Psychology Studies Essay

This essay has a total of 1566 words and 8 pages.

Psychology Studies

Worobey, J., & Worobey, H. (1999) . The Impactg of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for
Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance. Child Study
Journal, 29, 113-131.


This study contains information dealing with the relationship between nutrition and
academic performance. The A variable consists of eating a well-balanced breakfast with a
School Breakfast Program (SBP), while the B variable consists of pre-academic performance.
The procedure these researchers used to study a nutritional breakfast was to provide
preschoolers with a SBP. Every morning that the children attended school, Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday, the preschoolers who participated would arrive at school at 8:15
A.M. and would eat breakfast in the dining hall until 9:00 A.M. when class would begin.
The students were offered a breakfast that consisted of a serving of milk, a serving or
fruit or vegetable or full-strength juice, and two servings of bread or meat or bread or
meat-alternatives. The children could eat what they wished of the possible choices and
every child ate breakfast on all the days it was available. The parents of the first
randomly assigned group were asked to maintain breakfast log to keep a record of the
breakfasts that the child ate on the days they did not attend school. The same routine was
administered to the next randomly assigned group that was evaluated. Next each child in
the experiment was tested for about 20 to 30 minutes each. These tests all took place
before the daily snack was served. The pre-academic performance was observed through a
series of tests that did not test General Intelligence. Instead they tested cognitive
performance through memory games and mazes. These test included: Mazes, The Preschool
Embedded Figures Test, Verbal Memory, Numerical Memory, Pattern Match, and Same of
Different. Another study was constructed that only differed in the fact that a control
group of student was used to compare to the group having the SBP. These students were
given breakfast at home, keeping a log of what they ate. The tests administered were the
same as in the first study.

The sample in the first study consisted of twelve pre-school aged children, five girls and
seven boys ranging from the age of 3 years, 10 months to 5 years, 2 months. The sample in
the second study consisted of 19 children from the class this time. There were nine
children that enrolled in the program, 6 females and 3 males. Seven served as control
subjects. The sample was obtained by asking the parents of the 20 children in a morning
pre-school class which met on Mondays, Wednesday, and Fridays. The eight children who did
not participate the first time and the 3 that did not participate the second time gave
reasons such as not being able to bring the child to school that early because of
conflicts of bus schedules with their other children. Others simply did not wish to
complete the breakfast record forms. The children in the study are middle-class and
above-average in educational level. The parents were informed of the study through a form
that was sent home describing the experiment along with a consent and breakfast enrollment
form. The children were offered the breakfast free of charge, and there was no penalty for
not participating.

The SBP study showed that breakfast is essential to the nutritional health of children
while aiding in physical growth and development. This test showed that a nutritional
breakfast showed positive effects on attentions, alertness, and many other important kill
for academic performance. The SBP improved performance on the standardized achievement
test and other cognitive tests that were administered. The children did better in general
when they were tested after the school breakfast program than they did after the home
breakfast. Performance on the Mazes and the Patter Match and Same -Different were
significantly higher in the children who were enrolled in the SPB.

This study was a "good study." It clearly tested the operational variables in relevant
manor. The data was factual and was not manipulated. A control group was administered to
compare the outcome of the experiment. Those that observed the children were blind as to
which were enrolled in the program and which were not, preventing biased data. The
experiment was repeated twice and similar outcomes were reached both times. The study
tested children that were not in anyway malnourished, prevented the factor that the
children may improve academically because they were not eating, rather they wanted to test
to see if a well balanced breakfast could increase things such as interest motivation, and
concentration. This way they had a more solid background to base the data on. (DD)









KidSource. (1998). [Online]. New Harvard Research Program Show that School Breakfast
Programs May Improve Children's Behavior and Performance. Available:
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content4/breakfast.html [2002, February 1].


There is a strong relation among nutrition and academic performance according to Harvard
research. The A variable, the nutritional intake by students has been studied used a
School Breakfast Program that has been administered in many schools. The programs that
were observed, in Philadelphia and two Baltimore public schools were free. The B variable
consisted of academic performance. The academic performance was measured by observing
overall improvement in grades in the schools that participated.

The sample in the study came from the Philadelphia and Baltimore public schools. In these
schools, 133 students were observed before and after the free School Breakfast Program
began. About one-third of the students being studied ever ate breakfast at school before.

Continues for 4 more pages >>




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