Russian Romantic Music and Tchaikovsky Essay

This essay has a total of 3204 words and 14 pages.

Russian Romantic Music and Tchaikovsky

Ru ssian Romantic Music and Tchaikovsky

Rus sian music bears its own styles and emotions, free from the outside influence of other
European countries during the Romantic period. Politics play an indirect role in the
development of Russian music, isolating the country both politically and musically.

Until the Decembrist revolt in 1825, Russia was under the unrelenting rule of czars.
Russia retained the ways of the old -- its caste system, its severity of censorship --
while the rest of Europe had already shed its Middle Age characteristics. Since the
revolt, it had become fashionable for the educated public to promote social reform.

Political activity in Russia was a dangerous game, likely to lead to death or exile.
Because of this, Russians turned to their national roots, finding solace in rich folk
culture and explorations in art, literature, and music. A new concern for national
differences in language and the arts provoked a new age of nationalism. For Russia, music
was seen as a particularly strong way of expressing the “soul” of a people.

In Russia, the leader of the nationalist revival was Mikhail Glinka. His followers –
Rimsky-Korsakov, Balakirev, César Cui, Borodin, and Mussorgsky – became known as “The
Five.” These composers were an unusual crowd of dedicated drinkers, but despite that, they
were also exquisitely talented amateur composers. Borodin worked as a chemist; César Cui
was a military engineer; and Modest Mussorgsky was a civil servant whom the rest of the
group regarded with contempt.

The most successful of “The Five” was Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, who was an accomplished and
skillful orchestrator. His operas, based on Russian folk songs, were very popular in their
time, while his attractive orchestral works such as Sheherazade and the famous Spanish
Capriccio are still often heard today.

The leader of the group was Mily Balakirev, whose judgement was feared by everybody in the
group. Balakirev was a fierce nationalist, actively detesting any form of art that was not
purely Russian. His aim was to establish a truly national music, and much of “The Five’s”
time was spent criticizing and rewriting other people’s compositions – including each
other’s – in the “approved” Russian style.

No one dared challenge the authority of “The Five.” One man attempted to project his own
voice. That man was Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. His music had a special appeal to his
listeners: memorable tunes, whether passionately eloquent or stylishly graceful; wild,
abandoned dance music; the sheer grandeur of pieces such as the 1812 Overture or the
famous opening of his Piano Concert No. 1; and most strikingly, his masterful handling of
a vast palette of orchestral color. Ironically, Tchaikovsky was to win far more renown for
Russian music abroad than any of his fellow nationalists.

Tchai kovsky’s music was always easy to listen to, giving immense pleasure even at its
most tragic and overwhelmingly emotional climaxes. In contrast to his enjoyable music,
Tchaikovsky’s life was exceedingly tumultuous and unhappy. The man himself was often
melancholy and moody. These qualities were result of his own temperament: he was a
hypochondriac, and was homosexual, which was regarded as a great shame and disgrace at
that time. But after all, he was Russian, and like many of his fellow countrymen, was
impelled towards displays of extreme emotion.

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born on May 7, 1840, in Kamsko-Votkinsk, a small industrial
town east of Moscow. His father, Ilya Petrovich, was a mining engineer. He was a person of
high standing in Kamsko-Votkinsk and was able to comfortably provide for his wife and four
children. Pyotr’s mother Alexandra was a nervous epileptic, of whom Pyotr inherited his
tendency to real or imagined ill-health, fits of hysteria, and deep depression..

Even as a youngster, Pyotr Tchaikovsky was hypersensitive; the slightest scolding would
reduce him to a flood of tears. Besides this, his parents were also worried about his
addition to music, which often ironically seemed to upset him. One night after a party,
Alexandra found him awake, pointing to his forehead, and crying, “Oh this music, this
music! Take it away! It’s here and it won’t let me sleep!”

Pyotr’s father was in possession of a great variety of music, playable on the
“Orchestrion,” a rudimentary form of a record player. It was his listening of tunes from
the opera Don Giovanni on the Orchestrion that Pyotr dedicated his lifelong admiration to
Mozart. “It was due to Mozart that I devoted my life to music,” he wrote many years later.

Tchaikovsky began to play the piano early in childhood. His first teacher was Maria
Palchikova, a freed serf. As mentioned earlier, the influence of the czar retained the old
caste system. Within a year, Tchaikovsky was able to play better than she could.

