Repressed Memories Essay

This essay has a total of 4862 words and 21 pages.


Repressed Memories





Abstract
In recent years there has been a hot debate between “repressed” vs.
“false” memories. Neurobiological studies show that both suppression and
recall and the creation of false memories are possible. This paper evaluates the evidence
but forth by both sides of the controversy and concludes that both are feasible and
separate phenomenon, which occur at significant rates in our society.

Further biological research on the effect of psychological trauma on the neurochemistry of
memory may help clinicians distinguish between true repressed memories and false memories
in clients who report abuse. However, to date there is no method to determine the
accuracy of these memories. Therefore clinicians and the courts must rely on corroborative
evidence, and behavioral and physiologic clues to distinguish veracity.




Recently there has been an extreme debate between “false” vs.
“repressed” memories of abuse. A false memory is created when an event that
really happened becomes confused with images produced by trying to remember an imagined
event. The term false memory syndrome refers to the notion that illusionary and untrue
memories of earlier child abuse can be ‘recalled’ by adult clients during
therapy. In an increasingly polarized and emotive debate, extreme positions have been
adopted, on one side by those believing that recovered memories nearly always represent
actual traumatic experiences, for example, Fredrickson (1992) who argues for a
‘repressed memory syndrome’ and, on the other side, by those describing a
growing epidemic of false memories of abuse which did not occur. (Gardner, 1992; Loftus,
1993; Ofshe & Watters, 1993; Yapko, 1994).

Recovery of repressed memories that lead to accusations of child molesting and other
abuses are increasing, but skeptics believe people are creating false memories.
Neurobiological studies show that both suppression and recall and the creation of false
memories are possible. (Kandel, 1994) In this paper both sides of the debate will be
analyzed and evaluated.

The issue of ‘false’ vs. ‘repressed’ memories is of increasing
relevance to counseling psychologists and indeed to any professional involved in therapy.
The reputation of therapy is at stake, as clients begin to sue therapists for the
implantation of false memories. In turn, it is essential that all clinicians conduct their
therapy according to the latest guidelines of practice as to avoid suggestion and the
possible implantation of false memories.

The need for understanding the phenomenon of repressed memories is also very important
from a legal standpoint. In recent years there has been numerous cases of people suing
their parents or other authority figures for abuse that has been recalled many years after
the abuse was said to have occurred. The rulings in these cases have often been
controversial considering there is often not enough concrete or collaborative evidence to
prove the accused to be guilty or innocent. The judge and jury are often forced to make a
ruling that relies heavily on the testimonial of the accuser. This is very contentious
considering there is not an accurate and reliable test to determine the validity of the
accuser.

The importance of understanding the underlying psychological mechanisms by which both
memories are repressed and recovered, and are falsely created has great implications
clinically and legally for our society. Hopefully future research will help close the gap
between the distance sides of the debate.



The general findings associated with the repressed memory debate has lead to strong
evidence both in favor of repressed memories and also in favor of recalling false
memories. Proponents of genuine recovered memory have cited a wealth of studies
documenting that people that have been sexually abused as children have, at some time,
forgotten the experience. However, the weakness of many such studies is their reliance on
uncorroborated, retrospective data (Lindsay & Read, 1994). Attempts have been made to
address these criticisms. Widow & Morris (1993), in a longitudinal study, found a
substantial proportion of a sample of documented child abuse cases to fail to recall the
abuse at a follow-up. In an attempt to overcome the methodological weakness of a lack of
external corroboration of abuse, Williams (1995) interviewed a sample of women whose
earlier child abuse was well-documented in medical records. She found that 38 percent of
129 women with documented abuse histories did not recall the abuse on re-interview 17
years later. Of those recounting the abuse, 47 percent claimed that there had been a time
when they had not remembered the abuse. Unlike most other retrospective studies,
Williams’ study provides clear corroborative evidence that the abuse did occur. The
shortcomings of the study, however, is that it relies on subjects retrospective reports of
the forgetting of the abuse. It is unclear how reliable the individuals’
retrospective reports that they had not remembered the event for a period are, and there
may be alternative reasons for those not recalling at the time of the interview. Failure
to recount the memory does not imply forgetting, and may instead reflect the deliberate
avoidance of painful recollections (Ceci & Loftus, 1994). This raises two main issues;
firstly, the extent to which it is possible to determine between forgetting and
underreporting of abuse and secondly, the extent to which it may or may not be helpful to
remind individuals of painful memories which they may have good reason to wish to forget
(Farrants, 1998)

In order to support the notion that some individuals may forget, rather than simply not
report, an experience of a abuse for a period of time, the proponents of recovered memory
have outlined the mechanisms which may account for such forgetting, including repression,
dissociation, and childhood amnesia (Lindsay & Read, 1994).

