Policy

This essay has a total of 1321 words and 6 pages.

policy

Social Welfare is an encompassing and imprecise term, but most often it is defined in
terms of "organized activities," or another element that suggests policy and programs
created to respond to social problems and improve the well being of those at risk. In this
paper I will discuss the history of social welfare policies and its influence on families.

The advance of the welfare state reflected period-specific needs and was heavily
influenced by changes in the national economy. Social welfare policy of the Colonial
Period was replicated from the Elizabethan Poor Law that aimed to assist migrants in their
struggle to fulfill the expectations of the early stages of industrialization. Its
principles were designed to accommodate the necessities of transforming the economy and to
negotiate between industrial interests and the landed gentry. They also intended to
differentiate between social insurance and social benefits - the deserving and undeserving
poor. The means of relief were different for the deserving and undeserving poor. The
deserving poor, like the physically disabled, widows, and elderly would receive outdoor
relief through cash payments. Veterans were treated with special care: the requirements of
local settlements didn't apply to them and colonies took the responsibly for the
provisions of the relief. The undeserving poor received indoor relief through the
poorhouses which provided punishment and hard labor to discourage people from denying
work. The weak work ethic, as opposed to the economy, was assumed to be at the root of all
the problems of the poor. The organized charities were few and their recourses were small.
The relief programs were unavailable to blacks, even when they became free men.

A major push for change, the Reform Era, occurred around the Civil War. The most important
development in federal welfare was the Civil War Pension system. Social welfare system was
heavily dominated by voluntary and charity organizations, such as the Settlement House,
which were ran by middle-class women. The scientific charity reform movement emerged and
concentrated on counseling the poor in order to improve their social functioning through
social casework. The significant point of the early reform period was abolitionism.
Despite active developments and emerging movements, no one wanted to take responsibility
for the black population, and charities mistakenly attended to the problems of blacks like
those of immigrants. Immigrants, also known as the "stranger", were not welcomed because
people felt that they would be responsible for them. Attention was paid to education and
child saving. In support of child saving, state subsidies were extended and
institutionalized child care was greatly promoted.

The depression of 1930 presented a turning point in the perception of the poor. The
underlying theory of previous times that only laziness and shaky ethics have prevented
people from economic prosperity was shattered by a vast economy-induced unemployment. The
Social Security Act in this regard was the most important success of the time. This act
launched Old-Age and Survivors' Insurance for retired people and their families;
Unemployment Compensation for those who lost work temporarily; Aid to Dependent Children
and grants to states for medical care. Much of the modern welfare state is rooted in these
developments. The Depression also resulted in a re-evaluation of the social work
profession. The Social Security Act took relief-giving responsibilities away from social
workers who ended up providing "case work treatment to assist individuals in removing
their own handicaps." World War II brought back employment and presented oppressed groups,
particularly blacks and women, with new opportunities. After the war, the GI Bill was
strategically implemented to delay the entrance of veterans into the job market, therefore
preventing the postwar economy from a potential relapse back into depression. Changes in
family structure and the feminization of poverty were underling factors in need of
attention; assistance adapted to socio-economic change and shifted from widows to
unmarried mothers. The concept of "maximum feasible participation" became integral to the
developments of the welfare state.

From 1950 to 1960, welfare reform was preoccupied with posing restrictions on the
eligibility of recipients and moving away from federal government towards the hands of
local control. The solution to poverty was sought through counseling services, employment
training and work motivation. The developments of social welfare were shaped by public
welfare agencies and funding problems all but eliminated the participation of voluntary
agencies. The Civil Rights and feminist movements greatly effected these developments. The
War on Poverty promoted further developments of the welfare state. The Civil Rights Act,
which prohibited discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex, was one of the
most important contextual developments. Programs like Medicare for the elderly and Head
Start for the young poor were created.

