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CHAPTER 32
The tallest tree is the Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) approx 110 m
The tallest Angiosperm is the Australian Eucalyptus regnans
Water Uptake and transport (Fig. 32.1)
= water is essential because: transport solute, cool the body, photosynthesis and Turgor pressure
Osmosis- movement of H2) through a semi-impermeable membrane
Osmotic potential ( o)-depend on dissolve solute: Hi concentration means more negative o.
Isoosmotic-two solution with same o; Hypoosmotic- solution that has a less negative o(more )
Turgor Pressure -hydraulic pressure result from water up take, cell turgid; analog to air pressure in a tire
Water Potential ( )-Overall tendency of a solution or cell to take up water from pure water solution.
= o P, P is positive and is measured in MegaPascal (MPa); loss in P means the plant will wilt.

MINERAL UPTAKE
= Mineral and ions transported across membranes by protein: Pumps and Ion channel & Symport
= Use both Facilitated (low K outside cell) and Active transport (depend on Respiration).
= Plant do not have a Na/K pump but a H pump (generate membrane potential/ gradient).
= Ion transport changes Electric potential of membrane (-120mV- can be measure by electrodes)
= The traffic of ions into/out of cell can be measure by Patch clamping technique.
Apoplast & Symplast
= Water moves into the Stele (more - ) from the cortex (less - ) from the soil (more less - )
= Mineral move by Mass flow or diffusion/Active transport (via Membrane Protein)
Apoplast-movement through cell wall and intercellular space; it is continuous
Symplast- movement through the cell and b/w cell via plasmodesmata; continuous but regulated
= H2O from the Apoplast stops at the Endodermis (Stele); have Casparian strips -made of suberin
= Strip separate Apoplast of the cortex from the Apoplast of the stele (periclcle)
= Membrane protein enable enables selective mineral uptake and uptake rate.
Transfer cells -in pericycle, transport minerals from cytoplasm back into the apoplast (MP/Mit, SA, rate)

TRANSPORT IN XYLEM
Model 1-"pumping cells" stem; ruled out by Eduard Strasburger exp-use poison pitric acid; Stop in the leaf
= Exp. demonstrate: (1) pumping cell not responsible for uptake (2) leaves important (3) root not involve
Model 2- "Capillary action" ruled out because capillary action cannot support 110 m tree (40 cm)
Model 3- " root pressure"-based on more - in xylem & less neg in root; support by guttation
Guttation- the removal of H2O through the leaves under high humidity and a abundance of H2O in the soil
= The Oozing of sap from a cut stem of Coleus when the top is remove; not enough
= Root pressure changes, it either weaker or stronger but will not exceed 2X atm pressure
Evaporation-Cohesion-Tension mechanism (Fig. 32.8)
(1)Evaporation of H2O through stomata-increase tension &make wall more - o; H2O enter nearest vein
(2) Removal of H2O from leaf cause pull of water below; pull is send through the whole column
(3) Column is maintain by the adhesion of water to the cell wall (glass)
Summary-evaporation account for xylem transport & the resulting tension cause the cohesion
Dry Air-more - o than root--less neg than sap in xylem which is less neg in leaf--less than air
= Minerals dissolve in sap is transported to rest of the plant body by the phloem
Evaporation-Cohesion-Tension mechanism -requires tension in column or solution of the xylem
= Pressure can be measure by pressure bomb; done by Per Scholander, Fig 32.9
= In vines there is no tension in xylem until the leaves are removed; some Plants loss tension at night