At the age of ten, Pyotr was send to St. Petersburg to study at the School of
Jurisprudence. A reluctant student, Tchaikovsky worked without much interest, but was
naturally gifted and quickly passed through his school’s upper divisions. Meanwhile, he
kept up with his profound interest in music, taking lessons from the well-known concert
pianist Rudolph Kündinger. Kündinger was impressed by Pyotr’s ability to improvise, but
beyond that, Pyotr’s teacher though that he had no unusual talent for music. When Pyotr’s
father asked Kündinger if he should change his mind and consider encouraging the boy’s
interest in the piano with a view to a career, Kündinger advised him against it. Kündinger
later said, “certainly [Pyotr] was gifted, he had a good ear and a good memory, a fine
touch, but otherwise there was nothing, absolutely nothing, that suggested a composer.”

Tchaikov sky entered the Ministry of Justice in St. Petersburg as civil servant. To
ordinary Russians, civil servants were then people to be shunned and hated: they
represented petty officialdom and oppression. Tchaikovsky was not naturally suited to such
a job: he was not really interested in politics, and he was once said to have
absentmindedly torn up an important document, rolled the scraps into pellets and
swallowing them. He remained at the Ministry of Justice for four years, bored but dutiful.

While Tchaikovsky worked as a civil servant, he found that his duties were not heavy ones.
He was able to take a leave of three months to accompany a relative around Europe, acting
as his interpreter. Also, Tchaikovsky had plenty of time for music, playing the piano and
going to concerts. He joined the Ministry’s own choral group, and in 1861, he began to
study musical theory under Nikolai Zaremba, the Head of the Russian Musical Society.

One of Tchaikovsky’s music teachers was the pianist and composer Anton Rubenstein, who
became the first directory of the St. Petersburg Music Conservatory. He had observed that
Tchaikovsky’s technique was merely ameteur, so he corrected the young man’s exercises.
Rubenstein was the first to see real signs of talent, but had to criticize Tchaikovsky for
years of careless work.

Tchaikovsky began to realize that he had to be serious about his music in order to make
true progress. When he failed to get a promotion he had wanted at the Ministry, he decided
to resign and start his career all over again. Tchaikovsky entered the St. Petersburg
Music Conservatory at the age of twenty-two, and was much older than most of the other
students. But he also had more experience, and supported himself by teaching pupils of his
own. He learned how to play the organ and mastered the flute, which he then played in the
Conservatory orchestra.

Rubenste in had been a moving force in Tchaikovsky’s composing career by criticizing all
of his compositions. In 1864, Rubenstein was very critical of Tchaikovsky’s most important
student piece, The Storm Overture, inspired by a melancholy play by Russian dramatist
Ostrovsky. While Rubenstein had expected Tchaikovsky’s composition to be dark and dreary,
Tchaikovsky instead created a colorful, dramatic piece of “program music,” including
unusual instruments such as the harp, oboe, and tuba. Rubenstein was furious because this
was not the kind of thing he expected from his normally obedient students. He was also
very critical of Tchaikovsky’s graduation exercise, a cantata representing Schiller’s Ode
to Joy. The cantata was performed January 12, 1866, in the presence of a distinguished
audience – but Tchaikovsky was too nervous face the pressure of the occasion. Rubenstein
threatened to withhold Tchaikovsky’s diploma, but nobody could deny Pyotr’s outstanding
talent. His presence was now known.

Tchaikovsky was later offered a job as professor of harmony at the newly-established
Moscow Conservatory, where Anton Rubenstein’s younger brother, Nikolai, was directory.
Nikolai offered lodgings and support to Pyotr for the following five years. Nevertheless,
as Tchaikovsky faced the new pressures of teaching, he overworked himself and his
students. Like many of the Russian upper classes, he had found refuge in heavy alcoholism.

Tchaikovsky’s first major musical success came when Anton Rubenstein conducted his
Overture in F major at a concert on March 16, 1866. Tchaikovsky was so inspired that he
immediately began to work on his first symphony. This composition cost him many sleepless
nights and provoked a nervous breakdown; he was unable to sleep, suffered from terrible
headaches, and was convinced that he was on the brink of death.

