Self awareness in primates: Fact or Fiction Essay

This essay has a total of 2351 words and 11 pages.

self awareness in primates: Fact or Fiction

Abstract
The author focuses on determining whether primates are capable of self-awareness. An
article is reviewed and evaluated encompassing different points of view and theories.
Learned recognition and self-awareness is compared and discussed.



















Self-awareness in Primates: Fact or Fiction

Learning is "a change in behavior due to experience" (Chance, 2003, p. 36). Learning
allows an organism to modify its behavior to suit a particular situation. It is a
mechanism by which one copes with the ever-changing environment. Anything an organism does
that can be measured is behavior (Chance, 2003). Organisms change their behavior to fit
environmental changes; this is a learning process, it provides a means to modify our
physical environment for example, changing climate by controlling it, or cooking and
chemically changing food. These acts are not due to heredity, they are a result of
learning (Chance, 2003).

It has been proven that chimpanzees and humans share 99.4 % of their DNA, making their
genetic makeup very similar. Chimpanzees have large brains which are thought to be paired
with higher intelligence since it has been proven that smaller brain sizes demonstrate
lower intelligence (Schmid, 2003).

Gordon Gallup (1979) sought to discover the answer to a question that Darwin would respond
negatively to; do animals have a sense of self awareness? Darwin would say that we are
fundamentally different from other animals. One assumption was that man was unique from
other animals because of the use of tools. However, as noted by Gallup (1979) Jane Goodall
discovered that chimpanzees used twigs as tools for reaching food that they could
otherwise get to. Chance (2003) states "reinforcement is the procedure of providing
consequences for a behavior that increases or maintain the strength of that behavior"
(p.141). The chimpanzees had the novel thought of using a twig to reach ants that were
inside a tree trunk. They strengthened or increased their behavior of using a twig to
acquire food because this brought about positive consequences, i.e. food. As noted by
Chance (2003) Thorndike compared operant learning to natural selection. Those behaviors
that are useful survive, those that are not, die out.

It has been proven that chimpanzees can grasp the basic idea of language. According to
Rumbaugh (1995), recent studies show that apes can come to understand the syntax of human
speech comparable to that of a 2-1/2 year old child if they are reared in a language
structured environment from birth. The ape first acquires language through comprehension
and then through expression. This is the same course taken for a child. The acquisition of
language structures by apes suggests that they are competent for reasoning. They are
capable of experiencing among others, pain, happiness, and sorrow thus, they can
experience various dimensions of being, that is, awareness.

Wynne (1999) however, believes otherwise. He discredits animals of having consciousness,
which is evidenced as possessing language, self-awareness and theory of mind. He notes
that Terrace of Columbia University thought that a chimpanzee could learn sign language by
simply exposing him to a community of people using it. Learning did not occur unless
Terrace paired the learning with treats. Skinner, as noted by Chance (2003), advocated
that "verbal behavior is to be understood in terms of functional relationships between it
and environmental events" (p.230). Terrace's chimpanzee was only performing and learning
those signs, which offered rewards. Wynne (1999) also discredits Gallup's work that used
the mirror test to observe evidence of self awareness, claiming that some people cannot
recognize themselves in a mirror but are aware of themselves, as is the case with the
blind. In addition, autistic people can recognize themselves in a mirror but have a hard
time being self-aware. As for theory of mind, the understanding that other individuals
have both thoughts and mental states, Povinelli experimented with a chimpanzee named
Sheba. Having a series of cups just out of Sheba's sight, Povinelli placed food under one
of the cups. He then had another person come into the room. Both people pointed to a cup.
The hypothesis was if Sheba possessed theory of mind she would know that the person who
entered the room after the food was placed under a cup would not know where the food was.
Thus, she would point to the cup the person who put the food under cup was pointing to.
This, in fact, did occur but only after hundreds of training sessions. This suggests that
Sheba gradually learned the association between a stimulus (the experimenter) and a reward
(the food under a cup) (Wynne, 1999). This is a very good example of Pavlovian
conditioning in which the pairing of a US (the food) and CS (the experimenter pointing to
the cup with the food) produce a CR (picking the right cup to get the food). This
experiment illustrates that Sheba learned to pick the right cup but does this mean that
she possesses theory of mind as well?