Continues for 3 more pages >>




  • A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 196
    A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 1960s Hubert Humphrey once stated, “When we say, ‘One nation under God, with liberty and justice for all,’ we are talking about all people. We either ought to believe it or quit saying it” (Hakim 111). During the 1960’s, a great number of people did, in fact, begin to believe it. These years were a time of great change for America. The country was literally redefined as people from all walks of life fought to uphold their standards on what they beli
  • Beethoven
    beethoven The Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement in the United States was a political, legal, and social struggle by black Americans to gain full citizenship rights and to achieve racial equality. The Civil Rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation. During the Civil Rights Movement, individuals and organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws
  • Civil War1
    Civil War1 The American Civil War The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the leading men behind the Union and Confederate
  • Civil War1
    Civil War1 The American Civil War The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the leading men behind the Union and Confederate
  • Dreaming in the 1960s
    Dreaming in the 1960s Dreaming in the 1960s In 1962, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. said his most famous words: "I have a dream." He was not the only one who felt this way. For many, the 1960s was a decade in which their dreams about America might be fulfilled. For Martin Luther King Jr., this was a dream of a truly equal America; for John F. Kennedy, it was a dream of a young vigorous nation that would put a man on the moon; and for the hippy movement, it was one of love, peace, and freedom. The 1
  • Lemon v kurtzman 1971
    lemon v kurtzman 1971 Lemon v. Kurtzman 1971 The name of the case is Lemon v. Kurtzman; the Chief Justice in charge of the case was Warren Burger. The case was argued on March 3, 1971 and decided on June 28, 1971. These three cases from Pennsylvania and Rhode Island involved public assistance to private schools, some of which were religious. Pennsylvania\'s law included paying the salaries of teachers in parochial schools, assisting the purchasing of textbooks, and other teaching supplies. In Rh
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • Segregation and discrimination in texas
    segregation and discrimination in texas Segregation and Discrimination that effected Black Texans and Mexican Americans in Texas Historians have described the early twentieth century as the nadir of race relations in this country. Ironically, populism, which tried to create a biracial political coalition, helped to encourage segregation in the south. Attempting to prevent any coalition of blacks and poor white farmers, establishment Democratic politicians frequently demonstrated their Negrophobi
  • The American Civil War
    The American Civil War The American Civil War The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the leading men behind the Union and
  • The Bay of Pigs
    The Bay of Pigs The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro,
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion
    The Bay of Pigs Invasion The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in power
  • The Final Months of the Civil War
    The Final Months of the Civil War The Final Months of the Civil War The Civil War was one of momentous proportion. It was disastrous in terms of human life, because more Americans died in this war that any other war in history. This paper is mainly about and around those involved on the battlefield in the final months of the civil war. It will also refer to the leading men behind the Union and Confederate forces. The war was coming to an end by January of 1865. At that time, Federal, Union, armi
  • THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN MAFIA
    THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN MAFIA OMERTA? THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN MAFIA Throughout history, crime has existed in many different forms and has been committed by not only individuals, but by groups as well. Crime is something that knows no boundaries; it exists in all cultures, is committed by all races, and has existed in all time periods. Crime exists as a part of the economic institution and is a lifestyle for many people. Crime also exists in both organized and un organized forms. Since th
  • The New American
    The New American The New American The definition of what it means to be an American has changed dramatically throughout the history of our country. The founding fathers brought forth the idea of a new nation; that made sovereign the supremacy of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. America has changed drastically over the last two hundred years, and the definition of what it means to be an American has changed with it as well. In class for the last several weeks, the question was raised o
  • Westward expansionin nineteenth century
    westward expansionin nineteenth century THE WESTWARD EXPANSION Introduction The Westward Expansion has often been regarded as the central theme of American history, down to the end of the19th century and as the main factor in the shaping of American history. As Frederick Jackson Turner says, the greatest force or influence in shaping American democracy and society had been that there was so much free land in America and this profoundly affected American society. Motives After the revolution, the
  • The American Indian Genocide
