governs
body temperature, heart beat, respiration, when we have to eat, sleep, our sexual drive,
and it also triggers our aggression. If we were to remove it, or even damage the cerebral
cortex, we would be in fact killing our very existence. One very interesting thing about
the cerebral cortex is that it is automatic system, meaning it functions without us
knowing it. There are three parts of the brain: first is the Brain Stem, then the
Hypothalamus, and the Pituitary System. The brain stem is basically an extension of the
spinal cord. The hypothalamus contains both the very important Limbic System and the
chemical Melatonin, which is most usually released at night. The pituitary gland releases
a variety of hormones, it controls many aspects of body function.

Pat Moore is a female that suffers from severe winter depression. During the winter time,
she is very depressed, she is throughly disgusted of herself, she cry frequently, she
tends to stay away from people, sleeps a great deal, and just basically stops all normal
activity. She has difficulty starting different tasks, and if she ever does start them,
she never finishes. She doesn't see a future at all for herself. The handicap she has
completely interferes with her ability to function as a normal human. She also explained
that she felt like a bear, she went to sleep all winter, but then when summer hit, she was
like a butterfly, she had all this energy, the will to go out and do things. So one day
Pat went and participated in an experiment. The object was to try to rid the depression
from her. So they set up huge flourescent lights in her living room, and for 3 hours a
day she sat in front of the lights. After a short while of this, there was a drastic
change. Pat Moore almost seemed like a completely new person. She had lots of energy,
she started writing, reading, painting, and lots of other things she loved to do. She is
very grateful of this, and we are too. Now we understand that the lack of light will make
us depressed and it will make the world seem to drag on forever. Another way to get rid
of depression would be also sleep. The less sleep you get, you usually lose your
depression. One thing is though that sleep is only a temporary changer. There are some
drugs that you can take to get rid of depression, but they may take as long as several
weeks before the effects are seen, but when it does kick in, the change is for good.

Our brains are closely linked to nature. The beat of the earth is almost like the beat of
our brain, we do everything hand in hand. One of the best times the see changes taking
place in our brain would be at night time when we are sleeping. We sleep almost at ninety
minute intervals. One of these intervals is realm, or the time when we dream. During
this time, we can notice rapid eye movements, the brain is at its peak with activity.
Most of this activity is experienced in the frontal lobe. Then the other interval is deep
sleep, or the time when we get the most rest.

Michel Siffre is a French scientist who lived in a cave in Texas for several months. He
took part in an experiment to see that when you change your environment in order to see
the way the brain would react. His quarters were simple, but he had some of the best
equipment available to him. His behavior and data was monitored; such as, blood pressure,
heart rate, brain waves. The whole cave was absolutely clear of any natural light. Which
meant that he decided what time to get up, what time to sleep. He also decided when it
was daytime, and when it was night time. We have an internal alarm clock so to say that
decides for us when we are supposed to do all those things, including eating and many
others. Michel found out that our body doesn't really live off the normal Circadian
Rhythms that it's supposed to, but that we have a twenty five hour clock that we should be
living by. This experiment has helped many business decide on shift work. About one
forth of men and one sixth of women work shift jobs, but working a shifting job causes
temporal chaos in our bodies. If, for example, we try to sleep during the day and work
doing the night, we completely rearrange our bodies and our body's internal clock. It is
so bad that our body doesn't exactly know what to anticipate and when. Rotating shifts
also cause a number of other problems, such as: sleep disorders and eating disorders. So
Michel was called in to Utah to a processing factory to create a alternation to the normal
one week shift changes. He proposed that shifts be changed ever 3 weeks in a clockwise
rotation; so that if you worked the night shift one rotation, the next you'll work the
morning, and so on. He also held classes on how to use your free time to the best way you
can and he also taught the workers about their bodies. At the end of the three weeks,
there was a drastic and positive improvement. The workers health got better, workers felt
better about themselves in general, and also productivity rose. So we learned that you
can not ignore the part of the brain that controls when we sleep and when we wake. The
Hypothalamus controls all this, and we have to keep that in mind when we are making work

Another question we can ask ourselves is this: aggression and violence, where does it originate?
Does it also control rage? One experiment that has given us some answers was that
preformed on a bull in the 1960's. A typical fighting bull was taken and electrodes were
placed in the frontal lobe next to the hypothalamus. It worked, the animal was completely
cooled down when the electrodes were charged.

