Personal system Essay

This essay has a total of 2687 words and 18 pages.

Personal system



PERSONAL SYSTEMS



















Location: Dubai, United Arab Emirates.



Personal Systems based on the style of living in Dubai.



Identifying all Inputs and Outputs of daily living and tracing all sources of supply and
charting the movement of demands.




United Arab Emirates: Overview

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is enjoying strong economic growth as a
result of the rise in oil prices which began with OPEC production cuts in
March 1999. While the UAE has a relatively diversified economy for a
Persian Gulf oil exporter, the collapse in oil prices from late 1997 to early 1999
resulted in a decline in real gross domestic product (GDP) of 5.0%. Real GDP growth for
1999 was 9.5%, and it is projected at 10.5% for 2000.


Political System
The UAE is a federation of seven emirates - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Fujairah,
Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain. Political power is concentrated in Abu Dhabi, which
controls the vast majority of the UAE's economic and resource wealth. The two largest
emirates -- Abu Dhabi and Dubai -- provide over 80% of the UAE's income.



DEMANDS: Basic

Physical Environment:
- Shelter: Multi storey housing, bungalows, and apartments.

Material Flows:
- Air: Atmosphere.
- Water: Groundwater, Rain water, Seawater (Desalinized).
- Exergy: Air conditioning, cooking, transportation etc.
- Information systems
- Food systems

Explanations:

Water: The sources of water are basically ground water, rain water and natural springs.
Drinking water is bottled by various companies that own natural springs like Masafi.
Masafi is the a spring in the northern part of the country which supplies bottled water
and running water. The ground water reservoir is also quite sufficient. Various
de-watering companies pump out the water for construction purposes. The water is then
filtered and sold to the Government for running water purposes.

Rain water is also collected and used.

Exergy: There are various sources of exergy. There are electrical appliances, ventilation,
air conditioning, transportation (vehicle, air),

Oil refineries, industries and many more.

Information systems: This aspect is provided by only Government means and privatization
isn't allowed. Etisalat is the Telephone company run by the government that provides
internet access, telephone access, mobile phone access and fax services. EDTV and Dubai TV
provide channels for information and entertainment. There are various companies that give
cable access too.






Waste: There is always waste generated through usage of resources.
Input = Output Waste Storage.
It is generated in various forms such as heat, pollution, solid waste, liquid waste and
compost. There is no evident recycling service available in comparison with N.America.
There is no segregation of waste from the end user. It is segregated by the government
agency operating waste services. Liquid waste is dumped into the sea by various pipelines.
It is first detoxified and then dumped. Solid waste is segregated and sent to compost


Food: The country is basically a desert with mountainous growth. Agriculture is nearly
impossible due to extreme climate. Artificial methods have been adopted to grow certain
crops. Mostly fruits like Mango, Strawberry, Apples etc are grown. Vegetables are grown
too.

But, most of the food is imported. It is imported from India. Wheat and corn are imported
from Punjab (state of India). Vegetables and fruits are imported from all over the
country. Delicacies and special food items are imported from various parts of the world
including Europe and North America. Even Africa provides quite a percentage of imported
food. The only staple crop in UAE is date. Palm trees are abundant and they export fine
quality dates.


Supply Sources:

-OIL

The UAE contains proven crude oil reserves of 97.8 billion barrels, or slightly less than
10% of the world total. Abu Dhabi holds 94% of this amount, or about 92.2 billion barrels.
Dubai contains an estimated 4.0 billion barrels, followed by Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah,
with 1.5 billion and 100 million barrels of oil, respectively.


The majority of the UAE's crude oil is considered light, with gravities in the 32o to 44o
API range. Abu Dhabi's Murban 39o and Dubai's Fateh 32o blends are the UAE's primary
export crudes. Most of the UAE's oil fields have been producing since the 1960s or early
1970s. Proven oil reserves in Abu Dhabi have doubled in the last decade, mainly due to
significant increases in rates of recovery. Abu Dhabi has continued to identify new finds,
especially offshore, and to discover new oil-rich

structures in existing fields.

Under the UAE's constitution, each emirate controls its own oil production and resource
development. Although Abu Dhabi joined OPEC in 1967 (four years before the UAE was
formed), Dubai does not consider itself part of OPEC or bound by its quotas.


In response to the period of low oil prices in 1998 and early 1999, OPEC agreed in March
1999 to reduce output in an effort to shore up the price of crude. The UAE's production
quota was lowered to 2.00 million bbl/d. Actual production fell from a 1999 high of 2.25
million bbl/d in February 1999 to 2.05 million bbl/d in May 1999. After

three rounds of OPEC quota increases in 2000, the UAE quota rose to 2.29 million bbl/d on
October 1, 2000. Production in the third quarter of 2000 was 2.27 million bbl/d, and may
climb to 2.35 million bbl/d in the fourth quarter of 2000. The UAE's total capacity is
2.60 million bbl/d, making it second only to Saudi Arabia for excess

production capacity among OPEC member states.

-REFINING

The UAE has two refineries operated by ADNOC. The Ruwais refinery underwent a $100-million
upgrade in 1995 to a capacity of 145,000 bbl/d. It produces light products mainly for
export to Japan and India. Fuel oil from Ruwais is sold as bunkers by ADNOC and also used
for domestic power generation. A $1.2-billion second-phase Ruwais expansion is to include
a new 135,000-bbl/d crude distillation unit, a 130,000-bbl/d fractionation plant, and
expansion of residual oil conversion facilities with a 40,000-bbl/d hydrocracker and a
36,000-bbl/d visbreaker. ADNOC began processing condensate from the Bab and Asab fields at
the fractionation unit in May 2000. When the rest of the project is completed by 2003,
Ruwais' total capacity will be around 415,000 bbl/d.


UAE has four smaller refineries. Umm al-Nar, in Abu Dhabi, with a capacity of 88,500
bbl/d. Since its construction in 1976, the Umm al-Nar plant has undergone debottlenecking
as well as a recent expansion. The refinery primarily supplies the domestic market. Metro
Oil has a 75,000-bbl/d refinery in Fujairah. The Emirates National Oil Company (ENOC)
Jebal Ali condensate refinery, with a capacity of 140,000 bbl/d, began operation in Dubai
in May 1999. A 40,000 bbl/d second-hand gasoline unit, owned by the private firm ISO
Octane, opened near Jebal Ali in May 2000.


-NATURAL GAS

The UAE's natural gas reserves of 212 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) are the world's fourth
largest after Russia, Iran, and Qatar. The largest reserves of 196.1 Tcf are located in
Abu Dhabi. Sharjah, Dubai, and Ras al-Khaimah contain smaller reserves of 10.7 Tcf, 4.1
Tcf, and 1.1 Tcf, respectively. In Abu Dhabi, the non-associated Khuff gas

reservoirs beneath the Umm Shaif and Abu al-Bukhush oil fields rank among the world's
largest. Current gas reserves are projected to last for about 150-170 years.


Increased domestic consumption of electricity and growing demand from the petrochemical
industry have provided incentives for the UAE to increase its use of natural gas. Over the
last decade, gas consumption in Abu Dhabi has doubled, and is projected to reach 4 billion
cubic feet per day (bcf/d) by 2005. The development of gas fields also increases exports
of condensates, which are not subject to OPEC quotas.


-SUPPLYING DUBAI

Dubai's gas consumption is expected to grow by nearly 7% annually through 2005, due to
expansion of the emirate's industrial sector, a switch to gas by its power stations, and
the need for an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) system based on gas injections for its
dwindling oil formations. Dubai projects future demand will average 810
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