Ride Of The Second Horseman Essay

This essay has a total of 1982 words and 9 pages.

Ride Of The Second Horseman

Robert O'Connell explains to us the decline of organized warfare between people. This is
stated in three different regions of argument; the nomads having to change to cope with
the new geographic changes find it easier to just try to take the agriculturalists food
sources rather then find their own. Second the new divisions of government cause a more
humanistic approach to settle disagreements rather then warfare, and thirdly the total
demise of how warfare once was.

The shift to domesticated farming, away from nomadic pastorals, led to a clash between
these two subsistence patterns. The nomads, facing geographic change and poor food
supplies, attempted to make their way down from the hills and take on the agriculturalist.
This is the only way the nomads could keep a steady food source. ‘Cultures that knew
nothing of war suddenly began suffering unprovoked attacks by terrifying strangers.'(13)
This shows you the kind of bloodthirsty savages the nomads were, their way of life was
changing and they weren't ready for it to change. ‘So it is that these voracious ant
armies number in the millions, just as major outbreaks of nomadic aggression were
characteristically preceded by inertial congregations. If there is strength in numbers
among the sedentary, there is only hunger among the nomadic.'(21) Again this shows how the
nomadic are going hungry and have no way to turn except to fight for food. The
agriculturalist have superior strength in numbers and after a few attacks from the nomads
the will be ready to take them out for good and worry about them no more. This new age of
society is just too profitable for them to leave it, crops that a few men farm yielding
the food for twenty. The economics itself are just to great to turn back now. ‘The key
to such realti0onships is mutualism, with booth plant and animal oolong in ways that
intensify the partnership…In the period between 8500 BC and AD 1 the great majority of
humans made the transition from wild food to planting and harvesting domesticated crops-a
span of only eight and a half millennia in the more than four-million history of our
line.'(55) Once more you see the demise of the nomads, the ability to culture nature to
how humans want it; it's just to easy. So why continue to keep picking up and moving your
entire group when you could just center out of one area and have ever possible thing you
could need to support yourself.

‘Over and over their victims, or at least the survivors, would express horror and
incomprehension at the patrol nomads' capacity for violence, their disregard for human
life, their refusal to operate according to any accepted rules of military conduct. Many
observers had difficulty in comprehending them as people at all.'(80) Not only was there
way of life losing its effect in the world, but also their general way of thinking was
bizarre in effect. They had no regard for the dead, no remorse, and very little time and
concern for anything else but their clansmen. They were seen, as monsters not at all
anything like that of the ‘common man'.

As one can see the nomad's way of life was easily on the way out, and the new and improved
agricultural ways of the yeomen were the wave of the future. Almost all localized
communities looked for this new way of life. To domesticate all the food sources and
animals they would need to keep their society prosperous.

Next comes the question of state over the individual. This statement meant nothing until
the agriculturalists. Everything was always take what you need for yourself by yourself.
In the new society people started to rely on others and in time began to get specialized.
This was hard at first but after a few small dilemmas the whole clan would excel.
‘Scholars are coming to realize that the analysis of complex social systems must reach
down to the level of the individual members…. when comparisons of various economic and
ecological strategies are made form the perspective of the individual, it becomes logical
to ask not just whether they were better fed and housed but whether they were happier and
more fulfilled.'(12) You have to start with the simple and ask a simple question. Were the
people of the society indeed happier with their new life, and one must say yes to this
question. The way of life was just more suitable for a community to prosper in to
something bigger. But the whole is only as good as its weakest part. And that is why a
community must bond and make non-believers or skeptical believers into true believers so
that the society can keep going forward. ‘Quite clearly these circumstances cried out
not simply for effective explanation but for organization and control. And
institutionalized responses were already well under way. It is probably not accidental
that the first elites to emerge in Sumer were Priest, or at least whose who sought to
validate their claims to leadership primarily in religious term.'(90) Who do you always
look to for things we can't understand, that are right, the god's? Priest can't lie (sure)
they always search for the truth form within. We've always accepted everything they've
said with very little argument overall. So it seems very fitting that they could possible
be the first leaders of a controlled centralized society. ‘In order for war to "work"
among humans, there must be some source of motivation capable of transcending genetic
self-interest in a manner that would lead an individual to face personal and hereditary
annihilation for the sake of an organization manned largely by those who are not close
relatives.'(106) In other words, why the hell is a single individual going to risk his
life for his neighbors, just for that reason he is thine neighbor. The idea of kinships
are occurring and fellows helping fellows, I think it's said best as you watch my back
I'll watch your back. This is the first time an idea like this has been tended to. As
before it was always watch your own back because nobody else is doing it for you.

‘But before we can proceed with any degree of confidence, there remains the necessity of
bridging the gap between the institutional and the individual- to provide some plausible
means by which solitary humans came to believe and act on the assumption that their was
more important than their genes.'(107) Now we get the idea that the agriculturalist has
been told to appreciate this ‘higher class' citizen with my prestige then that of his
Continues for 5 more pages >>