Rise of the Superpowers (USA and USSR) Essay

This essay has a total of 3848 words and 20 pages.

Rise of the Superpowers (USA and USSR)

Rise of the Superpowers (USA & USSR) from events prior
to and during WWII World War II: the process of
superpowerdom It is often wondered how the superpowers
achieved their position of dominance. It seems that the
maturing of the two superpowers, Russia and the United
States, can be traced to World War II. To be a
superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an
overpowering military, immense international political power
and, related to this, a strong national ideology. It was this
war, and its results, that caused each of these superpowers
to experience such a preponderance of power. Before the
war, both nations were fit to be described as great powers,
but it would be erroneous to say that they were superpowers
at that point. To understand how the second World War
impacted these nations so greatly, we must examine the
causes of the war. The United States gained its strength in
world affairs from its status as an economic power. In the
years before the war, America was the world's largest
producer. In the USSR at the same time, Stalin was
implementing his ‘five year plans' to modernise the Soviet
economy. From these situations, similar foreign policies
resulted from widely divergent origins. Roosevelt's
isolationism emerged from the wide and prevalent domestic
desire to remain neutral in any international conflicts. It
commonly widely believed that Americans entered the first
World War simply in order to save industry's capitalist
investments in Europe. Whether this is the case or not,
Roosevelt was forced to work with an inherently isolationist
Congress, only expanding its horizons after the bombing of
Pearl Harbour. He signed the Neutrality Act of 1935,
making it illegal for the United States to ship arms to the
belligerents of any conflict. The act also stated that
belligerents could buy only non-armaments from the US, and
even these were only to be bought with cash. In contrast,
Stalin was by necessity interested in European affairs, but
only to the point of concern to the USSR. Russian foreign
policy was fundamentally Leninist in its concern to keep the
USSR out of war. Stalin wanted to consolidate Communist
power and modernise the country's industry. The Soviet
Union was committed to collective action for peace, as long
as that commitment did not mean that the Soviet Union
would take a brunt of a Nazi attack as a result. Examples of
this can be seen in the Soviet Unions' attempts to achieve a
mutual assistance treaty with Britain and France. These
treaties, however, were designed more to create security for
the West, as opposed to keeping all three signatories from
harm. At the same time, Stalin was attempting to polarise
both the Anglo-French, and the Axis powers against each
other. The important result of this was the Nazi-Soviet
non-aggression pact, which partitioned Poland, and allowed
Hitler to start the war. Another side-effect of his policy of
playing both sides was that it caused incredible distrust
towards the Soviets from the Western powers after 1940.
This was due in part to the fact that Stalin made several
demands for both influence in the Dardanelles, and for
Bulgaria to be recognised as a Soviet dependant. The seeds
of superpowerdom lie here however, in the late thirties. R.J.
Overy has written that "stability in Europe might have been
achieved through the existence of powers so strong that they
could impose their will on the whole of the international
system, as has been the case since 1945…." At the time,
there was no power in the world that could achieve such a
feat. Britain and France were in imperial decline, and more
concerned about colonial economics than the stability of
Europe. Both imperial powers assumed that empire-building
would necessarily be an inevitable feature of the world
system. German aggression could have been stifled early had
the imperial powers had acted in concert. The memories of
World War One however, were too powerful, and the
general public would not condone a military solution at that
point. The aggression of Germany, and to a lesser extent that
of Italy, can be explained by this decline of imperial power.
