Pancho Villa Paper

This essay has a total of 1489 words and 6 pages.

Pancho Villa

By: Tony

Pancho villa Doroteo Aranga learned to hate aristocratic Dons, who worked he and many
other Mexicans like slaves, Doroteo Aranga also known as Pancho villa hated aristocratic
because he made them work like animals all day long with little to eat. Even more so, he
hated ignorance within the Mexican people that allowed such injustices. At the young age
of fifteen, Aranga came home to find his mother trying to prevent the rape of his sister.
Aranga shot the man and fled to the Sierra Madre for the next fifteen years, marking him
as a fugitive for the first time. It was then that he changed his name from Doroteo Aranga
to Francisco "Pancho" Villa, a man he greatly admired. Upon the outbreak of the Mexican
Revolution of 1910-1911 against the Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz, Villa offered his
services to the rebel leader Francisco I. Madero. During Madero's administration, he
served under the Mexican general Victoriano Huerta, who sentenced him to death for
insubordination. With his victories attracting attention in the United States, Villa
escaped to the United States. President Woodrow Wilson's military advisor, General Scott,
argued that the U.S. should support Pancho Villa, because he would become "the George
Washington of Mexico." In August of 1914, General Pershing met Villa for the first time in
El Paso, Texas and was impressed with his cooperative composure; Pancho Villa then came to
the conclusion that the U.S. would acknowledge him as Mexico's leader. Following the
assassination of Madero and the assumption of power by Huerta in 1913, he returned to join
the opposition under the revolutionary Venustiano Carranza. Using "hit and run" tactics,
he gained control of northern Mexico, including Mexico City. As a result, his powerful
fighting force became "La Division Del Norte." The two men soon became enemies, however,
and when Carranza seized power in 1914, Villa led the rebellion against him. By April of
1915, Villa had set out to destroy Carranzista forces in the Battle of Celaya. The battle
was said to be fought with sheer hatred in mind rather than military strategy, resulting
in amass loss of the Division del Norte. In October of 1915, after much worry about
foreign investments, in the midst of struggles for power, the U.S. recognized Carranza as
President of Mexico. When Pancho Villa learned of this he felt betrayed by President
Wilson and assumed Carranza had signed a dangerous pact with the U.S., putting Mexico in
United States' hands. As a result, this set the stage for a confrontation between the U.S.
and Pancho Villa. Hence, the United States put an embargo on Villa, not allowing him to
purchase guns, ammunition, equipment, etc., in American border towns. His transactions
were, thus, made illegal, which automatically doubles his price. Considering his
shortages, troops through harsh terrain to Aagua Prieta. Villa assumed it would be poorly
protected and by capturing it, he would create a buffer zone with the U.S. to transport
arms in his campaigning efforts. Too his surprise, Agua Prieta was heavily protected,
because Wilson had allowed Carranza to transport 5000 Mexican troops to American soil,
which had arrived before Villa. The trains of soldiers forced Villa's tired horseback
troops into retreat. The U.S. was delighted when Carranza declared Villa done for good.
Consequently, Carranza invited old U.S. investors (from before the Revolution) to invest
again. On March 9th 1916, Villa crossed the border with about 600 men and attacked
Columbus, NM killing 17 American citizens and destroying part of the town. Because of the
growing discrimination towards Latinos, the bodies of Mexicans were gathered and burned as
a sanitary precaution against "Mexican diseases." A punitive expedition, costing the U.S.
about twenty-five million dollars, dispatched and about 150,000 troops to be mobilized in
efforts to capture Pancho Villa, who was now known as a bandit in U.S. territory and a
hero to many in Mexico. The Tenth Cavalry, which was made up of African-Americans and
headed by Anglo-American officers, were labeled the "Buffalo Soldiers" because they were
tough men who would punish the Mexicans. This was first time the United States used
heavily armored vehicles and airplanes, which in turn served as a practice run before
W.W.II. General John Joseph "Blackjack" Pershing had already earned a respectable name in
the U.S. with his service in the Apache campaign, Therefore, he was assigned to head the
Punitive Expedition, an attractive assignment. His mission objective, as he understood it,
was to bring Villa in dead or alive. On March 16th, the New York Times reported, "When
Word Was Given, All Were After Villa." The expedition included new machinery, which the
American people were not familiar with yet. Tanks weighing up to four tons, along with the
production of trucks and planes, were the reason for the deaths of many American soldiers
who did not know how to operate them. None-the-less, Pershing ordered many pilots to board
and land as he wished. Villa's troops did not have uniforms, so wherever American troops
traveled, they paralleled the route. Hence, their survival was based on their familiarity
with the land. Towards the end of March, Pershing established his headquarters 125 miles
south of Chihuahua. Pershing realized how strong Pancho Villa's countrymen supported him
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