Despite his nervous problems, Tchaikovsky was determined to complete Symphony No. 1, which
he named “Winter Daydreams.” And when he made his first public appearance as a conductor,
the experience terrified him so much that it was ten years before he ever attempted
another public performance.

The first two movements of Symphony No. 1 had subtitles: “Daydreams of a Winter Journey,”
and “Land of Desolation, Land of Mists.” Both movements possessed tunes influenced by
Russian folk-melodies, and evoked the bleak Russian countryside in the grips of winter.
Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 1 was performed in 1868 with Anton Rubenstein conducting.

In the same year, Tchaikovsky met Mily Balakirev, who had succeeded Anton Rubenstein as
head of the Conservatory at St. Petersburg. Unfortunately, Balakirev was driven out from
his post because his opponents had despised his controversial ideas. He settled in Moscow,
where he met Tchaikovsky. He suggested to Pyotr that he should compose an overture-fantasy
on the theme of Romeo and Juliet. Not only did Balakirev fuel the idea, but he also
Continues for 7 more pages >>

  • 2018
    2018 The year is 2018. A Mars colony has been firmly established. Earth has become a virtual earth with virtual cities, operators, and cars proliferating everywhere. The introduction of the Eurodollar and many regional trade agreements have temporarily pacified a once turbulent political world. The ozone layer has been depleted immensely resulting in an urgent demand for bioengineers. Here, I come in. I am the people’s director at a leading firm in the bioengineering industry. My firm consists o
  • All Quiet on the Westren Front
    All Quiet on the Westren Front All Quiet on the Western Front – Chapter SummaryBy: Jesse CodyAll Quiet on the Western Front is an anti-war novel from the opening chapters. Many critics of the novel in the early days after the publication of the novel blamed Remarque for writing for shock value. They did not want to believe his novel represented the truth about World War I. In many ways, such people were like Paul\'s schoolmaster, Kantorek. They wanted to cling to classical, romantic notions of w
  • Animorphs
    animorphs One of my favorite books is Animorphs#7 The Stranger. It\'s about five kids who have the power to morph. In other words they can change into any animal they touch. By touch I mean they absorb a strand of the animal\'s DNA. Then, from the DNA, they are able to create an exact copy of the animal and take on the copy. They can change into any animal they touch. There is a series of these books. In this book they find an entrance to a Yeerk pool, a necessity of their alien enemies, the Yee
  • Careers and Colleges
    Careers and Colleges Research Project: Careers and Colleges It is difficult for first time job hunters to have realistic ideas about how to profit from their skills. This is why it is important to investigate what career you may be interested in and what colleges will enable you to excell in that career. The profession that I am interested into going into is an elementary school teacher. Fordham University and New York University are two colleges that offer excellent elementary education program
  • Discrimination
    Discrimination Discrimination Anthony Koroush Position Paper 13 December 2000 Discrimination Introduction—Discrimination is going on around the world everyday. Discrimination in any way is wrong. I. It contradicts the Constitution A. The Constitution states, “All men are created equal.” 1. In the 1700’s, blacks were slaves. 2. Three Fifths Compromise: 5 blacks=3whites 3. Hitler killing the Jews 4. Catholics persecuted in Maryland because of religion 5. Rosa Parks riding on bus with whites II. It
  • Hamlet Delay
    Hamlet Delay Hamlet\'s Delay Everyone contains a tinge of Hamlet in his feelings, wants, and worries, and proudly so, for Hamlet is not like the other tragic heroes of his period. He stands apart from other Shakespeare\'s heroes in his today much discussed innocence. Is this supposed tragic hero maybe an ideal hero - one without the tragic flaw, which has been a part of the formula for the tragedy since the Golden age of Greece?; is a question that has been the field for many literary critics\'
  • How to change a flat tire
    How to change a flat tire How to Change a Flat Tire on a Busy Road You can easily get sucker into paying more than fifty dollars for having a towing company change flat tire for you. Instead, you can save yourself money by doing it yourself. It is a simple process that takes less than half an hour. Most of the tools you need are already in your car. These tools include a Jack, a tire iron, a spare tire, and road flares. The first step is to set up the road flares. Flares are available at most de
  • Legality of same sex marriages
    legality of same sex marriages INTRODUCTION The proposed legalization of same sex marriage is one of the most significant issues in contemporary American family law. Presently, it is one of the most vigorously advocated reforms discussed in law reviews, one of the most provocative issues. It could be one of the most revolutionary policy decisions in the history of American family law. The potential consequences, positive or negative, for children, parents, same-sex couples, families, social, str