They were simply attempting to fill the power vacuum in
Europe that Britain and France unwittingly left. After the
economic crisis of the 1930's, Britain and France lost much
of their former international standing--as the world markets
plummeted; so did their relative power. The two nations
were determined to maintain their status as great powers
however, without relying on the US or the USSR for support
of any kind. They went to war only because further
appeasement would have only served to remove from them
their little remaining world standing and prestige. The
creation of a non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union
and Germany can be viewed as an example of imperial
decline as well. Stalin explained the fact that he reached a
rapprochement with Germany, and not one with Great
Britain by stating that "the USSR and Germany had wanted
to change the old equilibrium… England and France wanted
to preserve it. Germany also wanted to make a change in the
equilibrium, and this common desire to get rid of the old
equilibrium had created the basis for the rapprochement with
Germany." The common desire of many of the great
European powers for a change in the world state system
meant that either a massive war would have to be fought; or
that one of the great powers would need to attempt to make
the leap to superpower status without reaping the
advantages such a conflict could give to the power making
the attempt. Such benefits as wartime economic gains, vastly
increased internal markets from conquered territory, and
increased access to resources and the means of industrial
production would help fuel any nation's drive for
superpowerdom. One of two ways war could have been
avoided was for the United States or Russia to have taken
powerful and vigorous action against Germany in 1939.
Robert A. Divine, holds that "superpowerdom gives a nation
the framework by which a nation is able to extend globally
the reach of its power and influence." This can be seen
especially as the ability to make other nations (especially in
the Third World) act in ways that the superpower prefers,
even if this is not in the weaker nation's self interest. The
question must then be raised, were the United States and
Russia superpowers even then, could coercive, unilateral
actions taken by them have had such significant ramifications
for the international order? It must be concluded that, while
they were not yet superpowers, they certainly were great
powers, with the incredible amount of influence that
accompanies such status. Neither the United States nor the
Soviet Union possessed the international framework
necessary to be a super power at this time. It is likely that
frameworks similar to Nato or the Warsaw Pact could have
been developed, but such infrastructures would have
necessarily been on a much smaller scale, and without
influence as the proposed Anglo-American (English speaking
world) pact was. At this time, neither the United States nor
Russia had developed the overwhelming advantages that
they possessed at the end of the war. There are several
factors that allowed them to become superpowers: a
preponderance of military force, growing economies, and the
creation of ideology-backed blocs of power. The United
States, it seems, did not become a superpower by accident.
Indeed, Roosevelt had a definite European policy that was
designed from the start to secure a leading role for the
United States. The US non-policy which ignored Eastern
Europe in the late thirties and forties, while strongly
supported domestically, was another means to Roosevelt's
plans to achieve US world supremacy. After the war,
Roosevelt perceived that the way to dominate world affairs
was to reduce Europe's international role (vis-a-vis the
United States, as the safest way of preventing future world
conflict), the creation of a permanent superpower rivalry
with the USSR to ensure world stability. Roosevelt sought to
reduce Europe's geopolitical role by ensuring the
fragmentation of the continent into small, relatively
powerless, and ethnically homogenous states. When viewed
in light of these goals Roosevelt appears very similar to Stalin
who, in Churchill's words, "Wanted a Europe composed of
little states, disjointed, separate, and weak." Roosevelt was
certain that World War Two would destroy continental
Europe as a military and economic force, removing Germany
and France from the stage of world powers. This would
leave the United States, Great Britain, and the USSR as the
last remaining European world powers. In order to make it
nearly impossible for France to reclaim her former world
position, Roosevelt objected to De Gaul taking power
immediately after the war. Roosevelt defended the Allies
"right [to] hold the political situation in trust for the French
people." He presented General Eisenhower control of
France and Italy for up to a year, in order to "restore civil
order." As British foreign minister Anthony Eden stated, "...