Some clinical psychologists believe that children can learn to block memories as a
survival mechanism: if physical escape from their tormentor is not possible, psychological
escape may become crucial. When children can’t avoid abuse and know it is going to
be repeated, some cope by tuning out- mentally dissociating themselves from the abuse
while it is occurring- or by repressing the memory afterward (Kandel, 1994)

However, there are many problems with such concepts. Such explanations of forgetting tend
to be descriptive of the fact that traumatic events may be forgotten rather than
explanatory of the way in which this occurs. Understanding of memory mechanisms generally
tends to be theoretical and the mechanisms that underpin observable memory phenomena are
arguably mere constructions, accounting for what is observed rather than a factual account
of what is know about the way in which memory operates (Farrants, 1998).

Other proponents of ‘repressed memory syndrome’ have explored the biological
aspects of memory in searching for answers. Bruce Perry, a professor of child psychiatry,
says that the way memories are laid down can differ as different brain regions are
activated. When an individuals mental state moves along a continuum from calm to
vigilance, memory is best. As the mental state moves further on to alarm, fear, and
finally terror, brain regions associated with cognition all but shut off. “The way
information is stored is a function of what part of the brain is on, and the way it get
recalled is also a function of what part of the brain is on, ”says Perry.

Memory formation is also influenced by the biochemistry of the stress response. The
chronic severe stress that occurs with long-term abuse seems particular able to impair
activity in the hippocampal region thought to be critical in learning and memory
(Sapolsky, 1994). Stress stimulates the release of glucocorticoids, which at chronically
high levels can decrease the ability of neurons to take up glucose and function properly
for the formation and recall of memory.

In working with rats, Michela Gallagher (1999) has found that implicit memories of fearful
experiences are strengthened when noradrenaline a neurotransmitter associated with
alertness and stress is released in the amygdala. He has also found that under extreme
stress rats release a naturally occurring opium-like substance called endogenous opiates
that weaken memory storage. This finding suggests a fascinating possibility. If an
incident is so distressing that the brain makes opiates to dull the pain, the opiates may
interfere with the memory storing process. Gallagher has also found using a drug called
nalaxone to block endogenous opiates at the time of consolidation does enhance memory
recall in rats.

These studies suggest there may be a biological mechanism through which memories are
suppressed in humans, but there arises the question of how these memories are retrieved.
Some researchers have speculated that a memory can be stored weakly in the explicit system
because endogenous opiates interfered with its consolidation- so weakly the person has no
conscious memory of the original wrenching event. That same event, though, might also be
captured by the implicit system through a characteristic, physical sensation, or gesture.
Perhaps later the implicit system may provide clues, such as physical sensations, that
help stir the recall of the weak explicit memory (Kandel, 1994).

The fact that many people who say they were abused as children often describe their
memories coming back as bodily sensations relates well with this theory. Some survivors of
abuse describe their recovered memories as qualitatively different from other memories.
They feel as if they are actually experiencing the event, with all its textures, smells,
and physical sensations. This parallels the intensity of flashbacks experienced by combat
veterans. Gallagher has found that implicit memory could be strengthened by stimulating
noradrenaline in the amygdala, and studies at Yale have suggested that noradrenaline
released in response to stress contributes to the powerful flashbacks of Vietnam veterans
(Kandel, 1994). Perhaps memories that sexual abuse survivors are normally unable to access
are retrieved when their noradrenaline system is activated.

