Essay on Prostate Cancer

This essay has a total of 1219 words and 7 pages.

Prostate Cancer



The prostate gland is an egg-sized organ that rings the male urethra. The secretions of
the prostate give nutrients to the semen. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed
cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in men.
(Ernstoff,Heaney,Peschel,1998,pviii) Like all cancers, prostate cancer is an uncontrolled
cell production in a particular organ or area of the body. In the case of prostate cancer,
these cells begin to split impulsively in the prostate and form tumors. As these tumors
begin to grow they begin to use up oxygen from other healthy cells and surrounding tissue.
Not only do these tumors take up oxygen from other cells, they secrete protein signals
that initiate the formation of new blood vessels. (CaP CURE,2000,p1) With the increasing
rate of prostate cancer in males it is highly suggested that men begin to get tested for
this form of cancer at the age of 30. There are two ways of diagnosing prostate cancer.
The most common way is a rectal exam. Digital rectal examination can provide meaningful
information in both the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer.
(Ernstoff,Heaney,Peschel,2,p48) The exam is fairly simple. A doctor places his finger in
the anus and feels for the texture and size of the gland. The second way that a physician
can determine if a male has prostate cancer is the PSA test, which measures the levels of
the enzymes produced in the prostate. A method that is not widely used is an ultrasound to
visualize the prostate. The rate in which the prostate grows can be reduced through the
controlling of testosterone. Yet the prostate can never be stopped from growing and at
some point it will grow uncontrollable and can be deadly. After a male is diagnosed with
prostrate cancer, it is necessary for them to have surgery to either remove the tumors on
and around the prostate, or remove the entire prostate. Many professionals in the field
suggest that the entire prostrate be removed for a decrease in the reoccurrence of cancer
in the body.

After the operation, most men will be off their feet for two to three weeks, unless
radiation therapy is needed. While off their feet, the man will have to wear a catheter to
eliminate the urine (something that the urethra usually regulates). A catheter is a thin
tube that runs through the penis and urethra into the bladder. After the urethra heals and
the catheter is removed, there is a bubble on the end within the bladder that keeps the
catherer in place. The doctor will deflate the swelling and then remove the catheter.
Following the removal of the catheter, alternative methods for controlling the flow of
urine should be found. A very common option is wearing an adult diaper until dripping is
controllable again. For cases of more severe prostate cancer, the post-operation treatment
can be harder and longer process. Some methods are implant therapy, radiation therapy,
hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy. The progression of the cancer will determine which
method will be used to help eliminate any other cancerous cells in the body. For some
patients, surgery is not the method that they would prefer to use in the treatment of
their cancer. So alternative methods that are very similar to post-operative methods are
used. Radiation treatment is used in cases where the tumors are small in number or are
immediately outside the prostrate. Radiation treatment damages cancerous cells by either
an external beam or implanting radioactive beads or other material in the prostrate. In
hormone therapy, the cancer is controlled by limiting the supply of hormones that the
cancerous cells would need to reproduce. This therapy is only used in cases where the
cancer has spread outside of the prostrate. Chemotherapy uses toxic drugs to slow or
reverse the spread of the disease in advanced cases. (Smith,Middleton,1987,p154)

Nearly 40,000 American men lose their lives to prostate cancer each year, one death every
fifteen minutes. (NPCC,2000,p1) This rate of death is so high because American men are not
aware of the risk factors of prostate cancer. Men need to be aware that as they grow
older, they become more susceptible to this form of cancer. Prostate cancer used to be a
major problem for men in their seventies, but now men fifty-five and older are contracting
the cancer. Testing for this cancer should begin at the age of thirty to motor the
prostate so that if it is detected the cancer will not be able to become too progressive.
It has not been proven that prostate cancer is hereditary but two out of three men who
contract the cancer have a family history of the cancer. (ACS,2000,p1) If a sibling or
father has not had the disease, it is very important to find out the history of other
males in the family, so individuals will be aware that they may be at a higher risk for
the cancer. Diet can also affect the appearance of prostate cancer in males. If a person
is eating a high animal fat diet, they almost double their chances of contracting prostate
cancer. Yet a person that has a high tomato diet can decrease their risk of prostate
cancer. Another risk is men with high plasma testosterone levels because high levels of
testosterone aid the cancer cells in reproducing. African American males have the highest
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