Mark Larribus was a male that was convicted of hurting and almost killing his girlfriends
2 year old child. All he recollects for that day was that the child was crying, and he
walked over to it and started beating it. He didn't even think about checking it, maybe
wondering if it needed food, he went straight to beating. When he was taken in, he became
depressed, even suicidal at times. He had a diagnostic study taken on him to see what was
wrong. It was also noted that he had been having more and more outbursts, and it was very
hard to control them. When he had a CAT scan preformed on him, it was concluded that he
had a tumor that was pressing on his hypothalamus. It was a sist, it had filled with
fluid and it was a very big threat on Mark. When he had it removed, the positive changes
had occurred, he was much calmer, he had very few outbursts anymore, and he was basically
a changed man.

Before and during the urges of sex, many different things happen. First off, the
hypothalamus sends a hormone to the Pituitary Gland, then that sends testosterone; and the
testosterone in turn sends it back to the hypothalamus and the cycle starts over. There
may be other types of the brain also working. The hippocampus is a horn shaped part of
the limbic system that is believed to be used in emotion, also the amygdala is a part of
the brain that is found in the temporal lobe that also is belived to be involved in
emotion. In the year 1978, Mitch Heller was involved in an automobile accident that has
changed his life completely. Mitch was a typical red blooded man, he loved to play
various sports, and he led a healthy life. But he realized that about a month after his
accident he didn't have the urge to have sexual intercourse, he couldn't preform as well
in bed, his voice was getting noticeably higher, and he loss facial hair. He became
horrified with all this as well as confused. One funny thing was that a month before the
accident he and his wife had planned to have a baby, but now there was this set back. He
only suffered a bump to the head, but he had damaged his hypothalamus. With that damage
done, his brain couldn't preform the necessary steps in order to secret the hormone to the
pituitary gland to have the urges for sex. So they tried to fix it. Dr. Crowley was
called in, he had preformed magnificent work on the 3 way system involving the
hypothalamus. The doctor designed for Mitch a sort of portable hypothalamus. It was a
small box that can be carried around your waste that contained a syringe with the hormone
that is normally secreted by the hypothalamus. Then an injection is made into the
abdomen, and at regular two hour intervals the hormone is injected. At first, Mitch
couldn't stand the thing. He felt each injection as it went in and it was uncomfortable to
carry around. But it did help. Almost right after the first injection, he had a change
in his libido, and after about 5 days, he was completely used to the device. When he got
home, he had the sudden urge to go and have sexual intercourse with his wife and he felt
great altogether. The two main reasons for him having this done to him were these: one,
he wanted to have children; and second he wanted to live like a normal male. He was happy
to note that after having this happen to him, he and his wife have had a healthy baby
girl, and it was all thanks to modern science.

So what have we learned, well, the human brain has changed and has been enriched
throughout the years of our existence. We also have learned that we carry the baggage of
animal behavior, and it affects the way we think, feel, act, and love.

"Stress and Emotion"

Everything that we feel in our bodies is produced by the brain. Our emotions,
personality, love, and hate, they are all mediated by the brain. Since emotions do not
have there own separate parts in our brain, it has been very difficult to pinpoint where
emotions come from. There is only one emotion so far that we know of that we can locate
where it originates from, and that's anxiety. One of anxieties chief byproduct is
nervousness. Nervousness is the imbalance between the frontal cortex and the limbic
system. The way that we found this emotion in our brain was completely accidental.

