Normandy Essay

This essay has a total of 1187 words and 6 pages.

Normandy




Normandy D-Day
In midsummer 1943, a year before the Anglo- American invasion of Normandy Adolf Hitler
still occupied all the territory he had gained. He had a strong foothold in North Africa,
and was ready to take over the world if possible. He controlled all of Europe except
Spain Portugal, Switzerland, and Sweden. Without intervention by the Us Hitler could
count on prolonging his military reign for many years, there was no one else who could
match him.

Since 1942, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was pressing for the US to get involved, but this
was impossible. The American army was still forming and the necessary equipment to cross
the English Channel was not built yet. Roosevelt appointed Dwight D Eisenhower to the Us
Army’s war plans division in December 1941 and commissioned or commanded him to design a
plan for Allied victory. Eisenhower proposed to invasions, Roundup and Sledgehammer for
1943, but only Roundup was accepted by London. It was postponed and at the last gathering
of England the US and Russia, they agreed to adopt *ay 1944 as an unalterable date for
invasion.

Alan Brooke Churchill’s staff for operation overload was for landing in Normandy between
Caen and the Cotentin peninsula. It consisted of three divisions, with two brigades to be
air dropped, another eleven divisions were to be landed within the first two weeks through
man made harbors that would be toed across the channel. Once the troops had a foothold
there, 100 divisions, the majority form the US, were to be assembled in France for the
great attack against Germany.

Hitler had known for quite sometime that the Allies were planning to mount an attack
across the Channel, but he downplayed all threats he heard. But by November 1943, he
could no longer ignore and threats, and he announced that France would have to be
reinforced. He sent Field Marshall to watch over and inspect the beaches of France.

In January 1944 Montgomery was appointed to be the invasion commander. Montgomery made a
few changes in the already created plans for the invasion on Normandy Beaches. First he
demanded to get five divisions to make the initial landings, second he widened the landing
area to include the Orne River and the base of the Cotentin Peninsula. The invasion force
was to consist of two American airborne divisions that were to land behind the western end
of the assault area and one British at the eastern end while men were to swim to shore
with the leading waves. The British had been in training since 1942 and the US had been
since 1943. They were ready to attack. In the first three weeks 6,500 ships, landing
crafts would land nearly 200,000 vehicles and 600,000 tons of supplies.

The attack would be supported by 13,00 fighter, bomber, and aircrafts. The Luftwaffe or
the German Air Force could only deploy 400 on D-Day. Between April 1, and June 5,1944,
the British and Americans had bombed 195,00 tons of bombs. They lost a few aircrafts
during this time, but they were able to break all the bridges across the Seine and Loire
River, and therefore isolating the Normandy Invasion area. In an attempt to persuade the
enemy, Two-thirds of the bombs dropped were dropped outside of the invasion area. In
addition the night of the invasion, the airborne radar deception presented to the Germans
blacked out and disguised the real transit to Normandy.

May 1944 was the time Washington had chosen for the invasion, but difficulties assembling
landing craft forced a postponement until June 5, 1944. As the day approached bad weather
set in creating dangerous threatening landing conditions, but after tense debate
Eisenhower decided on a 24-hour delay, requiring the recall of some ships already in
course. Within hours of Eisenhower’s “OK” on the morning of June 5, three thousand
landing crafts, 2,500 other ships, and 500 naval vessels began to leave English ports.
That night 822 aircraft, carrying men roared over the Normandy landing zone. Some of the
men the dropped into the zone died from drowning but nevertheless it secured their plans.
On June 7, the beach consisted of three sections: the British and Canadian between Caen
and Bayeux, the American 5th Corps, between Port-en-Bessin and Saint-Pierre-du-mont-, and
the American 7th west of the Vire River behind Utah Beach. The floating piers were half
finished on June 19, but due to a strong storm much of the materials were destroyed, so
the Americans abandoned Mulberry (name of the pier).

Continues for 3 more pages >>




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