All this suggests that the action of endogenous opiates and noradrenaline in the amygdala
and hippocampus could begin to provide a biological framework for examining how memories
are repressed and later retrieved. It may soon be feasible to examine these ideas
directly. Improvements in brain imaging may eventually let scientist examine even small
structures in the brain in a safe, noninvasive way. We may then be able to see whether
sexual abuse leads to physical changes in the amygdala that reflect a persons’
memories of the event and whether these changes can be modulated by the noradrenergic and
opioid systems (Kandel, 1994).



Despite this evidence, there is a strong debate that repressed memories may not occur.
Opponents to this idea often present the evidence of false memories. Proponents of false
memory syndrome have utilized the findings from laboratory studies of the suggestibility
of memory to support their stance. A long history of research on human memory documents
the extent to which misleading suggestions can distort the recall of events (Lindsay &
Read, 1994). In a classic study, Loftus (1993) led five subjects to believe over a period,
with the use of misleading and suggestive questioning, that they had been lost in a
shopping mall as a child. Loftus concluded that it is indeed possible to implant false
memories, which can be as vivid, internally coherent, and detailed as true memories.
Loftus coined this phenomenon ‘misinformation effect’ (Farrants, 1998).

It has been argued that such findings reveal nothing helpful to the understanding of
memories of abuse (Pedzdek, 1994). Firstly, in Loftus’ study, the memories were
implanted by a relative, who may be assumed by the subject to have personal knowledge of
the event, thus giving it credence. Secondly it could be argued that individuals may be
operating according to a pre-existing script for common events such as being lost while
shopping, rendering such a memory easy to construct. Pezdeck (1994) argues that
individuals, especially children, are unlikely to posses such a script for sexual abuse,
unless it is something which they have directly experienced. However Pezdek’s point
fails to recognize that most adults in this present culture may in fact posses such a
script. Furthermore, Holst and Pezdek (1992) found that subjects shared common scripts
for three types of robberies, which affected their memory of events, despite no direct
experience of them. These studies, therefore, suggest that personal experience of sexual
abuse is not essential for the recovery of such memories, as the possibility remains
existing scripts are being deployed (Farrants, 1998).

Generalizing from the Loftus study to other situations heeds caution. The study has been
criticized for numerous flaws including the nature of her sample, the possible effects of
social influence on response and the inappropriate generalization of data from
non-traumatized laboratory subjects to traumatized individuals. The research findings are,
therefore, mixed with some evidence for the fact that misleading or suggestive questioning
can result in memory distortion, although the extent to which entirely new memories of
traumatic incidences can be created from nothing has not yet been demonstrated. False
memory proponents have argued that it is indeed the way in which therapist operates that
lead the client to recover false memories. Indeed, it has been reported that over
two-thirds of people who have alleged abuse stated that their first suspicion that abuse
had occurred arose during a therapy session (Roe et al., 1994). Therefore it is necessary
to examine the evidence that pseudomemories have been recovered during therapy.

In a critique of the article of Lindsay and Read (1994) outlining the risk of false
memories being created in therapy, Pezdek (1994) argues that evidence for
therapist-implanted memory is weak. Lindsay and Read (1994) have been criticized for
asserting the possibility that false memories can be created while providing no evidence
for the phenomenon (Pezdek, 1994). As Pezdek reflects, 'it is illogical to infer the
existence of a phenomenon from the possibility of explaining it'. In order to support the
view that it is possible for pseudomemories to be created, Read and Lindsay (1994) cite
examples of bizarre and unlikely memories which have been recovered during therapy, some
of which were in press at the time of Lindsay and Read's article. For example, Bass and
Davis (1988) write of recovered memories of entire cities of satanic ritual abusers.
Another account described a woman who recalled giving birth at the age of eight, and
Loftus et al. (1994) writes of therapist-aided memories of life in the womb, the bizarre
nature of which lead Read and Lindsay to conclude them to be highly unlikely to be true.
They also refer to reports of a therapist-assisted memory of molestation by a man who was
later found to have been out of the country at the time. Far from regarding this fact as
evidence that the abuse did not occur, the client reported that she must, therefore, have
Continues for 11 more pages >>