  • Lock picking by shoedog
    lock picking by shoedog Lock Picking Lock picking is an art in its entirety. It takes lots of hard work, practice, and patience to pick a lock. Being able to sit in one place for a long time doing something that at first seems hopeless is the key to learning how to pick a lock. In the world of locks there are probably 1000\'s of different locks. The most common type of lock is the pin tumbler lock. Since this type of lock is the most commonly used lock, this is what I will use to teach the basic
  • Louisiana purchase
    louisiana purchase Several great American Statesmen were pivotal in shaping and molding the government of the United States. History has since forgotten some of these founding fathers. The ones remembered throughout history are those we hold up for their accomplishments. Thomas Jefferson is one of the American Statesmen that stands out from the rest as being one of the greatest contributors to our present form of government. Historian Robert Tucker described Jefferson\'s life as being a paradox.
  • My future1
    My future1 I like options, I like security, and I like power. With these wants, I knew at a very early age that I would enter business and thus I attended a college that specializes in the subject. In my first position out of school, I was hired by Dunhill Equities as a cold-caller. After several weeks of being hung up on by angry prospects, I decided that this career path would not lead me to success. I then moved within the firm to a position as sales assistant. While this was by no means my d
  • None Provided
    None Provided The book begins with Biblo Baggins enjoying a pipe after breakfast. This is one of his favorite pleasures and he feels quite content in doing so. He is middle-aged, and resides in a burrow in the ground. One morning Gandalf, a wizard stops by to talk with Biblo. He tells Biblo that he is looking for someone to go on an adventure with him. Although Biblo is tempted he declines, but not before inviting Gandalf for tea the next morning. The next day Biblo hears his doorbell and he rem
  • Pythagorean theorm
    pythagorean theorm The Pythagorean Theorem is a geometrical expression used often in math and physics. It used to 2 2 2 find the unknown side of a right triangle. The exponential form of this theorem a + b = c . That is the equation you use when you are looking for the unknown side of a right triangle, and it is what I’ll demonstrate on the attached exhibit. The upside down capital L in the bottom of the left hand corner indicates that sides A & B are the legs of the triangle. Since we know side
  • The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler
    The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler "Life just is. You have to flow with it. Give yourself to the moment. Let it happen." -Jerry Brown If an individual allows changes to occur in one’s life, then love can be the wonderful result of that acceptance. The theme of reasons why we love and how we love different people is demonstrated throughout the book The Accidental Tourist, written by Anne Tyler. There are two main characters that undergo and accept the changes in their lives, and one character t
  • The trial
    The trial THE TRIAL by Franz Kafka read by Geoffrey Howard This disturbing and vastly influential novel has been interpreted on many levels of structure and symbol; but most commentators agree that the book explores the themes of guilt, anxiety, and moral impotency in the face of some ambiguous force. Joseph K. is an employee in a bank, a man without particular qualities or abilities. He could be anyone, and in some ways he is everyone. His inconsequence makes doubly strange his “arrest” by the
  • Why schools need the grading system
    Why schools need the grading system C.D. 1/5/99 New School Policy Essay School Number (WHATEVER SCHOOL) is considering a new policy.Students will not receive grades in any classes.Before passing this policy,the principal wants to know how it will affect students.This new policy can have some good effects and bad effects.How would it affect teachers?How would it affect students who plan to go to collage?How would it affect students who usually get bad grades?All these things have to be taken into
  • The Rainmaker
    WOW The Rainmaker The world is full of great novels. From Sherlock Holmes to the three musketeers. As the years progress more novels are written and more money is made. John Grisham is a rising star in literature. His books have enticed readers and has given the people something good to read. What makes his books great is that they are so realistic. He applies his personal law and trial knowledge into the books he writes.What it is about ? It was his last semester of law school. Rudy Baylor was
  • 1960 establishment
    1960 establishment ˙The Establishment in the 1960\'s The nineteen sixties were times of great change. Many people went from moderates to radicals because of the environment around them. That environment was called the establishment. It included all of the events going on in the nineteen sixties. Some of the main events taking place were the Vietnam War, the government, the Democratic National Convention and the culture (*). Many protested things that they did not believe in or thought was wrong