On the contrary, researchers have found that chimps may possess theory of mind. Because
chimps forage for food and have very defined rules as to who eats first, the researchers
devised an experiment to see whether one chimp could tell what the other chimp was seeing
and, thus thinking. Three opaque cages were set up, two with chimps in it, the middle one
with two pieces of food. The cage doors were open just enough so that the chimps could see
the food and could see one another eyeing the food. Only the dominant chimp sought out the
food when the cage doors were fully opened. An expected behavior. The researchers then
placed a barrier so that the dominant chimp could only see one piece of food while the
other chimp could see both pieces of food as well as see that the dominant chimp could
only see one piece of food. This time the subordinate chimp took the piece of food that
the dominant chimp could not see suggesting that it knew that the dominant chimp was
unaware of its existence (Pennisi, 1999). In order for an animal to have consciousness,
that is, be self-aware, it must possess theory of mind. Does this mean that animals like
the great apes possess self-awareness?

If animals, namely great apes, are thought to possess consciousness and therefore,
awareness, could they recognize themselves in a mirror? Chance (2003) states that self
awareness is observing one's own behavior and having the ability to view one's behavior
one can make appropriate choices depending on the situation. Self-awareness, in simple
form, is the subject and the observer which are being perceived as one and the same
(Gallup, 1979). Gallup (1979) intended to show that humans are not the only ones that can
be self aware. He demonstrated this by placing a mirror in front of a chimpanzee. Gallup
Continues for 6 more pages >>