TRANSPIRATION THROUGH THE STOMATA
Transpiration- is the loss of water from shoot (leaf) by evaporation; also cools the cell
= Loss is minimize by the cuticle; impermeable to CO2
Stoma- composed of specialized guard cells in the epidermis which allow passage of H2O/CO2
= In monocot it is associated with specialized epidermal cells; but mechanism is the same in dicot
= Open by pumping of K into guard cells; stretching is regulated by Microfibril
= Pumping also allow for Cl & other organic ion uptake; maintain electrical balance or neutrality
= Increase CO2 level in spaces of leaf and - (release of ABA); blue light also reduce H pumping
CAM-succulent plants-Crassulaceae-such as Kalonchoe
= Have a backward stomata cycle- opens at night; leaf tissue becomes acidic (Malic/Aspartic acid
= Adapted for environment devoid of water; loss of H2O occurs in cool environment.
TRANSLOCATION
= Occur in the Phloem- transport sugars, aa, minerals from leaf to root
Model: bi-directional, up and down the stem or petioles (2) Arrest if tissue is damage by heating
(3) Inhibited by compound that inhibit cellular respiration
Pressure Flow Model- fig. 32.14-32.16
= Involve active transport of sugar into sieve tube at source (leaf) and removal at sink (stem/root)
= Sieve tubes at source cause increase in Turgor pressure; fluid is squeeze toward the Sink ends
Sieve Plates- must be unclogged: it is regulated by protein which is randomly distributed (until cut)
= Sugars pass from cell to cell via symport, then into the apoplast (active); likewise into sieve tube
= Apoplast selectively sort out which compound is to be translocated; Sym-Apo-Sym not universal
= Sucrose is transported via secondary transport through a symport protein (H/Sugar protein)
= In sink sugar are actively unloaded-maintain gradient and P in tube; Also build up sugar in seed/fruits
= In some plants, Maple, sugar is stored as starch in xylem(living) of trunk/twigs; digested in spring (syrup)
CHAPTER 37
Need of one versus the many
Sponges- compose of group of cell in direct contact w/ environment; function independently
= get nutrients from seawater; only two layers thick
Multi-cellular organism- creates internal environment made of varying extracellular matrix
= Cell meet need & exchange w/ internal environment (IE)function independently thereof
= Allow animal to occupy various habitat; Cell become specialized and efficient due to constant internal envment
= Cell become arrange in tissue system which maintain internal Environment & perform certain task
= Evolution of animal physiology maintain progress of cell-tissue-organs-organ system-maintain IE.

HOMEOSTASIS- maintenance of a constant composition of the IE-regardless of it continual/variable.
= Enable organism to function and adapt; It is under control and regulation in response to IE/EE.
= Control and regulation requires information-Endocrine and Nervous system.
Organ & organ system- many types
Organ- group of tissue compose of cell with similar structure and biological function; 4 cell types
= Epithelial, connective, muscles and nervous
Epithelial-sheet of cell of intestine, skin and lungs; some have secretory function
= mucous, digestive enzymes and sweat; some are ciliated- Olfactory system and fallopian tubes
= some involve in absorption and transport; some are stratified (skin) or single layered-GUT
Connective tissue- support and to reinforce other tissue .
= Cell are embedded in extracellular matrix; Include ligament and tendons; lens of the eye; surround Gut
= Include the Skin contain elastrin protein but degrades with age; Bones-is a dense connective tissue
= Include Adipose tissue- fat cells and the Component of blood
Muscle tissue- include cells that cause movement of organs and limb; 3 types
Skeletal-connects bone to bone; under Somatic NS control-responsible for behavior.
Smooth muscles- found in internal organ (stomach); involve in the constriction of blood vessel
Cardiac muscles -make up heart and pump blood
Nervous tissue -enable animal to deal w/info; 2 basic cell type
Neurons-generate electrochemical signals; response to specific stimuli;
= Communicate over long distances with other neurons/muscles/secretory cell; control activity of most organ
Glial cell -support function of neurons; abundant in brain

NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Nervous-process info and use the info to control physiology and behavior
= Brain, Spinal cord and peripheral nerves-conduct signal from sensor to CNS; CNS to effector
= Sensors- eye, ears, organ of taste and smell, organ of balance and orientation, touch; pain/temp/Pressure
Endocrine system -process info and control function of organs via extracellular fluid (hormones)
= Ductless glands-secretes hormone in blood; pancreas secretes insulin
= There is a close interaction b/w NS and ES; cell in brain produce hormone that effect ES and vice versa
= Messenger of ES or Endocrine Glands travels great distance to stimulate target cells