  • Emerging from the Shadows
    Emerging from the Shadows She stands a staggering 5 feet 2 inches tall, weighs a massive 95 pounds, and has short, brown hair and brown eyes. I see my older sister Leslie. Others see a model of perfection. Don\'t get me wrong, my sister and I are close and have been inseparable since birth. My mother has kept pictures of us ranging from the time we shared a playpen as babies to just recently at Leslie\'s graduation. For seventeen years, we\'ve shared every life experience imaginable, and we\'ve
  • Describe how GPS works and how normal citizens hav
    GPS Describe how GPS works and how normal citizens have been able to use it to make their lives easier. GPS is a global positioning satellite that is used to show the exact position on earth that you are. This system is used in many ways. Many people in a new city use rental cars. These people will probably get lost. Now in these cars there is GPS. This system allows the driver to know where they are and gives them a map of the place they are planning to visit. GPS also speaks to that person and
  • Heritage
    Heritage Heritage is an important factor to every developing family. Heritage helps to develop a persons values showing what they believe in. Particularly about the values of their family. In the story Everyday Use, by Alice Walker, value of heritage is a main topic. Throughout this story there are many different words used to describe what Wangero (Dee), Maggie, and their mother value. These choices of words all play an important role in the contrasting values of these people and the battle ove
  • Most special memory
    Most special memory Option #1 An experience that holds special meaning to me was the opportunity to go to the 2000 Rose Bowl parade in Pasadena California. Being a part of the Grove City High School Marching Band as a flag corps member was one of the most enjoyable times of my high school career. We were invited by the parade president to come and march in the parade on New Year’s day. Just finding out that we would be going to California was incredible. It took a lot of hard work and dedication
  • Princeton Acceptance Essay
    Princeton Acceptance Essay A creek is no place for shoes. I think it’s unreasonable to ask such children to keep their shoes on in such a place. My bare feet were always covered with calluses from walking down the rough pavement of Pine Street and around the corner, past the tall oaks, but not as far as the Lindsay’s squeaky old swing-set. It was hard to see from the road, and as far as I could tell, nobody ever went there, except for me. Large pines nearby stood tall and erect, looking down at
  • Scholarship Essay
    Scholarship Essay No greater contribution can be made to a specific field than research that leads to the development of a new and superior technology. Universities and businesses constantly attempt to remain on the cutting edge of new design, manufacturing, and application systems through research and development. If I were given the opportunity to conduct my own research, I would dedicate my efforts to the design of computer processing chips with the goal of increasing their speed and computat
  • Alger Hiss
    Alger Hiss In August 1948, Whittaker Chambers, a former Communist appearing before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), charged that Alger Hiss, was a Communist spy. Chambers claimed that he and Hiss had belonged to the same espionage group and that Hiss had given him secret State Department documents. This group was a network of American spies recruited by the Soviet Union to collect useful information for Moscow. Alger Hiss was a Harvard-educated lawyer and a distinguished Washin
  • Chinese Immigrater
    Chinese Immigrater Interrogations of Chinese Immigrants at Angel Island Like Ellis Island in New York Harbor, Angel Island in San Francisco Bay was an entry point for immigrants in the early 20th century. The Angel Island immigration station processed small numbers of immigrants from Japan, Italy, and other parts of the world and was the key place of interrogation and detention for immigrants from China ("Angel Island Over View, CD-ROM). Angel Island in 1910 to enforce the Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Great Depression1
    Great Depression1 The Great Depression was the worst economic decline ever in U.S. history. It began in late 1929 and lasted about a decade. Throughout the 1920’s, many factors played a role in bringing about the depression; the main causes were the unequal distribution of wealth and extensive stock market speculation. Money was distributed unequally between the rich and the middle-class, between industry and agriculture within the United States, and between the U.S. and Europe. This disproporti
  • Great Depression1
    Great Depression1 The Great Depression was the worst economic decline ever in U.S. history. It began in late 1929 and lasted about a decade. Throughout the 1920’s, many factors played a role in bringing about the depression; the main causes were the unequal distribution of wealth and extensive stock market speculation. Money was distributed unequally between the rich and the middle-class, between industry and agriculture within the United States, and between the U.S. and Europe. This disproporti