  • Quest for fire
    quest for fire Quest for Fire This story happens 80,000 years ago when our ancestors first discovered the power of fire, but did not know how to master it. One day, a peaceful tribe is attacked by apes and wolves. Many die in the fighting and the tribe is forced to leave their territory. They move to a small island, and on their way, they lose their treasurefire. Fire to them is like the door to a house. Without the door, the house will not collapse. But when a robber comes, the house has no pr
  • Image and Reality
    Image and Reality Valery Potakh Mr. Anderson US History 1A, P.7 24 November 1998 Image and Reality In the years since the thousand days many questions have been raised and are still being studied about John F. Kennedy. A Life of John F. Kennedy: A Question of Character is a book written by Thomas C. Reeves, in which Reeves discusses these issues. JFK was a great man, and yet there are still some things that one must take into consideration. His morality was always somewhat of an uncertainty; be
  • Evolution
    Evolution The origins of mankind is an extremely controversial issue within today’s society. Scientists have a host of different theories pertaining to man’s inhabitance of earth. Many disagreements arise between scientists who have different beliefs pertaining to where and how mankind arose. One such argument is the conflict involving the theory of evolution versus the theory of creation. After extensive scientific research, it is apparent that the theory of evolution is correct. Evolution is t
  • D Caries
    D Caries Introduction Caries have been a constant nuisance to humans, decaying teeth can become a major problem for those affected. It is certainly not the oldest pathology, nor the one of the greatest prevalence throughout humankind, but the information that can be extrapolate from such pathologies is great. The aim of this paper is to outline the pathology of caries and the influence that these have had on the human populations affected. Caries or caries dentium is the common name for tooth de
  • The Western Lowland Gorilla
    The Western Lowland Gorilla The Western Lowland Gorilla: A comparison with humans and a critique of methods of study. By Fokren Masters For thousands of years, men and women have strived to explain the why of their existence. To discover the reasons for how we act the way we do and what this knowledge can do to impact the way we live our lives in this complex society that we have created. One of the ways that science has begun to shed light on the inner workings of the human condition is through
  • Charles Darwin
    Charles Darwin Charles Darwin Like many students, Charles Darwin was only intrested in topics that was intresting to him and although his father was a doctor, Darwin was very unintrested in medicine and he also couldnt stand the sight of surgery. He did eventually get a degree in Theology from Cambridge University, Although Theology was a minor intrest to him. What Darwin really liked to do was climb over hills, observe plants and animals, collecting new specimens, studying their structures, and
  • In the Shadow of Man
    In the Shadow of Man In this paper I am going to discuss how anthropology is a science. I am also going to explain how Jane Goodall is a scientist with her works with chimpanzees, and how that is known as primatology. I will also look at the order primates in correspondence with Jane Goodall’s book on primates, specifically the chimpanzee. Anthropology is a science; it has four aspects in which you can study. Anthropology takes a look at humankind and with its subdiciplines you can break down in
  • Next of Kin
    Next of Kin Next Of Kin The next of kin a documentation of mind matter and love. This book was very inspirational it gives you a whole new outlook on the experience and the feelings of animals. Trying to relate with how much Roger Fouts has accomplished in his life is unbearable he has had so many experiences that have been recorded in this book. It was the type of book that was hard to put down from the beginning. In the next few pages I will discuss parts of the book that really moved me and l
  • To Kill A Mockingbird4
    To Kill A Mockingbird4 In, To Kill A Mockingbird, Harper Lee refers to Oliver Optic, Edgar Rice Burroughs, and Victor Appleton as three authors whose works were enjoyed by Scout, Jem and Dill. These 19th and 20th century authors had similar writing styles and plot formulations. Adventure stories, which were the genre of the tales written by these particular authors, were extremely appealing to the young children in Harper Lee’s novel. Scout and her friends wove detailed imaginary dramas portrayi
  • 1984
    1984 2001 Space Odyssey The film segment chosen was the final scene from Stanley Kubrik^s 2001 A Space Odyssey made in 1968. As the name would suggest, the film is set almost entirely in the future. Already having projected itself over 30 years into the future, it would be safe to assume that this motion picture offers a wealth of imagery and futuristic vision. It does. It is towards the end of the film, however, that Kubrik offers this to us on a much greater scale. In these few minutes, we are
  • Creation Science as a Pseudoscience
    Creation Science as a Pseudoscience In every civilization throughout history, man has searched for the explanation to his existence. In ancient society’s people created origin myths. Every civilization had a unique myth. Some myths involved gods and others involved nature. Sometime around one thousand B.C. the longest standing creation myth was popularized. This creation myth is still in practice today, almost three thousand years later. The myth I am referring to is the Genesis recollection in
  • Tarzan of the Apes
    Tarzan of the Apes Tarzan of the Apes When I was reading the story, “Tarzan of the Apes,” I realized that throughout the whole story he describes the characters very narrative. He describes specifically the characters feelings, movements and characteristics. On the following, I will write about how the author describes the characters to us readers and how it makes this story feel more realistic than what it is. The story, “Tarzan of the Apes,” is a very descriptive story in which the writer desc
  • Racism
    racism Racism Everywhere you go, everywhere you look, there is always somebody different. The American society focuses on that person, or group of people. They made them feel worthless and they treated them like animals. Imagine walking down the street and having people stare at you or call you names, or talk behind your back. Imagine not knowing the time because nobody will tell you. Why wont they tell you the time, or spare you some change? Because your black. Actually, because your skin is a