    The American Indian Genocide The American Indian Genocide Textbooks and movies are still hiding the genocide of Native American Indian cultures, which began five centuries ago. There were many friendly and close relationships between early immigrant settlers and native peoples, but these were not the main current in their relations. U.S. history is destroyed by acts of genocide against native people, made worse by the deadly impact of new diseases spread by contact between new settlers and nativ
  • Children and Television Advertising
    Children and Television Advertising Children Interacting with Television Advertising Introduction The following research has sought to understand the influence of television on children over the past twenty years using a variety of social models, from public policy and industry self-regulation, to how children receive and process media messages and the parental responsibility in monitoring what is acceptable for children to view. As a baseline, our research used a model of children interacting w
  • Computer Software
    Computer Software Comparison of Three Tax Preparation Software Packages, Including: Turbo Tax by Intuit, Inc., Simply Tax by 4Home Productions, and Tax Cut by MECA Software Prepared for Finnerty Professor Prepared by Joseph Wise Accountant Wise’s Wild Toys Bay Village Ohio, 44140 April 13, 2000 Wise’s Wild Toys 24407 Electric Dr. Bay Village Ohio, 44140 Tel. # (440) 835-1234 April 6, 2000 Ms. Finnerty, Chief Financial Officer Finnerty: Per your request, I have chosen to do my report on an evalua
  • Federal Express
    Federal Express FEDERAL EXPRESS Since 1971, time sensitive packages and letters have been delivered safely and punctually to anyone, anywhere in the world. Often times, the contents of these packages contain life saving materials. The company that makes efficient delivery possible is Federal Express. FedEx’s guaranteed overnight delivery, or your money back offer, makes it a unique and highly trusted company. Many aspects go into making this company work like a well-oiled machine; including pack
  • Intrnational MKT research Canada
    Intrnational MKT research Canada TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Introduction Canada -- USA\'s Largest Trading Partner NAFTA Introduction Exporting Guidelines Incentives Customs Contacts Trade Contacts Company Specific -- Massasoit Machine, Inc. Manufacturers\' Representative Recommendations Appendices A Country Data B Canadian Domestic Economy C Canadian Trade Statistics D Canada - New England Trade Summary, 1997 E NAFTA: A Partnership at Work F (SIC-3081) - Machine Shop Industry G List of Major Indu
  • Privatization
    privatization Privatization What is Privatization? Privatization is the process of transferring productive operations and assets from the public sector to the private sector. Broadly defined in this fashion, privatization is much more than selling an enterprise to the highest bidder, as it includes contracting out, leasing, private sector financing of infrastructure projects, liquidation, mass privatization, etc. My testimony will argue that there is no single "best" approach to privatization; t
  • Civil Cases - Return to Table of Contents
    BA Civil Cases - Return to Table of Contents Civil cases are those in which individuals, corporations or government agencies seek to recover damages, enforce their rights or otherwise protect a legal interest from interference by another. Essentially, the civil law enables people to assert or defend their rights in an orderly, nonviolent manner and enables them to resolve legal disputes in a fashion which society finds acceptable. As might be imagined, civil cases encompass a broad range of lega
  • Economic System of Germany
    Economic System of Germany Germany’s Economic System The Federal Republic of Germany’s economy has now flourished despite its harsh times that have been faced throughout the decades. Most people know about Germany from its historic involvement in World War II; its successful campaign to unite East and West with the successful collapse of the Berlin Wall; and its world class development and production of automobiles. Unfortunately, what most people don’t know is that Germany continues to fight an
  • Ghtg
    ghtg Welfare is a government program that provides money, medical care, food, housing, and other things that people need in order to survive. People who can receive help from these welfare programs are children, elders, disabled, and others who cannot support their families on their current income. Another name for welfare is public assistance. There are many organizations that supply this public assistance. Such as Salvation Army and other groups. Public assistance benefits help many people who
  • Government Spending
    Government Spending Government Spending & Budget As many Federal departments and agencies lurch into an era of running without funds, the leaders of both parties of Congress are spending less and less time searching for a compromise to balance the budget, and more and more time deciding how to use it to their advantage on the campaign trail. Meanwhile money is easily borrowed to pay for government overhead. In an attempt to change this, on June 29, Congress voted in favor of HConRes67 that calle
  • None Provided6
    None Provided6 As many Federal departments and agencies lurch into an era of running without funds, the leaders of both parties of Congress are spending less and less time searching for a compromise to balance the budget, and more and more time deciding how to use it to their advantage on the campaign trail. Meanwhile money is easily borrowed to pay for government overhead. In an attempt to change this, on June 29, Congress voted in favor of HConRes67 that called for a 7 year plan to balance the
  • Pepsico
    pepsico 1. Introduction: 1 What is PEPSICO? 1 Brief History of PEPSICO 1 Business Segments 1 Frito-Lay 1 Pepsi-Cola Company 2 Tropicana 3 2. Company Analysis: 4 External Analysis 4 PEST Analysis: 4 Porter’s Diamond: 5 Five Forces 8 Internal Analysis 9 Porter’s Value Chain 9 Boston Consulting Group 12 Financial Analysis 13 SWOT 14 Strength 14 Weakness 14 Opportunities 14 Threats 15 3. Conclusions 15 Marketing 15 General 15 4. Recommendations 16 Bibliography 17 Appendix 17 Appendix I 17 Appendix I