Roosevelt wanted to hold the strings of France's future in his
hands, so that he could decide that country's fate." It seems
inexcusable that Roosevelt desired to hold an ally's nation in
trust, comparable to Italy, who was a belligerent. It could be
argued, however that they were taking the reigns of power,
not from the resistance, but from the hands of the Vichy
French. It might be asked why Roosevelt did not plot the fall
of the British Empire as well. A cynical answer to this is that
Roosevelt understood that the United States was not
powerful enough to check the Soviet Union's power in
Europe by itself. It made sense that because the United
States and Britain are cultural cousins, the most commodious
solution would be to continue the tradition of friendliness, set
out in the Atlantic Charter earlier. As far as economic or
military competition, Roosevelt knew that if he could open
the British Empire to free trade it would not be able to
effectively compete with the United States. This is because
an imperial paradigm allows one to sell goods in a
projectionist manner, finding markets within the Empire. This
allows a nation to have restrictive tariffs on imports, which
precludes foreign competition. A nation, that is primarily
concerned with finding markets on the other hand, is in a
much better position for global economic expansion, as it is
in its interest to pursue free trade. The more generous, and
likely the correct interpretation is that Roosevelt originally
planned to have a system of three superpowers, including
only the US, the UK, and the USSR. This was modified
from the original position which was formed before the
USSR joined the allies, that held for Great Britain to take a
primary role in Europe, and the United States to act as a
custodial in Asia. Later, after it was seen that either the
Germans or the Russians would dominate Eastern Europe,
the plan was forced to change. The plan shifted from one
where the US and Great Britain would keep order in
Europe, to one where Great Britain and the USSR would
keep order in Europe as local superpowers, and the US
would act as an impartial, world wide mediator. Roosevelt
hoped for the creation of an Anglo-American-Russo world
police force. However, Roosevelt, underestimated the
power of the Russian ideology. He believed that the
Russians would back away from communism for the sake of
greater stability and union with the West. Roosevelt saw the
Soviet Union as a country like any other, except for her
preoccupation with security (the safety corridor in Eastern
Europe that Stalin insisted on), but he thought that that this
could be explained by the cultural and historical background
of Russia. It was not thought unreasonable to request a
barrier of satellite states to provide a sense of security, given
that Russia and the USSR had been invaded at least four
times since 1904. It was felt that granting the Soviet Union
some territory in Eastern and Central Europe would satisfy
their political desires for territory. It was only after
experiencing post World War II Soviet expansion, that the
Soviet quest for territory was seen to be inherently unlimited.
Roosevelt felt that the position in Eastern Europe, vis-a-vis
the Soviet Union, was analogous to that of Latin America,
vis-a-vis the United States. He felt that there should be
definite spheres of influence, as long as it was clear that the
Soviet Union was not to interfere with the governments of
the affected nations. The reason that Roosevelt did not
Continues for 10 more pages >>




  • African Women
    African Women Introduction 70% of African women with disabilities get them from their husbands. In Africa, most women have little or no rights. This effects what they can do for work, how their family life is, and what future they have. Women throughout time, especially in African culture, have always been subservient to men. The status of women in Africa is second-rate. In countries like the United States, women have the same rights as men and are almost equal. But in Africa its totally differ
  • Alger Hiss
    Alger Hiss In August 1948, Whittaker Chambers, a former Communist appearing before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), charged that Alger Hiss, was a Communist spy. Chambers claimed that he and Hiss had belonged to the same espionage group and that Hiss had given him secret State Department documents. This group was a network of American spies recruited by the Soviet Union to collect useful information for Moscow. Alger Hiss was a Harvard-educated lawyer and a distinguished Washin
  • Andrew Carnegie
    Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie Essay written by aliciareagan@neo.tamu.edu A man of Scotland, a distinguished citizen of the United States, and a philanthropist devoted to the betterment of the world around him, Andrew Carnegie became famous at the turn of the twentieth century and became a real life rags to riches story. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, on November 25, 1835, Andrew Carnegie entered the world in poverty. The son of a hand weaver, Carnegie received his only formal education during