  • African Americans versus The Social Sciences
    African Americans versus The Social Sciences American segregation was a bitter part of American history. Even worse, though, are the securing reasons for the need of segregation and the defense of the institution. I will be discussing the method in which segregation came into existence in America and how the populace advocated such a policy. The issue of segregation in America deals mostly with the idea of superiority and inferiority between the black, or African, and white, or Caucasian, races.
  • African Americans versus The Social Sciences1
    African Americans versus The Social Sciences1 American segregation was a bitter part of American history. Even worse, though, are the securing reasons for the need of segregation and the defense of the institution. I will be discussing the method in which segregation came into existence in America and how the populace advocated such a policy. The issue of segregation in America deals mostly with the idea of superiority and inferiority between the black, or African, and white, or Caucasian, races
  • Darwinism
    Darwinism Charles Darwin Like many students, Charles Darwin was only intrested in topics that was intresting to him and although his father was a doctor, Darwin was very unintrested in medicine and he also couldnt stand the sight of surgery. He did eventually get a degree in Theology from Cambridge University, Although Theology was a minor intrest to him. What Darwin really liked to do was climb over hills, observe plants and animals, collecting new specimens, studying their structures, and cate
  • Human origins
    human origins Human Origins For years, the evolution of human beings has been researched and studied. In today\'s society, there are many different interpretations on creation and how humans came to be what they are today. Through much scientific evidence and studies, there is now physical proof that human beings may have evolved from ape-like creatures. Even with this, there are still disputes in the paleoanthropological field of whether or not this is true. Still, many choose to believe their
  • Sail Study Help only
    Sail Study Help only On the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836) Darwin collected and described thousands of animals and plants. In South America he observed the adaptations of organisms to a variety of habitat from jungle to grassland to mountain habitats. In the temperate regions the species resembled more closely the species of the tropical regions of South America rather than the corresponding species of the temperate regions of Europe. For example, in the grasslands of Argentina there are no ra
  • A Virus
    A Virus A virus is an ultramicroscopic infectious organism that, having no independent metabolic activity, can replicate only within a cell of another host organism. A virus consists of a core of nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a coating of antigenic protein and sometimes a lipid layer surrounds it as well. The virus provides the genetic code for replication, and the host cell provides the necessary energy and raw materials. There are more than 200 viruses that are known to cause
  • Abstracts
    Abstracts RECENT PUBLICATION / PRESENTATION ABSTRACTS UPDATED4/may/99 (Contact David Washburn for reprints and related publications) Supported by grants from NASA, NICHD, ARI, ARO, ONR, USAF Washburn, D. A., & Putney, R. T. (1999, June). Attention Profiles of Working Memory. Paper at the meeting of the American Psychological Society. Although each construct has its own literature, phenomena, and theories, it is widely recognized that attention and working memory are integrally related. Individua
  • Chimps vs humans
    chimps vs humans Since the first days of human thought into their beginnings, chimpanzees have played a vital role in showing who we were. The chimpanzee, one of the great apes, makes it home in the forests of Central and West Africa. Their long arms and legs adapt them for living in such regions as lowland jungles and mountainous regions. Humans are classified in the order Primates, and family Hominade. Within this family, human beings, our nearest living relatives, the African apes, are also p
  • Common Sense
    Common Sense "PERHAPS the sentiments contained in the following pages are not yet sufficiently fashionable to procure them general favor; a long habit of not thinking a thing wrong gives it a superficial appearance of being right, and raises at first a formidable outcry in defense of custom. But tumult soon subsides. Time makes more converts than reason." -- Thomas Paine, Common Sense ...... AN ABUSE or misuse of power generally calls into question the right of anyone to hold power. The allegati
  • Darwins Theory of Evolution
    Darwins Theory of Evolution Natural Selection - process by whch populations become adapted to the environment. The fitness of an individual is measured by how well its offspring reproduce - i.e. how many offspring that survive and reproduce does an individual produce ? Charles Darwin studdied and closly watched peppered moths (Biston Betularia) in their natural habbitat. The peppered moths are light colored with darker areas of color. Like humans, however, these moths can be found in a range of
  • Ebola
    ebola The Ebola Virus is the common name for several strains of virus, three of which are known to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans, which is characterized by massive bleeding and destruction of internal tissues. Named for the Ebola River in Zaire, Africa, where the virus was first identified, the Ebola virus belongs to the family Filoviridae. Three strains of Ebola virus that are often fatal to humans have been identified. Named for the areas in which the first recognized outbreaks took place,
  • Edwards v Aguiallard
    Edwards v Aguiallard INTRODUCTION Edwards v Aguillard was a 1987 Supreme Court case centering around the constitutionality of a Louisiana statue requiring that creation science be taught along side of evolution in the public schools. WHY CASE SO IMPORTANT Evolution remains so controversial primarily because it is part of a larger debate over nature and the meaning of life. The study of how life began almost inevitably raises questions of why: Why did life begin? Why are humans rational? Why is t