Phineas Gage was an intelligent, well balanced man. He was a modest and good, hard worker.
He was part of a team that laid out tracks for railroad cars. One day, as he had a fight
with another worker over his girlfriend, he got into a terrible accident. A steel rod had
been driven through his cheek and up his skull. He suffered damage to the part of the
brain that is between the limbic system and the frontal cortex. So now, he is unable to
have controlled emotions. You see, the brain is like a group of good railroad layers,
everyone works together to get one thing accomplished. The limbic system passes
information to the frontal cortex, and normally the two systems keep thought and emotions
on an equilibrium. But after his accident, Phineas was unable to control any of his
thoughts or emotions. His limbic system was free without any restrictions that the
frontal cortex might have given. The reason why he might have felt very little pain
during his accident was because normally, pain is sent up the central nervous system to
the brain, and Substance P is then passed through the synapses of neurons if enough pain
has passed through the brain. There are endorphins that lessen pain in our bodies, they
are released as soon as our brain senses any sort of pain. We can also sort of "block
out" pain by thinking that something makes it better. For instance, we may think that
drinking water eases pain, when in actuality it has no medical purposes what so ever.
There is also a drug called morphine that blocks out the Substance P from ever reacting in
our brains. Edward Williams was Phineas' doctor when he came to town that day. After
examination, Dr. Williams had stated that he had severely severed the frontal cortex from
the limbic system. The wound was so bad that the doctor was able to touch his two hands
while they were inside of Phineas' skull. This completely changed his life. After
recovering, he faced many new changes altogether. His words were pathetic, he slurred
when he spoke, he was wild and uncontrollable, he cried often and he also screamed
intensely. Basically, he let all his feeling out at any given moment. What happened to
him? Well, once the connection between the limbic system and the frontal cortex is gone,
the limbic system then allows information and emotions to pass through the brain freely,
and everything is basically uncensored by the frontal cortex. Beating all the odds he
survived, but only physically. He never recovered intellectually or emotionally. He lost
almost all human contacts, but he had developed a certain bond with animals. It was said
by his close friends that he was like "an animals emotions in a mans body". He died 12
years later, never fully recovering.

Chemical changes in our brain also change our behavior. Different reactions in our brain
can be changed by our environment or by emotions, but most of the changes are unknown.
Stressful stimuli and anxiety change the balance of chemicals in our bodies. Stress is
quite noticeable in our bodies. Under stress, our central nervous system speeds up, we
have a higher heart beat, and our blood pressure rises. Stress isn't a physical event it
is critically determined by the environment and by what an organism can or cannot do. We
are triggered by the "fight of flight" system. It is decided wether we will stay and take
in the challenge, or if we will leave the situation.

Air traffic controllers live very high stressful lives and have high stressful jobs in
general. Bizzoro, a French air traffic controller working in Quebec. Not only does he
have to have the all normal jobs that air traffic controller do, he also has to preform in
two languages, both English and French, and that only adds to the stress. It was said
that the early cave man didn't produce as much as we produce now, so therefor they had
less to worry about. We also drive ourselves too hard at work, we try to overcome the
competition but in the process we are hurting ourselves. In the wild, basically all we
had to worry about was what to eat and to watch out not to be eaten, all the energy came
from our flight of fight system. But no during this day and age, our limbic system
messages are overruled by our frontal cortex. One experiment that was performed involved
rats. There were two rats, and their tails were charged with an electrical impulse, and
if the rat spun a wheel, the impulse would be sent at intervals every 60 seconds. But if
the rat failed to spin the wheel, it would receive the impulse at associated time periods.
The rat that did spin the wheel showed that he had control, but the rat that didn't spin
the wheel showed that he had no control. Also, the rat that did spin the wheel showed
that he had predictability. So in order to survive in this world, we not only need good
control, but also good predictability. The more we prolong the stress on our brains, the
quicker the terminal ends basically die off. The locus coeruleus, when active, releases a
neurotransmitter called norepinephrine, and that in turn activates our brain and we start
to think. Another experiment was given to the rats, this time they were put into a cup
filled with water and they had water wings put on them. This time the object was to see
how much activity will be produced in a stressful activity. Bad reactions would be to
constantly be trying to swim, trying to stay afloat, constantly moving. But the good
reaction that can be produced was that the rat was trying to move as little as possible,
spent most of its time just floating. The rat that was had the bad reactions showed sleep
changes, feeding changes, and a lack of grooming. So the same side effects were noted as
in a clinically depressed person.