SKIN, SKELETON AND MUSCLE SYSTEM
Skin- the 1st line of defense against pathogens, loss of water; It's the largest organ
= It a major sense organs-control rate of heat exchange (neurons); regulate body temperature.
Skeleton system -support and protection; also an effector ; support lever system for movement.
Muscle system -include muscles under conscious (skeletal) & unconscious control & cardiac muscles
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Gonads- male/female reproductive organs; include the testes/ovaries; they produce gametes
= include organ that deliver the organs; uterus-support the embryo
= Mammary glands-provides nutrient for infants(breast); Gonads- contain hormone producing tissues.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM -extend from mouth to anus.
= It's a continuous tubular structure--include the Gut; Gut is divided in different segment so differ function
= Involve in digestion of food and absorption of nutrients; Glands-deliver digestive enzyme to the Gut
= The lower Gut (intestine) reabsorb H2O from waste; Stores waste and eliminate them.
GAS EXCHANGE SYSTEM -Trachea, Larynx, diaphragm
= Also called respiratory system--provide O2 and eliminate CO2
= Lung- consist of many airways leading to membranous sac with large SA; the alveoli
= Diaphragm— is a muscle and delivers air into and out of lungs
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
= Transport O2 from lungs to rest of body and CO2 from tissue to the lungs
= Transport nutrients from gut, deliver waste (N2 ) to excretory system; regulate by hormones & remove heat
Blood— contain a liquid medium the Plasma-is continuous with the extracellular fluids
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
= Consist of vesicles extending through the body; do not include the heart and is not a circulatory system
= Provide the extracellular fluid to circulatory system; include the immune system
= Contain specialized blood cell produce in the spleen, lymphatic nodes, thymus and bone marrow
EXCRETORY SYSTEM
Urine-contain salt and waste product from catabolism of Amino acids and NA
= Include the Kidney-control water content of body and correct salt composition of extracellular fluid
=Bladder- storage of urine; Ureter- tube b/w kidney & bladder; Urethra-opening that release urine;
= Skin- excrete H2O and salt. Excretory system: also include the end of the digestive tract

CONTROL OF REGULATION
Homeostasis- depend on control/regulation of organs; organ system- depend on the need of cell of body
Control-implies change in rate of a process; Regulation-a physiological concept-refer to maintain to a certain limit
Regulation- requires the ability to obtain and use information.
= Physiological regulation requires feedback from control system
= AND how the information is obtain, process, integrate & converted by the regulatory system.
To analyze a regulatory system requires US to identify the source of feedback.
TEMPERATURE ANALOGY
Thermostat-heating-cooling system is a regulatory system; furnace/ air condition is the control system
Sensors- provide the negative feedback; positive feedback amplifies an already existing response (ethylene)
Feed forward information- changes the set point; it adds a clock
TEMPERATURE AND LIFE
= All living cell function between - 0 C and 45 C;
= Chemical reaction are temperature sensitive; measure in terms of Q10 =RT/ RT-10;Q10 =1 not sensitive
= Q10 can be measure for single reaction or complex physiological process (O2 consumption)
= Biological process is between 2 to 3; Temperature change can be detrimental to animal
ANIMAL SENSITIVITY
= Some animal BT is coupled to it external temperature.
Acclimalization- a physiological& biological change that animal undergo in response to seasonal change in climate
= Fish-temp difference is always higher if remove from pond to lab and then to pond
Metabolic compensation-readjustment of biochemical mechanism to counter effect of temp due to Acclimalization
= It is not sensitive to seasonal changes but to short term fluctuation (lysozymes-diff temp same function)
MAINTAINING OPTIMAL BT
Homeotherms-animal that regulates Bt at constant levels
Poikiltherms-animals whose temperature changes
Heterotherms-Animal that regulates it's BT at constant level some of the time
Ectotherms-depend on external source of heat to maintain BT above ET
Endotherms-regulate BT by producing heat metabolically or by metabolizing active mechanism of heat loss
ENDODERMS VS ECTODERMS
= Ectoderms cannot regulates it BT independently of it environment; BT will not drop below ambient temp
= Endotherms regulates it Bt by altering it's rate of metabolic heat loss
= Endotherms also have behavioral themoregulation; Ex. Nest construction/huddling; widespread in Animals
= Both can alter their rate of heat exchange b/w blood and environment-control the flow of blood to skin
Ex, Iguana of Galopagus- control BT by blood flow to skin; slower heart rate; these are adaptive process.
= Some Ectoderms must maintain a certain temp at specific parts of it body (flight muscle, beetles, honeybee, shark)

THERMOREGUALTION IN ENDOTHERMS -Fig 37.13b, 37.14
Thermoneutral zone -narrow range of temp in which metabolic rate of Endotherms is temp independent
Basal metabolic rate- is temp of metabolic rate of an animal resting in a thermoneutral zone ( no digestion/reprod)
= 6X the rate of an Ectotherms of same size; Endotherms have "leaker cells-expend E for Na/K-increase rate
Thermoneutral zone
Low zone-high rate to maintain BT due to heat loss; At maximum rate BT decline (dies).
At high extreme-expand heat to cool the body (pants/sweat); at maximum rate/High temp- BT increases (dies)
Methods- mammals-either shiver or sweat; birds-shiver (skeletal muscle ATP--heat)
= Brown fats--Non-shivering; use tissue rich in Mit/blood supply and Thermogenin.