  • Bay of Pigs
    Bay of Pigs The Bay of Pigs Invasion The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is st
  • Bitter Rivals Henry Cabot Lodge and Woodrow Wilson
    Bitter Rivals Henry Cabot Lodge and Woodrow Wilson Bitter Rivals: Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge Political rivalries define American government. The dual-party system by nature sets up partisan rivalries between members of all three branches of our government rivalries that have at times pushed our government to progress and at other times slowed it to a grinding halt. The contrasting backgrounds and resulting political ideologies of Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge created a modern
  • Black Americans
    Black Americans Black Americans Black Americans are those persons in the United States who trace their ancestry to members of the Negroid race in Africa. They have at various times in United States history been referred to as African, coloured, Negro, Afro-American, and African-American, as well as black. The black population of the United States has grown from three-quarters of a million in 1790 to nearly 30 million in 1990. As a percentage of the total population, blacks declined from 19.3 in
  • Cambodia
    Cambodia The Impact of the Past on the Present Cambodia, then, like so many other nations in the developing world, is an agricultural country, and, in terms of the cash incomes of its people, desperately poor. In the past, Cambodia was able to earn foreign exchange to pay for imported goods by selling agricultural surpluses-of rice and corn, for example-or plant crops, such as pepper, rubber, and cotton. Its normal patterns of trade were broken up in the wars of the 1970\'s. When the fighting di
  • Causes of WW1
    Causes of WW1 The Causes of World War I What exactly were the causes of World War I? Sure, it sounds like a pretty simple question, but its most definitely not a simple answer! There was whole lot more to the start of the war than an Austrian prince being murdered in Serbia, as is what most people think was the whole cause of World War I. Besides, the effects of the war werent just concentrated to a post-war era lasting for a whole generation of Westerners. Nope! The effects of the war were
  • Charles Dickens
    Charles Dickens Charles Dickens Dickens has always presented problems for literary criticism. For theorists whose critical presuppositions emphasize intelligence, sensitivity and an author in complete control of his work the cruder aspects of his popular art have often proved an insurmountable obstacle, while for the formulators of traditions his gigantic idiosyncrasies can never be made to conform. If difficulties such as these have been overcome by the awareness that Dickens sets his own stand
  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Did america do enought to help the jews in the hol
    did america do enought to help the jews in the holocaust Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in th Description of this essay : Western Civilization - World War II Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in the Holocaust "When they came for the gypsies, I did not speak, for I am not a gypsy. When they came for the Jew Western Civilization - World War II Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in the Holocaust "When they came for the gypsies, I did not speak, for I am not a gyps
  • Education and Egalitarianism in America
    Education and Egalitarianism in America The American educator Horace Mann once said: "As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated." Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands. The
  • Entrepreneurial Adventure
    Entrepreneurial Adventure Entrepreneurial Adventure: The Development of Economics in The United States Capitalism came in the first ships. -Carl N. Degler Barit Brown United States History Saturday, March 18, 2000 4,753 words The United States was a nation of development. It was a nation of growth and of innovation. From the signing of the Declaration of Independence, to the end of World War II and so forth, complex dilemmas called for complex solutions and complex solutions called for innovat
  • FDRs Influence as president
    FDRs Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a new
  • Jefferson Principles
    Jefferson Principles ureAlex Marion Mr. Uremovic per 2 10/5/00 Thomas Jefferson is remembered in history not only for the offices he held, but also for his belief in the natural rights of man as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and his faith in the peoples ability to govern themselves. Through his political career, Thomas Jefferson advocated democratic principles and adhered to his liberal ideology. However, as a president he found it difficult to maintain these policies in the nois
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • The Bay of Pigs
    The Bay of Pigs The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro,
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion
    The Bay of Pigs Invasion The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in power
  • The Roaring Twenties
    The Roaring Twenties THE ROARING TWENTIES Americans, in the years following the end of World War I found themselves in an era, where the people simply wished to detach themselves from the troubles of Europeans and the rest of the world. During the years of the Twenties, the economy was prosperous, there was widespread social reform, new aspects of culture were established, and people found better ways to improve their lifestyle and enjoy life. The 1920\'s exemplified the changing attitudes of Am
  • The sixties1
    the sixties1 Why were the sixties a importance to our country\'s history? The sixties were an exciting, revolutionary, turbulent time of great social and technological change: assassination, unforgettable fashion, new musical styles, Camelot, civil rights, women\'s liberation, a controversial and decisive war in Vietnam, the anti-war protest to go along with the war, space exploration and the space race, peace marches, flower power, great TV and film and sexual freedom, and of course the great b
  • Animal cruelty
    Animal cruelty Jeff Albrecht Joseph Aimone Writing and Rhetoric 13 December 2000 Animal Cruelty One of the most touchy aspects of our relationship with animals is the use of animals in laboratory sciences. Some manufactures of cosmetics and household products still conduct painful and useless tests on live animals, even though no law requires them not to. Some people, called anti-vivisectionists, are at one extreme in their concern. They want an abolition of all experiments on live animals. At t
  • CATS
    CATS Many people today have pets for pleasure and companionship. Nearly any animal can be a pet, such as hamsters, rabbits, birds, fish, frogs, horses, and even cats and dogs. Besides being a loving companion, pets serve many other purposes as in protecting homes, destroying vermin, and providing a means of transportation. The elderly and the childless couples can rely on a pet as an emotional outlet. In addition, pets can be kept for their beauty, rarity, or for the beautiful sounds that birds
  • Parasitic wasps
    Parasitic wasps Introduction Malaria is one of the most prevalent and dangerous diseases known to man. It has existed for centuries and affects a myriad of people in the tropical region. Even today, with our newly discovered treatments for many of the tropical diseases, over 10% of the people that are infected with malaria each year and do not receive proper treatment die. In Africa alone, over 1 million children die each year because of malaria and new cases are reported frequently. Malaria is
  • Culture shock
    culture shock Culture Shock The United States of America is a country in which many people from all over the world comes to live harmoniously with each other. Unlike Canada, which is a multicultural country, it is a melting pot since each person brings his peculiarity to enrich the culture of this country. But this "melting" process is not always without pain or hurt. I felt the life in Canada is more comfortable According to John J. Macionis, the author of "Sociology, secondary Canadian edition
  • Culture shock
    culture shock Culture Shock The United States of America is a country in which many people from all over the world comes to live harmoniously with each other. Unlike Canada, which is a multicultural country, it is a melting pot since each person brings his peculiarity to enrich the culture of this country. But this "melting" process is not always without pain or hurt. I felt the life in Canada is more comfortable According to John J. Macionis, the author of "Sociology, secondary Canadian edition
  • The American Indian Genocide
    The American Indian Genocide The American Indian Genocide Textbooks and movies are still hiding the genocide of Native American Indian cultures, which began five centuries ago. There were many friendly and close relationships between early immigrant settlers and native peoples, but these were not the main current in their relations. U.S. history is destroyed by acts of genocide against native people, made worse by the deadly impact of new diseases spread by contact between new settlers and nativ
  • Transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx
    transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx Transcending the Barriers "My primary interest is to explain something out there that impinges me, and I would sell my soul to the devil if I thought it would help." Eric Wolf, 1987 Eric Wolf\'s interest into the realm of anthropology emerged upon recognition of the theorist- imposed boundaries, encompassing both theories and subjects, which current and past anthropological scholars had constructed. These boundaries, Wolf believed, were a result of
  • Transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx
    transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx Transcending the Barriers "My primary interest is to explain something out there that impinges me, and I would sell my soul to the devil if I thought it would help." Eric Wolf, 1987 Eric Wolf\'s interest into the realm of anthropology emerged upon recognition of the theorist- imposed boundaries, encompassing both theories and subjects, which current and past anthropological scholars had constructed. These boundaries, Wolf believed, were a result of
  • Yanmamo
    Yanmamo There are many differences between the South American Yanomamo culture and the North American culture that we have adapted to, but just at there is culture diversity between us, we have some similarities. The ethnography, which is chose, was Yanomamo written by Napoleon A. Chagnon, anthropologists. Chagnon tells us how to it was to live among the Yanomamo family, political and warfare system versus the American Culture. The Yanomamo are of patrilineal culture, male oriented and very se
  • Between Silence and Light
    Between Silence and Light Between The Silence and The Light Introduction Architecture is a meeting place between the measurable and the unmeasurable. The art of design is not only rooted in the aesthetic form, but in the soul of the work. In Phenomena and Idea, Stephen Holl once wrote, " The thinking-making couple of architecture occurs in silence. Afterward, these "thoughts" are communicated in the silence of phenomenal experiences. We hear the "music" of architecture as we move through spaces
  • Bruce Goffs Bavinger House
    Bruce Goffs Bavinger House Introduction: Bruce Goffs working career spanned sixty-six years, from 1916, when he began working in an architects office, until his death in 1982. During that time he received more than 450 commissions for buildings and related designs, resulting in more than 500 proposals of which at least 147 were realized. Bruce Goff occupied a unique place in American architecture. His buildings looked like those of no other architect. His idiosyncratic designs juxtaposed sha
  • Ayasofya
    ayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: "Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight." More prosaically,
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
    Frank Lloyd Wright The way you live is being directly influenced by Frank Lloyd Wrights innovations in residential architecture. Mr. Wrights organic architecture was a radical departure form the traditional architecture of his day, which was dominated by European styles that dated back hundreds of years or even millennia. He contributed the Prairie and Usonian houses to the familiar of American residential design, and elements of his designs can be found in a large proportion of homes today.
  • Mary Cassatt
    Mary Cassatt She was a woman who soared to the stars across the firmament of the male-dominated international art world. She was the only American, male or female, to become a member of the French Impressionists. Most women of her time were confined to the circumscribed world of marriage, homemaking and motherhood, but not her. Who is she? She is Mary Cassatt, certainly the greatest American female artist of her time, and arguably the greatest artist produced by any nation. Born in Pittsburgh on
  • MC Escher
    MC Escher The Science of Escher Though M.C. Escher contended that he knew virtually nothing about mathematics, even having gone as far as to declare that he was absolutely innocent of training or knowledge in the exact sciences, (Schattschneider 67), his art work commonly incorporates the use of many recognized elements of science and mathematics. It has been argued that Eschers natural accessibility and his popularity with young art patrons is due to the Eschers use of symmetry, his use of
  • NorcrossVivaldi
    NorcrossVivaldi The Fitchburg Art Museum is currently celebrating its 75th anniversary. For the first time in this museums history, there is a gallery reflecting its founders passions. The art that is now on exhibit is that of Eleanor Norcross. These pieces are from Norcrosss own collection and long term loans from museums and private collections. This is one of the exhibits that launches a look at pioneering American artists of the 19th century. Norcrosss exhibit is titled, Norcross: Cha
  • Oskar Kokoschka
    Oskar Kokoschka Oskar Kokoschka Kokoschka was born in Pchlarn, a Danube town, on March 1, 1886. He studied at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts from 1905 to 1908. As an early exponent of the avant-garde expressionist movement, he began to paint psychologically penetrating portraits of Viennese physicians, architects, and artists. Among these works are Hans Tietze and Erica Tietze-Conrat (1909, Museum of Modern Art, New York City), August Forel (1910, Mannheim Art Gallery, Germany), and Self-
  • Portriat photography
    portriat photography Many photographers in the past have had dynamic careers that have influenced many up and coming photographers and will for years to come. Because their work at the time has been preserved in inspirational and innovative images of their eras rock legends and cultural icons, similarities yet progressions can been seen through a comparison of photographers such as David Bailey, Anne Liebovitz and Rankin one of today\'s most talked about photographers. David Baileys career was a