  • Jack Kerouac and the beat movement
    Jack Kerouac and the beat movement “World War II marked a wide dividing line between the old and the new in American society and the nation’s literature”(The World Book Encyclopedia 427) . When world War II ended there was a pent up desire that had been postponed due to the war. Post war America brought about a time when it seemed that every young man was doing the same thing, getting a job, settling down and starting a family. America was becoming a nation of consumers. One group that was again
  • On My Personal Experience with Other Cultures Enco
    On My Personal Experience with Other Cultures Encountered by My On My Personal Experience with Other Cultures Encountered by My ... ... Sight Every lucky man has all five senses, perhaps he or she has also the power of predicting the future by means of of the so called "sixth sense", or intuition. We use them altogether all the time, and so one can hardly tell a story in which just one particular sense is engaged. I have spent most of my life here in Slovakia and I only communicate with other wo
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • The Great Depresstion
    The Great Depresstion The Great Depression was the worst economic decline ever in U.S. history. It began in late 1929 and lasted about a decade. Throughout the 1920’s, many factors played a role in bringing about the depression; the main causes were the unequal distribution of wealth and extensive stock market speculation. Money was distributed unequally between the rich and the middle-class, between industry and agriculture within the United States, and between the U.S. and Europe. This disprop
  • Alzheimers Disease
    Alzheimers Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behavior (Internet). It is a degenerative disease affecting nerve cells of the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebrum of the brain. The disease is the major cause of presenile dementia (i.e., the loss of mental faculties not associated with advanced age) and is thought to be the largest single cause of senile dementia as well (B
  • Multiple Sclerosis A Research Paper
    Multiple Sclerosis A Research Paper Introduction Multiple Sclerosis By: Stephanie **** Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that randomly attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The progress, severity and specific symptoms of the disease can not be predicted; symptoms may range from tingling and numbness to paralysis and blindness. MS is a devastating disease because people live with its unpredictable physical and emotional effects for the rest of the
  • None Provided1
    None Provided1 Vision and Movement When we discuss our brain, we usually focus on the brains ability to think. That task alone is extremely complex and involved, but the brain also has many other tasks. Most of the time the brain is on autopilot, meaning that most of the activities preformed are just automatic. Our five senses; sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell, are automatically preformed in our brains. We don\'t have to think about how something sounds, we just hear it and we then interpre
  • Cows
    cows Our land our bodies and our cows are all effected by the meet industry. Our land and water is getting polluted from animal waste. Our bodies are getting sick from germs in meat, and the cows are being tortured and are suffering. Waste from livestock in the United States amounts to130 times the waste produced by people. In Central California 1,600 dairies produced more waste than a city of 21 million people that’s 5 tons for every person on this earth, and their is not enough surrounding lan
  • Dogs chomp on more than four million people a year
    Dogs chomp on more than four million people a year Dogs chomp on more than four million people a year. Don¡¦t be one of them. Dog bites on the rise Megan Boger of La Belle, Pa., returned from shopping with her mother and ran into the yard to greet the family pet, a part-cocker mutt named Blaze. Seconds later, her mom, Elena Boger, heard a snap and then shrieks from three-year-old Megan. There was blood all over her face from tooth punctures under an eye and around her mouth, she recalls. Elena a
  • Dogs chomp on more than four million people a year
    Dogs chomp on more than four million people a year1 Dogs chomp on more than four million people a year. Don¡¦t be one of them. Dog bites on the rise Megan Boger of La Belle, Pa., returned from shopping with her mother and ran into the yard to greet the family pet, a part-cocker mutt named Blaze. Seconds later, her mom, Elena Boger, heard a snap and then shrieks from three-year-old Megan. There was blood all over her face from tooth punctures under an eye and around her mouth, she recalls. Elena
  • Roman Colusseum