  • A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 196
    A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 1960s Hubert Humphrey once stated, “When we say, ‘One nation under God, with liberty and justice for all,’ we are talking about all people. We either ought to believe it or quit saying it” (Hakim 111). During the 1960’s, a great number of people did, in fact, begin to believe it. These years were a time of great change for America. The country was literally redefined as people from all walks of life fought to uphold their standards on what they beli
  • Affirmative Action
    Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative action is one of the more recent and popular civil rights policies that affect today\'s society. Affirmative action can be described as nothing more than a lower educational standard for minorities. It has become quite clear that affirmative action is unfair and unjust. However, in order to blend race, culture, and genders to create a stable and diverse society, someone has to give. How can this be justified? Is there a firm right or wrong to aff
  • African Americans In The South
    African Americans In The South As a social and economic institution, slavery originated in the times when humans began farming instead of hunting and gathering. Slave labor became commonplace in ancient Greece and Rome. Slaves were created through the capture of enemies, the birth of children to slave parents, and means of punishment. Enslaved Africans represented many different peoples, each with distinct cultures, religions, and languages. Most originated from the coast or the interior of West
  • VEssay submitted by Unknown
    AH VEssay submitted by Unknown Early Life Born in Monroeville, Alabama, on April 28, 1926, Nelle Harper Lee is the youngest of three children of Amassa Coleman Lee and Francis Lee. Before his death, Miss Lee\'s father and her older sister, Alice, practiced law together in Monroeville. When one considers the theme of honor that runs throughout Miss Lee\'s novel, it is perhaps significant to note that her family is related to Confederate General Robert E. Lee, a man especially noted for his devoti
  • Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein Albert Einstein Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this man\'s work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Yes, many have heard of Albert Einstein\'s General Theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called, "The greatest single achievement
  • Alcatraz
    Alcatraz Alcatraz: United States Penitentiary 1934-1963 As a result of the Great Depression, a new breed of violent criminals swept the streets of America. In response to the cries of alarmed citizens, Congress enacted a number of statutes, which gave the federal government jurisdiction over certain criminal offenses previously held by the states. With the suggestion of former US Attorney General, Homes Cummings, Congress agreed that a special penal institution of maximum security and minimum pr
    ALCATRAZ ISLAND AND PRISON Alcatraz Island has quite a distinct history. Many people know that Alcatraz served as a federal prison, but most are reluctant to know that this island served as fort. Built before the Civil War, it served two main purposes. First, that it was to guard the San Francisco bay area from enemy ships against a foreign invasion, and second, to hold hostage prisoners of war or POW\'s as they were called. In this report, I\'ll show you how this fortress came to be a federal p
  • American Women During WWII
    american Women During WWII American Women During World War II. America\'s entry into World War II posed opportunities for American women domestically, yet paradoxically heightened fears in the polity about the exact role that women should adopt during wartime. A central issue that dominated women\'s lives during this period was how to combine the private sphere of the home, with the new demands of the war economy in the public sphere. Women made significant gains in the military, the war economy
  • Amish Culture
    Amish Culture The past five weeks in my life have really had an impact on me. In such a short period of time, I have become more aware of the different cultures that exist around the world today. We tend to think that our way of life is the only way there is, or at least the only right way. It is really very ignorant to think that everyone believes and behaves the same way. People should stop being so self-centered and take notice and interest in cultural diversity. There are numerous different
  • Andrew Carnegie
    Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie Essay written by [email protected] A man of Scotland, a distinguished citizen of the United States, and a philanthropist devoted to the betterment of the world around him, Andrew Carnegie became famous at the turn of the twentieth century and became a real life rags to riches story. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, on November 25, 1835, Andrew Carnegie entered the world in poverty. The son of a hand weaver, Carnegie received his only formal education during
  • Battle of the Bulge