When the limbic system overwhelms the frontal cortex, the link between the two is lost,
and we almost in a way fry everything in between. Gaba is a chemical that inhibits cells
from firing impulses. When the radar went out in the flight operators screen, he became
nervous and stressed out. But gaba lowered the firing of impulses, and his nervousness
was kept to a minimum. Valium is a drug that helps many stress patients recover. It is a
member of the class of drugs that improves gaba production. It also controls emotions
from being expressed.

Panic attacks are experienced when all the emotions in our brains are suddenly turned on
and go out of control. An injection was given to a patient that has had panic attacks in
the past. This injection forces a stimulated attack on the person, and the physical as
well as mental changes are recorded. First off, the patient feels light headed, then you
feel weak, and the other symptoms follow. When a person has a full blown panic attack,
the limbic system fires a overload of stimuli on the frontal cortex, causing everything to
go hay wire.

Anna Renaud is a panic attack victim. Her attacks were getting so bad that she was forced
to get medical attention at a local hospital. The first attack that she ever remembers
having was about three to four years ago during an Easter dinner. She recalls she felt
weak, her heart started pounding, she had a tension of muscles, and also she felt as
though she had a type of lump in her esophagus that felt like she couldn't swallow. She
received drug therapy, and as much as it helped, she still suffered from minor panic
attacks. Soon after she was off the drug therapy, she went into rehabilitation that
taught her brain how to resist the attacks. This helped her greatly, but she still had
the same stressful job and she was still surrounded by stressful situations. She was also
suffering from exacezbated anxiety. This type of anxiety is felt by everyone at all the
time, just some of us have it in a more profound level. People that suffer from this
consider everything they do in life to be extremely stressful, they try to avoid most
things in life. Valium is most often prescribed for this anxiety, and it does a great job
in curing it. Anna also developed a few phobia's, or fears of things. She was afraid to
ride the metro or afraid to be in a large crowd. Her panic attacks have greatly
shortened, now they last a minuscule one to two minutes. Her first day off of any
medications was a bit shaky. She has just learned new techniques to try to conquer the
attacks, and she has also returned to work. She now has stayed drug free, and her
chances are constantly improving because of the fact that she does vigorous exercises in
order to get rid of unnecessary stress. Different types of things you may also do to get
rid of stress are yoga, faith, and even prayer.

Our understanding of the changes that occur in our brain has improved immensely. All
advances do have the possibility to be misused in a controlled way, but the positive
outcomes out weight the negative ones. As for the air traffic controller, his wife had
another child. This is another stressful situation that must be dealt with care. During
labor, she was given a spinal tap so that she wouldn't feel any pain what so ever, but
there was a problem. She had too much stress, her blood pressure rose, she felt bad
altogether, too many messages were getting sent from the limbic system to the frontal
cortex. After a few minutes of this, equilibrium was restored, and her vital signs
returned to normal. There was a minor problem with the delivery, and the child had to be
surgically removed, but it came out in perfect health. So the question remains "Do we
have the knowledge to control all parts of life?" All we really have to remember is that
behavior is a simple part of our brains' function, and we will have to find the rest out

"Learning and Memory"