    Roman Colusseum Architecture of the ancient Roman Empire is considered one of the most impressive of all time. The city of Rome once was home to more than one million residents in the early centuries AD1. The Romans had a fine selection of building monuments in the city of Rome including the forums for civic services, temples of worship, and amphitheaters for recreation and play. The Romans made great use and pioneered great architecture mechanisms including arches, columns, and even mechanical
  • Alberto Giacometti
    Alberto Giacometti His purpose was to express the “totality of life” and “find the real through external experiences”. He was celebrated for his elongated figures that followed his break from the surrealists. But, who was Alberto Giacometti? Alberto Giacometti was born in 1901 in the Italian speaking town Borgonova, Switzerland. Being the son of Giovanni Giacometti, an impressionist painter, he was encouraged in art at an early age. Giacometti had great confidence in his drafting ability at the
  • Auguste Rodin
    Auguste Rodin Like some artists, Rodin was not an overnight success. Even though he was rejected numerous times from art schools because of his art style, he prevailed in the end. Rodin, like many artists, got their inspiration from other great and famous artists. In Rodin\'s case, his inspiration came from Michelangelo. In Rodin\'s more famous works, one can see the similarities between the two artists\' artwork. Rodin\'s parents were not wealthy, therefore, he was not able to attend an art sch
  • Francis bacon
    francis bacon Francis Bacon (1909-92) Beginning on the early 1950s, despite the dominance of Abstract Expressionism in both the United States and Europe, there were recurring waves of insistence on a return to the figure, a new naturalism of naturalistic fantasy. Crucial to the new figuration were Alberto Giacometti and Jean Dubuffet. The only other figurative Expressionist powerful enough to be compared with Giacometti and Dubuffet were British. Chief among these was the Irish-born Francis Baco
  • Light Matter
    Light Matter Inner Light In order to understand what light is one has to understand how vision works. The process of visual perception is incredibly complex, involving many functions of the brain. In Arthur Zajonc\'s book "Catching the Light," he writes, "…vision requires far more than a functioning physical organ. Without an inner light, without a formative visual imagination, we are blind." The function of registering visual information, seeing, requires learning to see, in other words, in ord
  • Oskar Kokoschka
    Oskar Kokoschka Oskar Kokoschka Kokoschka was born in Pchlarn, a Danube town, on March 1, 1886. He studied at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts from 1905 to 1908. As an early exponent of the avant-garde expressionist movement, he began to paint psychologically penetrating portraits of Viennese physicians, architects, and artists. Among these works are Hans Tietze and Erica Tietze-Conrat (1909, Museum of Modern Art, New York City), August Forel (1910, Mannheim Art Gallery, Germany), and Self-
  • Persistence of memory
    persistence of memory The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali on page 428 is one his most distinguished works. It is an Oil on Canvas 9 1/2” x 13” and was painted in 1931. Dali uses many types of media in this picture to portray the imagery he was looking for. The First media I recognized was chiaroscuro. The artwork starts from a bright white and blue in the top left hand corner and ends up fading into darkness. There is a large figure with a clock draped over it right before the fade to dar
  • Police Memorial
    Police Memorial Throughout Battery Park, in downtown New York City, the sculpture I found to be most intriguing is the New York City Police Memorial, by Stuart B. Crawford. Memorials and monuments create solid, deeper meaning to the public. This is because memorials contain certain information, which is clear to the viewers. This New York Police Memorial serves as a constant reminder of the officers who have past away serving the people of the city. The emotion that this piece emits is very diff
  • Roman collusiums
    roman collusiums Roman Coliseums By: Tim Kolton Architecture of the ancient Roman Empire is considered one of the most impressive of all time. The city of Rome once was home to more than one million residents in the early centuries AD1. The Romans had a fine selection of building monuments in the city of Rome including the forums for civic services, temples of worship, and amphitheaters for recreation and play. The Romans made great use and pioneered great architecture mechanisms including arche
  • Surrealism
    Surrealism Surrealism As World War I came to an end, the Dada movement evolved into a new movement called Surrealism. This medium of art created a palette of purity and hope though automatism and use of dreams. The Surrealists strove for simplicity and spontaneity or as some called it, automatism. They wanted to answer the question "how shall I be free?" and to express thought without any tainted preconceptions. They believed automatism "would reveal the true and individual nature of anyone who
