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None Provided26






The Reformation began in October 1517 when Martin Luther wrote his 95 theses. Luther was a
well-educated son of a miner who earns the right as a middle class by working hard. Luther
became a monk and while sitting in the tower outhouse he was inspired by Romans 1:17 “The
just shall live by faith alone. This encourages him to challenge the church by using this
as his thesis for Luther’s theology. In 1521 he was excommunicated but he became a
national hero because even though his opinions were not new they gave people new hope. One
of the first items he did was to say that the Roman Catholic Church was being an Italian
church exploiting the Germans. Since Germany was eager to get rid of Rome they accept this
idea. Second if the people quit making payments to Rome and took back their lands they had
allot to gain. There were other reasons but as you can see this made the people eager to
believe and following Luther. At first the lower classes were excited by Luther’s
rebellion against papal authority believing that has someone standing behind them. This
made the lower class revolted against there lords and Luther who was discussed by this
wrote “Against the Murdering, Thieving Hordes of Peasants. So in the end the lower class
came to hate him.

Around the same time a man named Ulrich Zwingli who was a humanist and interpreted the
bible by reason preach reform also. He differ from Luther as he was more humane he said
“heaven would welcome admirable Jews and heathen. His style of reform could have been more
well known if he was not killed in the a battle in Switzerland.

Along the same time came John Calvin, he studied law and scholasticism and rejected
Catholicism. He wrote a book were he stated his views against them. He believed in a
Trinitarian God, divinity of Christ, resurrection after death, in the sacraments of
baptism and the Eucharist. In his “Doctrine of the Elect” which was held in high regards
by his followers, he stated Since God knows all and is all powerful, he knows the future
and does not let anything happen that is against his will. Which is why someone people are
selected for damnation and some for election. He puts bans on gambling, singing dancing.
The council had enough with his strict teachings and kicked him out of Geneva only to have
to ask him back when the council starting being taken over by the Catholics. Since there
was no discipline the bible became the law. There was horrible punishment for breaking the
law and even a few try to fight back( Huguenots) but they were out numbered.

The Counter- Reformation began in Spain and was the church’s response to the reformation.
The church had to find away to revitalize itself so it decided to establish a new order
(Jesuits which was founded by Ignatius Loyola), start a inquisition in Spain and other low
countries, They started “Council of Trent” and finally the Baroque period supported and
brought prestige to the church. In 1480 Ferdinand & Isabella re-established the
inquisition as a modern form of crusade to wipe out converted Moslems and Jews. Paul III
was the first of the reform popes. He felt that there was a need for reform and staffed
his papal only with him of high integrity even though he had four illegitimate children.

During this time in England a man named Henry VIII was king. This was a man who didn’t
waste money but built up the treasury try monastery confiscation. He was one who helped
create a new upper class, which was loyal to the crown, which gave them money. He also
made the split from Rome smoothly with the help of Thomas Cromwell. Henry III was
succeeded by his son Edward VI and then best known for his daughter Mary who burned 300
people. This earned her the name Bloody Mary and made people hate Catholicism.

In Germany was a place for religious wars. Imperialists vs. League of Sckmalkalden which
was just one. Then there was the Thirty Years war which was from 1618-1648 which was the
last of the religious wars which convulsed Europe during the reformation. The six combats
were Germany, France, Spain, Bohemia, Denmark and Sweden. This conflict was three wars in
one. It was a Religious war between Protestant and Catholic, International between
Germany, France, Sweden and Denmark and Civil war between Princes and Emperor. It began as
a religious and civil war and ended up as an international war fought mainly in Germany.
The war gave Germany a national sense of inferiority and delayed national unity. The whole
war left Germany with a need for authority.

Continues for 3 more pages >>




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