We are just now beginning to understand exactly how the brain works in respect to the way
we memorize things. There are two basic approaches that we have developed to learn about
the way memory works: 1) we view neurons through microscopes and then try to determine the
way they function; 2) we look at other human beings, the way they act, especially
amnesiacs. We are faced with one of the many questions about memory, and that is "Where
are our memories started?" Karl Lashley is a scientist that in the 1920's preformed
experiments to decided where the memories we remember are stored in our brain. He removed
different parts of the brain from different lab rats and then studied the rats to decide
if the part he took out had any affect on there past memories. He trained the rats to
remember a certain type of maze, and after the rat could walk through the maze without any
difficulty, he surgically removed part of that rats brain. After the rat had time to
recover from the operation, he put that rat inside of the same maze and tried to see if
the rat's memory was at all altered by the operation. Through his many experiments, he
concluded that our memories were stored in the temporal lobe of the brain. Dr. Donald
Hebb helped and also studied with Mr. Lashley. He stated that if more then one fifth of
the frontal cortex is removed, that it then starts to have a negative effect on memory;
but if less then one fifth of the cortex is removed, the no real loss of memory is
experienced. He disagreed with Mr. Lashley, however, because Lashley stated that memory
can be localized into a certain part of the brain. Dr. Hebb stated the complete opposite,
that memory cannot be localized in any real part of the brain. Dr. Hebb also proposed the
idea of cell organization. Wilder Peafield, who was also accompanied by Dr. Hebb, was
fascinated on how the brain actually remembered what we do. He stated that memories were
stored in the temporal lobe, and he concluded experiments to support this. He had a
female patient in which he operated on her temporal lobe. Before any operation, he always
did stimulating exercises on the part of the brain he was going to work on so that he
could exactly know what he was going to work with.

Our memories are stored biologically in our brain, not physically. In just about every
action we ever do, there are chemicals involved that either excite or inhibit our neurons
to act or not to act accordingly to the stimuli. When we remember things, we usually
first remember by sight, then by sound, and last by the pronunciation of the word. There
are many cell assembler in our body. Cell assemblers are basically many cells that are
put together to preform a unified task, such as remembering. When cell assembly is
developed, you can perceive an event, and you can also be able to perceive that really
aren't there; such as when someone hallucinates something. When a child is growing up and
maturing, the first three years or so are extremely important. The important thing to
realize that speaking isn't the most important thing, the more important thing is to hear
words that are spoken to you.

Dr. Jean-Pierre Changeux participated in an experiment that tried to determine how a cell
will grow when it is removed from an egg. They put the cells in a slide with no sort of
other interference what so ever. Some of them grew and became healthy, and the minority
of them died. He then added some muscle cells, and since they are long muscle cells, the
cells from the embryo started to become elongated as well. He discovered that movement
causes links between nerve cells.

Another question that arises during the study of our memory is this: "Do we ever forget
old memories or do we just store them somewhere else so that we can make room for new

Well, first off, we never lose memories. We just sort of move them over to the side so
that room can be made for the new memories, but not all old memories are moved over.
There are some memories that stay with us throughout our life, such as smell, skin
sensations, and our fears are preserved. We remember very little for our childhood, but
what we learn from that period of time is very important to us. We also try to repress
some memories, the ones that we don't like, such as painful experiences. One theory is
that when we are young, our brain still isn't completely developed and therefor we can't
remember everything that is happening. Our brain develops memory with great precision.
First we develop the memory for smell and smell, and the last to get developed would be
the complex memory areas, the ones that have to remember complicated tasks. Memories that
involve emotions are usually the best kept.

Memories are first transferred from the hippocampus to the amegdella. If your hippocampus
was to get damaged in any way, then you will have amnesia. Amnesia is a type of brain
disorder that causes us the disability of remembering new memories. People that have
amnesia are still able to remember past things that have happened to them, but things that
happen to them at a daily basis, those are not remembered at all. But they can still
remember some things, because the brain brakes down our memories to different regions of
our brain. Peter is one victim of amnesia. He was playing a basketball game that night,
and a few hours later he states that he was unable to speak, he felt weak; but the unusual
thing is that he remembers exactly what happened to him during the time of his attack.
Peter was a very smart man, he was top part of his class and everyone looked up to him.
After the attack, his old memories are still intact, but he is unable to memorize things
in the present. He is also quite shy now, but before the attack he was very outgoing.
The hippocampus is equally important in the learning procedure. When a person learns
something new, in their brains, they are destroying non-important synapses. But through
the same process, there are new, useful synapses created. Sometimes, the deletion of
the unimportant synapses will allow us to learn faster. So, as we can presume, learning
anything will involve the stimulating of synapses. One common belief is that as a person
ages, they lose brain cells. That is true, and yet we get smarter and wiser as we get
older. How is all this true? Well, as we age, we teach ourselves how to use the
Continues for 22 more pages >>

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