  • Titians altarpieces in the church of the Frari Ven
    Titians altarpieces in the church of the Frari Venice Titian’s Pesaro and Assunta. Altarpieces in the church of the Frari, Venice. What was the importance of these two altarpieces for the development of painting in Venice, both from a stylistic and iconographic point of view? It has been said that Titian’s Assunta, which adorns the high altar, and Pesaro (on the left aisle of the chapel of the Immaculate Conception) stand mid-way between the past and the future of Venetian painting. This infers
  • Accidents
    Accidents Aircraft Investigation Each mishap has their own characteristics and there is no substitute for good old-fashioned common sense and initiative. Each wrecked aircraft has it’s own story to tell if properly investigated. However Air Force guidelines are quick to point out that investigators in their eagerness seek out the causes, often ignore safe investigation practices and common safety precautions. Air Force Investigators are maybe in even more difficult position due to the hazards th
  • 1984
    1984 1984 by George Orwell Outline Thesis Statement- This paper will examine how George Orwell wrote 1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism. I Introduction II Summary of 1984 III Roles of major Charters A. Big Brother B. Winston C. O\'Brien D. Julia E. Shop owner IV Propaganda A. Ministry of Truth B. Ministry of Love V Orwell\'s thoughts on Totalitarianism A. From life experiences B. From a writers point of view VI Conclusion Introduction "Orwell observed that every line of seriou
  • Al Capone
    Al Capone Alphonse Capone was born in New York City by two parents Gabriel and Teresa Capone. Capone\'s parents immigrated to the United States in 1893 from Naples, Italy. Capone came from a large family and was the fourth oldest of nine children. (Kobler 10). As a child, Capone was very wise when it came to living on the streets of New York. He had a clever mind when it came to street smarts. As far as school goes, Capone was a near-illiterate. He came from a poor neighborhood in Brooklyn, so e
  • Al Capone
    Al Capone Alphonse Capone was born in New York City by two parents Gabriel and Teresa Capone. Capone\'s parents immigrated to the United States in 1893 from Naples, Italy. Capone came from a large family and was the fourth oldest of nine children. (Kobler 10). As a child, Capone was very wise when it came to living on the streets of New York. He had a clever mind when it came to street smarts. As far as school goes, Capone was a near-illiterate. He came from a poor neighborhood in Brooklyn, so e
  • Arthur MillerBIO
    Arthur MillerBIO With The Death of a Salesman during the winter of 1949 on Broadway, Arthur Miller began to live as a playwright who has since been called one of this century\'s three great American dramatists by the people of America. The dramatist was born in Manhattan in October 17, 1915, to Isadore and Agusta Miller, a conventional, well to do Jewish couple. Young Arthur Miller was an intense athlete and a weak scholar. Throughout his youth he was molded into one of the most creative playwri
  • Authur Miller
    Authur Miller With the Death of a Salesman during the winter of 1949 on Broadway, Arthur Miller began to live as a playwright who has since been called one of this century\'s three great American dramatists. He has also written other powerful, often mind-altering plays: The Crucible, A View from the Bridge, A Memory of Two Mondays, After the Fall, Incident at Vichy, and The Price. And who could forget the film The Misfits and the dramatic special Playing for Time. Death of a Salesman was not Art
  • Capone
    capone Alphonse Capone And His Rise To Power During the Capone era many mobsters were in power. As Al Capone grew, he began to associate with many different bosses and was in the neighborhood with many mob run gangs. After being involved and associated with these gangs, Capone then joined one, which just so happen to be run by Johnny Torrio, mobster to become leader of the underworld. There were many influences that helped Capone grow and gain until his rise to power as Chicago’s most notorious
  • Capone1
    capone1 Alphonse Capone And His Rise To Power During the Capone era many mobsters were in power. As Al Capone grew, he began to associate with many different bosses and was in the neighborhood with many mob run gangs. After being involved and associated with these gangs, Capone then joined one, which just so happen to be run by Johnny Torrio, mobster to become leader of the underworld. There were many influences that helped Capone grow and gain until his rise to power as Chicago’s most notorious
  • Elie Wiesel
    Elie Wiesel Eliezer Wiesel was born in 1928, a native of Sighet, Transylvania (Romania) which is near the Ukrainian border; He grew up experiencing first-hand the horrors of the Holocaust, this started when at fifteen years old Wiesel and his family were deported by the Nazis to Auschwitz. His mother and younger sister perished there, his two older sisters survived. Wiesel and his father were later transported to Buchenwald In 1945, at the end of the war, Elie moved to Paris, where he studied li