  • Social Security
    Social Security Social Security Reform A little over 60 years ago the nation struggled through what was, up to then, the most dramatic crisis since the Civil War. The economy was uprooted after the crash of the stock market and the country\'s financial stability destroyed. One of the many steps taken to alleviate the burden on the American people was that of the passing of Social Security Act of 1935 and its amendments by Congress and the President, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Under the provisions of
  • The Medicare Debate
    The Medicare Debate The Medicare Debate The U.S. government have denied that Medicare has been going bankrupt. Although the government may say that Medicare has plenty of money it is untrue because it is a fact that Medicare will go bankrupt by the year 2001 as stated by preliminary sources. Medicare is one of the main sources of funding for those people that have no money or very small amount of money. The community service that was done for this research paper is hospital volunteering at John
  • Welfare report
    Welfare report Welfare Welfare is a government program that provides money, medical care, food, housing, and other things that people need in order to survive. People who can receive help from these welfare programs are children, elders, disabled, and others who cannot support their families on their current income. Another name for welfare is public assistance. There are many organizations that supply this public assistance. Such as Salvation Army and other groups. Public assistance benefits he
  • Bilingual Education vs English Only
    Bilingual Education vs English Only The Debate Between Bilingual Education and English Immersion Programs Bilingual Education is defined as any school program that uses two languages. In a more theoretical sense it is any educational program whose ultimate goal is for the participants to be fully versed in all facets of both languages (i.e., able to listen, speak , read, and write in both languages). The definition of a coordinated, developmental bilingual approach has emphasized the goal of bei
  • Bilingual Education vs English Only1
    Bilingual Education vs English Only1 The Debate Between Bilingual Education and English Immersion Programs Bilingual Education is defined as any school program that uses two languages. In a more theoretical sense it is any educational program whose ultimate goal is for the participants to be fully versed in all facets of both languages (i.e., able to listen, speak , read, and write in both languages). The definition of a coordinated, developmental bilingual approach has emphasized the goal of be
  • Drug abuse with athletes
    drug abuse with athletes Drugs and Athletes Drugs have been a problem in our society for many years. They have been used and abused by many groups, including professional athletes. It is certainly quite common to hear about or read about athletes and drug use. Although drugs have a lengthy history of use by athletes, they have varied effects on the body and different preventions. Much of the world\'s supply of cocaine is produced in South America. Thousands of years ago, the ancient Incas of Per
  • Race in Education
    Race in Education Race in Education Fall of 1999, I applied for the University of Idaho to pursue a bachelor degree. I could be the first in my family to obtain this accomplishment. The issue that always came to mind was will I have enough money? Racial issues in the state of Idaho were a concern of mine also, for I was a member of a minority group. How is it possible for an Asian American, from a low-income family, suppose to fund their education and mentally tolerate racism in Idaho? I felt sc
  • School of Assassins
    school of Assassins Jack Stevens Professor Crowell English Comp. 1 8 October 1999 School of Assassins Due to the incredible amounts of human rights violations committed by graduates of the School of the Americas as a direct effect of their training funded by U.S. tax dollars, the School of the Americas must be closed down. The school is a cold war dinosaur that needs to be brought to the attention of the American taxpaying public. The people of our nation need to be aware that every time they ge
  • Understanding the Cause of Homelessness
    Understanding the Cause of Homelessness "Being homeless is often defined as sleeping on the streets. Although this is the most visible and severe form of homelessness, there are many other types of acute housing need. These include living in temporary accommodation, poor or overcrowded conditions, or being in mortgage arrears and under threat of re-possession." (Hope 1986) It is a symptom of many complex problems: mental illness, emotional instability, illiteracy, chronic substance abuse, unempl
  • United Way
    United Way There are approximately 495,000 taxÓexempt/nonprofit organizations in the United States (excluding churches) that may receive taxÓdeductible contributions. “Of those with incomes above ,000, roughly 55,000 are classified as human service organizations and another 28,000 are health related (Hodgkinson and Weitzman, 1996).” The term "nonprofits" refers to these health and human service organizations. “The types of health and human services that nonprofit organizations provide include
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion
    Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically, years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castr
  • Deapartment of Justice
    Deapartment of Justice Department of Justice It is the executive department of the United States federal government, created by Congress in 1870 to assume the functions performed until then by the Office of the Attorney General. The department is headed by the attorney general, which is appointed by the president with the approval of the Senate. The Attorney General is Janet Reno she receives 181, 500 a year. The functions of the department include providing means for the enforcement of federal