    Battle of the Bulge The Battle of the Bulge was an important fight because it was one that could have turned World War II around for the Germans. The Battle of the Bulge took place on December 16 1944. The Germans mobilized the last chance they had to win the war. The Germans wanted to cut the American forces in to two parts, because this way they could easily be destroyed. Hitler felt this was his last chance to win, because his forces were being pushed back and soon they would run out of the r
  • Bay Of Pigs 10 pages
    Bay Of Pigs 10 pages B A Y O F P I G S The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs, which is located on the south coast of Cuba about 97 miles southeast of Havanna, was one of mismanagement, poor judgment, and stupidity (“Bay of Pigs” 378). The blame for the failed invasion falls directly on the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and a young president by the name of John F. Kennedy. The whole intention of the invasion was to assault communist Cuba and put an end to Fidel Castro. I
  • Benedict Arnold
    Benedict Arnold No other American is remembered quite the same as Benedict Arnold. He was a brave soldier, a patriot- and a traitor. Benedict was born in Norwich, Connecticut, on January 14, 1741. When he was 14 years old, Benedict ran away from home to fight in the French and Indian War, but he was brought back by his mother, who apparently was driven insane later in her life. If I had a son like Benedict, I might have gone insane too! After his mother insisted that he return home, he ran away
  • BillGates
    BillGates William Henry Gates III was born in Seattle, Washington, in 1955. "Bill" was called "Trey" by his father, since "Trey" means three. Trey was always smart, and always loved even the earliest computers he could get his hands on. He went to a public school at first, and made a few friends there. He was pushing all the school had to offer to the limits, until his parents decided to send him to a private school. He at first didn\'t like the idea, but shortly after decided to go. The new sch
  • Black like me chapters
    Black like me chapters Book Report: BLACK LIKE ME October 28th - November 2nd, 1959 John Howard Griffin (JHG) is a specialist for the hard life of Negroes in the south of the USA in the 1950’s. His idea is to change the color of his skin for being able to experience the discrimination on his own. He visits George Levitan, one of his old friends and owner of the magazine SEPIA. After discussing the idea, Levitan pays for all the expenses for changing JHG’s skin color and his trip through the sout
  • Boston Massacre
    Boston Massacre In my report I will be discussing the Boston Massacre. I will be looking at the Boston Massacre from three different perspectives. These perspectives are the Boston colonists and Samuel Adams, Tom Hutchinson, Lieutenant Governor and Acting Governor in 1770, and Captain Preston and his troops. I will also hold some depositions from people who were actually close or at the massacre. I will be show the differences on how all three felt about the situation. Due to great burden from t
  • Calvinism
    calvinism Since John Calvin first introduced the belief of election, it has caused debate among theologians in many Protestant churches. John Calvin’s beliefs consisted of five general themes. The first of the is the most important concept of understanding the beliefs of grace. Due to the fall, man, in his spiritually dead state, is unable of himself to savingly believe the Gospel. The sinner is totally dead, and cannot natural turn to the things of God, not seek Him. Man\'s is deceitful and des
  • Cambodia
    Cambodia The Impact of the Past on the Present Cambodia, then, like so many other nations in the developing world, is an agricultural country, and, in terms of the cash incomes of its people, desperately poor. In the past, Cambodia was able to earn foreign exchange to pay for imported goods by selling agricultural surpluses-of rice and corn, for example-or plant crops, such as pepper, rubber, and cotton. Its normal patterns of trade were broken up in the wars of the 1970\'s. When the fighting di
  • Causes for american revolution
    causes for american revolution In the aftermath of the French and Indian War, Britain needed a new imperial design, but the situation in America was anything but favorable to change. Long accustomed to a large measure of independence, the colonies were demanding more, not less, freedom, particularly now that the French menace had been eliminated. To put a new system into effect, and to tighten control, Parliament had to contend with colonists trained in self-government and impatient with interfe
  • Charles Manson
    Charles Manson Air section of southern California. On Saturday, August ninth, nineteen sixty-nine, all hell broke loose with more than six dozen plunges of a carving fork and knife, and the peaceful dyll was shattered. Out of the chaos caused by the senseless, horrific murderers, Charles Manson emerged as one of the most feared notorious criminals of all time. In the twenty-nine years since the so-called "Tate-La Bianca" murders, many people have speculated about what caused Charles Manson to be
  • Chinese Immigrater
    Chinese Immigrater Interrogations of Chinese Immigrants at Angel Island Like Ellis Island in New York Harbor, Angel Island in San Francisco Bay was an entry point for immigrants in the early 20th century. The Angel Island immigration station processed small numbers of immigrants from Japan, Italy, and other parts of the world and was the key place of interrogation and detention for immigrants from China ("Angel Island Over View, CD-ROM). Angel Island in 1910 to enforce the Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Civil War1