  • Father Solanus
    Father Solanus Father Solanus Casey played an important role in many people\'s lives, just like Jesus. He believed that living a good life meant living a life of service, love, prayer, sacrifice, and worship. He also believed that self sacrifice was imperative to a good relationship with God. His dedication to God leads to the assumption of many similarities between him and Jesus. Father Solanus believed in a life of heavy worship. From the time he was a little boy to the time he died he prayed
  • Herbert George Wells
    Herbert George Wells Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fictions fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to pass subjects by ex
  • Kate Chopin
    Kate Chopin Kate Chopin is a brilliant writer. Her writing career is during the late 1800’s. She lives in a time where women are sexually suppressed and their opinions are not valued. Her writing holds more in common with our time than the time just after the Civil War. Although her life was full of death, she still lived as happy a life as she could by writing in such a bold and daring way. Kate Chopin was born as Catherine O’Flaherty. She was born July 12, 1850. She is the daughter of Thomas a
  • Muddy Waters
    Muddy Waters Muddy Waters Blues as an art form gave Blacks a medium to manifest their feelings. Feelings ranging from humorous to silly to depressed. Fortunately for a entire genre of music, the only way for Mckinley Morganfield to express himself was through song. Morganfield better known as Muddy Waters became a legendary blues vocalist /guitarist. When the Blues industry saw commercial success many of its artists also saw rising fame. Muddy Waters enjoyed success in the industry up until and
  • My Life
    My Life My Life So Far By Will Arts I was born on June 26, 1967 on the big island of Hawaii in the town of Hilo at Hilo hospital, the second child (older sister Naomi was born one year before) of Spanish, Filipino (-father), Italian, and Romanian (-mother) ancestry. After my brief stint in the hospital I went home to 375 Ululani St. As an infant, I enjoyed the house, for I loved to travel about and explore. For the first two years of my life, my mother reared me carefully, exposing me to certain
  • Octavio paz
    octavio paz Amelia Freno Mrs.Broglie Multi-Culture Unit 3 Febuary 2001 Ocatavio Paz: rags to riches “This is an irreplacceable loss for contemporary thought and culture - not just for Latin America but for the entire world,” said Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo. This was the common lost shared world-wide. Octavio Paz was known for many things in his lifetime such as his works of poetry and essays, because of his fine works of arts he often received many awards and recognizations for his skills
  • Oskar Kokoschka
    Oskar Kokoschka Oskar Kokoschka Kokoschka was born in P^chlarn, a Danube town, on March 1, 1886. He studied at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts from 1905 to 1908. As an early exponent of the avant-garde expressionist movement, he began to paint psychologically penetrating portraits of Viennese physicians, architects, and artists. Among these works are Hans Tietze and Erica Tietze-Conrat (1909, Museum of Modern Art, New York City), August Forel (1910, Mannheim Art Gallery, Germany), and Self-
  • Research Paper on Ernest Hemingway
    Research Paper on Ernest Hemingway “There are some things which cannot be learned quickly, and time, which is all we have, must be paid heavily for their acquiring. They are the simplest things, and because it takes a man’s life to know them, the little now that each man gets from life, is very costly and the only heritage he has to leave.” Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller “Papa” Hemingway Ernest Hemingway is easily reconized by many scholars and outdoorsman because of his lifestyle. During his li
  • Roald Dahl
    Roald Dahl Everything in Dahl\'s books includes either scary fiction or adventure. In 1973 Dahl was awarded for Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. The book in its time was very popular for children. Between 1980 and 1990, over eleven million of his children\'s books were sold in paperback form-considerably more than the total number of children born there in the same period. I will discuss Roald Dahl\'s life, his book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and how you can apply his stories to you li
  • Samuel Clemens
    Samuel Clemens The Life of Samuel Clemens A.K.A. Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens is better known as Mark Twain, the distinguished novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist, and literary critic who ranks among the great figures of American Literature. Twain was born in Florida Missouri, in 1835, To John Marshall Clemens and Jane Lampton. As a new born Twain already had moved four times westward. In 1839 the family moved again, this time eastward to Hannibal, Missouri. Hannibal was a