  • Portriat photography1
    portriat photography1 Many photographers in the past have had dynamic careers that have influenced many up and coming photographers and will for years to come. Because their work at the time has been preserved in inspirational and innovative images of their eras rock legends and cultural icons, similarities yet progressions can been seen through a comparison of photographers such as David Bailey, Anne Liebovitz and Rankin one of today\'s most talked about photographers. David Baileys career was
  • Titian
    Titian Titian No one knows exactly when the Italian artist, Tiziano Vecellio, was born. Over the centuries, there has been a great deal of confusion concerning the date, due to a misprint in his biography by sixteenth century art historian, Girgio Vasari. Vasari recorded the date as 1480, but the progress of Tiziano Vecellios work, as well as other documented sources, announce his date of birth to be sometime between 1488 and 1490. (Magill 2310) The place of his birth was Pieve de Cadore, in th
  • Titians altarpieces in the church of the Frari Ven
    Titians altarpieces in the church of the Frari Venice Titians Pesaro and Assunta. Altarpieces in the church of the Frari, Venice. What was the importance of these two altarpieces for the development of painting in Venice, both from a stylistic and iconographic point of view? It has been said that Titians Assunta, which adorns the high altar, and Pesaro (on the left aisle of the chapel of the Immaculate Conception) stand mid-way between the past and the future of Venetian painting. This infers
  • Southwest Airlines
    Southwest Airlines Introduction While flying home to Texas last summer with Southwest Airlines, I had the most fun and unique experience with an airline that I could ever remember. It all started out quite oddly enough in the lobby just before takeoff. As I was checking in at the ticket counter, the representative asked me if I wanted to play a game that could get me free round trip tickets. "Sure, who wouldn\'t," I exclaimed. As she gave me my boarding pass she said, "Great, how many holes do y
  • Albert Einstein2
    Albert Einstein2 Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm. He was raised in Munich, where his family owned a small electrical machinery shop. Though he did not even begin to speak until he was three, he showed a great curiosity of nature and even taught himself Euclidean geometry at the age of 12. Albert despised school life, thinking it dull and boring, so when his family decided to move to Milan, Italy, Einstein took the opportunity to drop out of school, only 15 at th
  • Einstein
    Einstein Albert Einstein Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost every person in the world. While most of these people do not understand his work, everyone knows that his impact on the world of science is amazing. Many people have heard of Albert Einsteins General Theory of relativity, but not many people know of his life that led him to discover what scientists have called, The greatest single achievement of human
  • FDRs influence as president
    FDRs influence as president Franklin Delano Roosevelts Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen
  • Hemingway
    Hemingway ERNEST HEMINGWAY BIOGRAPHY On the date of July 21, 1899 Ernest Hemingway, a now known brilliant writer, was born. Hemingway was conceivably the only writer to achieve the combination of international celebrity and literary stature in the twentieth century. Hemingway was brought up in the village of Oak Park, Illinois, close to the prairies and woods west of Chicago. Both here and in Michigan, he could explore, camp, fish and hunt with his father, Dr. Clarence Hemingway. In Chicago he w
  • Kafka
    kafka Franz Kafka was born in Prague, Bohemia, July 3, 1883 and died June 3, 1924 of tuberculosis at the age of 40. He came from a middle-class Jewish family. His father was a shopkeeper and tried to climb up the social ladder by working hard at his shop and sending Franz to a prestigious German high school. He went on to get a law degree and worked for two insurance companies (not at the same time) When his .tuberculosis got bad in 1917 he was put on temporary retirement with a pension. German
  • Karl Marx
    Karl Marx Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise Above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the Basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think Today, and because of him people are more open to
  • Malcolm X
    Malcolm X Malcolm X Throughout history there have been many people who have stood out and made an impact in the way we think and comprehend things. During the late 1950\'s and early 1960\'s, Malcolm X was no exception. His militant views that Western nations were inherently racist and that black people must join together to build their own society and value system had an important influence on black nationalist and black separatist movements of the 1950s and 1960s. At the beginning of the movie,