    Civil War1 The American Civil War The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the leading men behind the Union and Confederate
  • Civil War1
    Civil War1 The American Civil War The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the leading men behind the Union and Confederate
  • Compcontslave revolt
    compcontslave revolt The American Civil War was inevitable and had numerous causes that led to it. This paper will discuss three important causes of the war the invention of the cotton gin, Nat Turner\'s rebellion, and the abolitionist movement toward ending slavery. There are many causes of the war, but I feel these three are substantial causes. Each of these events or movements created more tension between the North and the South and eventually war was unavoidable. The invention of the cotton
  • Cuban missile crisis
    cuban missile crisis Many agree that the Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war; but exactly how close did it come? The Crisis was ultimately a showdown between the United States and the Soviet Union from October 16 to October 28, 1962. During those thirteen stressful days, the world’s two biggest superpowers stood on the brink of a nuclear catastrophe. The Crisis started as a result of both the Soviet Union’s fear of losing the arms race, and Cuba’s fear of US i
  • Cuban Missile Crisis The Edge of War
    Cuban Missile Crisis The Edge of War Cuban Missile Crisis John F. Kennedy\'s greatest triumph as President of the United States came in 1962, as the world\'s two largest superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, edged closer and closer to nuclear war. The Soviet premier of Russia was caught arming Fidel Castro with nuclear weapons. The confrontation left the world in fear for thirteen long days, with the life of the world on the line. In 1962, Nikita Khrushchev, Premier of the Soviet
  • DDay Thesis
    DDay Thesis D-Day, June 6 1944. Air-Power: Significant or not? A private who was aboard one of the first few gliders to reach Normandy expresses his feeling: "I experienced an interesting psychological change in the few minutes before and immediately after take off. As I had climbed aboard and strapped myself into my seat I felt tense, strange and extremely nervous. It was as if I was in a fantasy dream world and thought that at any moment I would wake up from this unreality and find that I was
  • Dr John McLoughlin
    Dr John McLoughlin John McLoughlin was one of the most influential figures of the fur trade and settlement periods of Pacific Northwest history. Chief Factor of the Columbia District of the British Hudson\'s Bay Company, he reigned as a benevolent autocrat, befriended Americans, and eventually became an American citizen at Oregon City. He was born in Quebec in 1784 and trained as a physician near Montreal. He became a physician and traveled to the Northwest region in 1824 as a representative of
  • Farm Life
    Farm Life Farm Life Isn’t Easy! Life as a farmer was by no means easy. There were a lot of problems and strains, but it had its good points. The Homestead Act passed in 1862 by Congress gave 160 free acres of prairie land to anyone who would live on it for five years. A lot of farmers also bought land from the Railroad Company so they could be close to the transcontinental railroad tracks, which made transportation better. Though the land was free, the problems nearly outweighed the advantages.
  • “Governments should discourage mergers in the comm
    fo “Governments should discourage mergers in the communication industry.” Our group will be disagreeing with this statement through out the project. We will be using texts and examples in order to support our ideas. Also we will be using reasoning and common sense in some cases. Our group believes the most important mergers in the communication industry are the telecommunication companies’. Bell Atlantic and GTE are the two big mergers in the industry and are a good example for our case. This me
  • Founder of the Black Panther Party Huey P Newton A
    Founder of the Black Panther Party Huey P Newton A Forgotten Legacy In the late 1960\'s and early \'70\'s posters of the Black Panther Party\'s co-founder, Huey P. Newton were plastered on walls of college dorm rooms across the country. Wearing a black beret and a leather jacket, sitting on a wicker chair, a spear in one hand and a rifle in the other, the poster depicted Huey Newton as a symbol of his generation\'s anger and courage in the face of racism and classism. He is the man whose intelle
  • Frederick douglas
    frederick douglas Frederick Douglass was born in Tuckahoe, Maryland, near Hillsborough. He doesn’t know for sure of his age, he has seen no proof and his master will not inform him.Most masters prefer for their slaves to stay ignorant. He believes that he was aroundtwenty-seven and twenty-eight when he began writing his narrative - he overheard hismaster say he was about seventeen years of age during 1835. His mother, Harriet Bailey,was separated from him when he wasaninfant and she died when he