Rise and fall of rome Essay

This essay has a total of 642 words and 5 pages.

Rise and fall of rome

The divergence of local culture is apt to occur. With this enculturation a new language or
dialect of language often is born. This paper will discuss the factors which cause
language to change. It will focus on the development of "New-Englishes". What are
"New-Englishes"? They develop from areas, which have been in contact with an
English-speaking colony the process involves five main steps Foundation, Exonormative
Stabilization, Nativization, Endonormative Stabilization, and finally differentiation.


Foundation is the first stage, this involves a group of English speaking settlers who
create an English speaking base in an area where English is not a spoken language.

The settlers previous accents and dialects play an enormous role in how the indigenous
people learn English. As the settlers often have different dialects of English themselves,
the most universal words and phrases of all the dialects are often included in the
"New-English's" vocabulary where as the regionalisms of each English dialect will often be
dropped. This stage is often awkward for both the parties involved as cross-cultural
understanding is often minimal and communication is limited to a few. Thus communication
between the indigenous people and the settlers is inhibited. Often with military
installations no attempt is made to learn the native language and the emerging dialect is
mainly based on the English language. This is not the case with examples like trading
posts or Linguistic Anthropologists who attempt to learn the native language to facilitate
trade or research. The "New-Englishes" that emerges from these would contain a solid base
from both Native and English languages. During this period the native language affects the
English spoken, often the first words frequently used of the Native language are place
names such as in the United States with Chattahoochee, Mississippi, Milwaukee,
Susquehanna, Chicago, Tallahassee, all these are of Native American origin.

The second stage is where an abrupt change occurs the indigenous people realize that it is
beneficial to be able to communicate with the settlers. The settlers generally do not
attempt to learn the local dialect, as they often believe that they are doing a deed for
their country of origin and that once they return their language will again be the norm.
This is theorized for both settlers who plan to stay in the foreign country and those who
will return after a period of time. The indigenous language begins to work it's way into
the English language as mentioned earlier through place names but also through new species
of animals, plants, and new objects. This is often where the "New-English" forms it's own
unique words. Around this time is when the indigenous people begin to shift their patterns
of language often using the pattern of their own language but with English words or the
opposite using the English pattern of speaking with their native vocabulary.

When the indigenous culture begins to change and their traditional identities begin to
switch this is the stage known as Nativization. The new identity combines the foreign
language with their own and as these languages mingle it increases the communication. As
the communication increases it affects how the two countries regard each other
Continues for 3 more pages >>




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