COLD vs HOT- Fig. 37.21
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  • Dangers of smoking
    Dangers of smoking The Dangers of Smoking When Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas, he found the natives using tobacco in much the same manner as it is used today. The American Indians believed it to possess 0medicinal properties, which was the main reason for its introduction into Europe. Tobacco was important in Indian ceremonies, such as the smoking of the pipe of peace. Health issues. The detrimental effects of tobacco smoking have long been recognised. As early as the 19th century,
  • Drinking1
    Drinking1 Peter Holland Drinking alcohol has been a large part of society for many years. People find that is it easier to meet people when they have had a few drinks. Drinking has also been used as way to get closer to some one. Well talk over a six pack, is something that people will say when they need to talk about something. There are also many events that drinking has created. There are cozy bars where everyone knows your name, wine tasting parties, cocktail parties, and the high schoo
  • Drinking1
    Drinking1 Peter Holland Drinking alcohol has been a large part of society for many years. People find that is it easier to meet people when they have had a few drinks. Drinking has also been used as way to get closer to some one. Well talk over a six pack, is something that people will say when they need to talk about something. There are also many events that drinking has created. There are cozy bars where everyone knows your name, wine tasting parties, cocktail parties, and the high schoo
  • Handgrip dynamometer
    handgrip dynamometer Hand- Grip Dynamometer Hand-Grip dynamometer are used to measure the strength and endurance of the muscles in your forearm, and to a lesser extent your hand. Using a handgrip dynamometer will increase your performance at work, improve posture, decrease chances for injury, and prevent low back pain. Endurance is the ability of a muscle to work for long periods of time without extreme fatigue. It prevents unwanted fatigue from daily activities, sport and recreation. For the el
  • Ice skating in asia
    ice skating in asia The HeartINTRODUCTIONIn today\'s society, people are gaining medical knowledge at quite a fast pace. Treatments, cures, and vaccines for various diseases and disorders are being developed constantly, and yet, coronary heart disease remains the number one killer in the world. The media today concentrates intensely on drug and alcohol abuse, homicides, AIDS and so on. What a lot of people are not realizing is that coronary heart disease actually accounts for about 80% of all su
  • Illegal Drugs Their Effects on the Body
    Illegal Drugs Their Effects on the Body Illegal Drugs: Their effects on the body There are many types of drugs, and they have many different effects on the body. Drugs can kill those abuse them in 3 different ways: by overdose, through side effects or bad reactions, and as a means of committing suicide. Some drugs may cause both murderous and suicidal behavior. The hallucinogens, especially PCP, are infamous in this respect. Valium has also been cited as producing unwanted suicidal thoughts in s
  • Math as it Relates to Biology
    Math as it Relates to Biology Mathematics as it relates to Biology Mathematics and many of its aspects are a major part of everyday life. We spend the majority of our school years studying and learning the concepts of it. Many times, the question of “Why do we need to know these things?” has been asked of a teacher by his or her students. The following will explain the history and purpose of mathematics in the role of a biologist. There are various fields that are found within the subject of bio
  • Muscle Dystrophy
    Muscle Dystrophy DESCRIPTION OF MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY Muscular dystrophy is a group of progressive, genetic diseases in which the muscles that control movement degenerate and weaken. In some forms of this inherited disease, the heart and other involuntary muscles and organs are affected too. There are nine types of muscular dystrophy - (1) Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy (2) Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (3) Becker Muscular Dystrophy (4) Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (5) Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dys
  • Nutrition1
    Nutrition1 Vitamin, any of the organic compounds required by the body in small amounts for metabolism, to protect health, and for proper growth in children. Vitamins also assist in the formation of hormones, blood cells, nervous-system chemicals, and genetic material. The various vitamins are not chemically related, and most differ in their physiological actions. They generally act as catalysts, combining with proteins to create metabolically active enzymes that in turn produce hundreds of impor
  • Over the edge
    Over the edge In the brutal cutthroat world of modern sports where athletes are in demand for excellence, athletes have been forced to find alternative means to improve their performance. Today, athletes often face a choice whether to use drugs to enhance their performance or to accept what could amount to a handicap. It is a choice that carries significant moral consideration, as currently, the use of performance enhancing drugs is banned from Olympic competition. Should athletes be allowed to
  • Physical condition
    physical condition In a world driven by a society obsessed with wanting to look and stay healthy, people would give anything to look more like the poster-child for Calvin Klein adds. However, not all people seem willing to make the necessary sacrifices to conquer what seems an unattainable task. Everybody wants to look like a model or just simply be happy with his or her physical appearance, but when they learn that going from a beer belly to a washboard stomach doesn’t come over night, these sa