  • Executive Orders
    Executive Orders Orders Issued by President Bill Clinton What are Executive Orders? Executive Orders are official documents, Executive numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government. Some Executive Orders in the past have created new commissions, councils, task forces and committees; issued and allocated bonds; authorized permit issuance; etc. 40 Executive Orders issued by President Clinton Date Document Titles 1. 2000-12
  • Immigration
    immigration Immigraton in the U.S. While immigration has played an important role in the building and formation of America, new federal laws have resulted in mass immigration. Throughout history, Congress has enacted laws and has had to amend them to control the flow of both legal and illegal migration to the United States. In 1948, legislation was first enacted in an effort to control the number of applicants fleeing persecution; it permitted 205,000 refugees to enter the United States. In 1952
  • Medical Devices and the FDA
    Medical Devices and the FDA Marconi Medical Systems Magnetic Resonance division designs, manufactures, and installs MRI systems and associated equipment for the worldwide medical diagnostic imaging market. In addition, Marconi MR imports MRI systems from Nordstar (located in Helsinki, Finland) and installs them in the United States. Associated equipment includes surface coils and physician viewing stations. Surface coils are specialized transducers, which, when used with an MRI machine, produce
  • Medicare
    medicare The Medicare DebateEssay submitted by Unknown The U.S. government have denied that Medicare has been going bankrupt. Although the government may say that Medicare has plenty of money it is untrue because it is a fact that Medicare will go bankrupt by the year 2001 as stated by preliminary sources. Medicare is one of the main sources of funding for those people that have no money or very small amount of money. The community service that was done for this research paper is hospital volunt
  • Militarization of the US Mexico Broder
    Militarization of the US Mexico Broder Militarization of the U.S. – Mexico Border By Joan J. Jaimes June 22, 2000 “¡Corranle, allí viene la migra!”, translated into English, this means “Run, there comes immigration!” This is what illegal immigrants shout everyday when they are about to cross the Rio Grande in search for better lives. Unfortunately, not many get through alive because of the militarization that has developed on the U.S. border with Mexico. Operation Rio Grande continues a process
  • None Provided2
    None Provided2 Teenage pregnancy and out-of-wedlock childbearing were central issues in the debate over welfare reform. They are frequently seen as both the cause of increased welfare costs and caseloads over the last 25 years, and the result of the welfare system itself. Out-of-wedlock births among teenagers have increased dramatically in the last several decades and now account for almost 70% of all teenage births. Yet, trends in teenage sexual activity and childbearing reflect broader trends
  • Terrorism
    terrorism Terrorism and Conceptual Problems International terrorism is the use of political violence to gain specific goals by force. These acts of terrorism may be practiced on individuals, governments, and religious groups. The purpose of terrorism is to promote terror, in that case, the population is force into fear and the delusions of death ("Terrorism, International" Microsoft (R) Encarta 1994.). United States has been maintaining the ominous terrorism acts by increasing security, high-tec
  • Terrorism
    terrorism Terrorism and Conceptual Problems International terrorism is the use of political violence to gain specific goals by force. These acts of terrorism may be practiced on individuals, governments, and religious groups. The purpose of terrorism is to promote terror, in that case, the population is force into fear and the delusions of death ("Terrorism, International" Microsoft (R) Encarta 1994.). United States has been maintaining the ominous terrorism acts by increasing security, high-tec
  • US Constitution
    US Constitution US CONSTITUTION 1. Article 1 - Enumerated Powers a. Creates Congress - House and Senate b. Lists powers of Congress 1. Regulate commerce 2. Levy taxes 3. Senate tries impeachment proceedings 2. Article 2 - Executive Branch a. President is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces b. President has appointment power for officers and judges c. Has the power to negotiate treaties d. Veto power 1. Pocket veto - if President does not act in 10 days and Congress is not still in session, bi
  • Welfare
    Welfare Welfare Welfare is a government program that provides money, medical care, food, housing, and other things that people need in order to survive. People who can receive help from these welfare programs are children, elders, disabled, and others who cannot support their families on their current income. Another name for welfare is public assistance. There are many organizations that supply this public assistance. Such as Salvation Army and other groups. Public assistance benefits help many
  • Amistad Conflict
    Amistad Conflict The Amistad Conflict In January 1839, fifty-three African natives were kidnapped from eastern Africa and sold into the Spanish slave trade. They were then placed aboard a Spanish slave ship bound for Havana, Cuba. Once in Havana, the Africans were classified as native Cuban slaves and purchased at auction by two Spaniards, Don Jose Ruiz and Don Pedro Montez. The two planned to move the slaves to another part of Cuba. The slaves were shackled and loaded aboard the cargo ship Amis