  • Evolution a theory
    evolution a theory Is evolution just a theory?? A basic argument used by creationists is that evolution is "only a theory and cannot be proven." This creationist argument is based on the false assumption that the only way to "prove" evolution is for someone to actually observe large evolutionary changes, for example birds evolving from dinosaurs. Since this can\'t be accomplished in a few lifetimes, creationists claim that "proving" evolution is impossible. This argument totally ignores the enor
  • Feminist
    Feminist Throughout history, men and women have struggled to understand each other. Society has struggled to meld their complex differences while embracing the wonder of individuality. Biologist attempt to explain why men and women are different yet comes from the very similar genetic make-up. Psychologists have made grand strides in understanding how the mind works in the dynamics of relationships between men and women. And in a society that is governed by economics, the realm of social status
  • Good stuff
    good stuff The universe begins with a cataclysm that generates space and time, as well as all the matter and energy the universe will ever hold. For an incomprehensibly small fraction of a second, the universe is an infinitely dense, hot fireball. The prevailing theory describes a peculiar form of energy that can suddenly push out the fabric of space. On a rare occasion, a runaway process called "Inflation" can cause a vast expansion of space filled with this energy. The inflationary expansion i
  • Hairdressing as a Career
    Hairdressing as a Career Discussion Hairdressing has always been a passion for Canadians, and me. Everyday people are getting their hair done, changing their color or style and to do this hairdressers will be there to inform, perform and advise the customer about their hair. Hairdressing is the art of cutting, setting, arranging, and otherwise caring for the hair. Women and men style their hair to improve their appearance and for comfort. A different hairstyle can alter a person\'s appearance mo
  • Heidegger
    heidegger Heideggers Conceptual Essences Heideggers Conceptual Essences: Being and the Nothing, Humanism, and Technology Being and the Nothing are the same. The ancient philosopher Lao-tzu believed that the world entertains no separations and that opposites do not actually exist. His grounding for this seemingly preposterous proposition lies in the fact that because alleged opposites depend on one another and their definitions rely on their differences, they cannot possibly exist without each ot
  • Heidegger1
    heidegger1 Heideggers Conceptual Essences Heideggers Conceptual Essences: Being and the Nothing, Humanism, and Technology Being and the Nothing are the same. The ancient philosopher Lao-tzu believed that the world entertains no separations and that opposites do not actually exist. His grounding for this seemingly preposterous proposition lies in the fact that because alleged opposites depend on one another and their definitions rely on their differences, they cannot possibly exist without each o
  • Human Evolution
    Human Evolution Human Evolution: the water theory. Elaine Morgan The crucial question about human evolution is why humans differ so strikingly from the African apesdespite their close genetic relationship. Most Darwinists would agree that such differences are usually attributable to differing environmental pressures; and hence that our ancestors at some stage probably occupied a significantly different habitat from the ancestor of the gorilla and the chimpanzee. For the last half-century it has
  • Jan Ifversen
    Jan Ifversen Jan Ifversen The Meaning of European Civilization - A Historical-Conceptual Approach* My interest in the concept of civilization was triggered by Samuel Huntington\'s now famous article "The Clash of Civilizations" from 1993. I have been working on different discursive settings of European self-consciousness for some times . The idea of Europe as an entitity or even a quality has a rather long history in Europe. In the 15th century the concept of Europe (which, previously, mainly ha
  • Life With Bubba
    Life With Bubba Life With Bubba My brother, Shawn, has had a tremendous impact on my life in many ways. I never quite realized how much he affected me until he was gone. His roles have changed over time. In the beginning, he was my enemy. Later, he became my partner and defender. Now, he is my example for life. Our relationship started out quite rough. He wasn’t fond of me, and the feeling wsa mutual for me as well. Mom was in college, and dad was at work. The only ones left at home were Shawn a
  • OBSTACLE OF RACISM
    OBSTACLE OF RACISM The Obstacle of Racism: Will We Ever Overcome It? One of the major social problems that Americans have been trying to tackle for years is the obstruction of racism. Racism, which is defined as “the point of view that racial identity is or should be important in social affairs” (Zadrozny, 276), has plagued all of America for centuries gone, and unfortunately, is still present. (The focus of racism addressed in this dissertation will focus only on racism between whites and black
  • Racism7
    Racism7 Everywhere you go, everywhere you look, there is always somebody different. The American society focuses on that person, or group of people. They made them feel worthless and they treated them like animals. Imagine walking down the street and having people stare at you or call you names, or talk behind your back. Imagine not knowing the time because nobody will tell you. Why won’t they tell you the time, or spare you some change? Because your black. Actually, because your skin is a diffe
  • Racism7
    Racism7 Everywhere you go, everywhere you look, there is always somebody different. The American society focuses on that person, or group of people. They made them feel worthless and they treated them like animals. Imagine walking down the street and having people stare at you or call you names, or talk behind your back. Imagine not knowing the time because nobody will tell you. Why won’t they tell you the time, or spare you some change? Because your black. Actually, because your skin is a diffe
  • Religion and evolution
    religion and evolution Religion & Evolution In my short life on this planet I have come to question things that many take upon blind faith. We all know that we must some day die; yet we continuously deny the forces at work inside ourselves, which want to search out the answers of what may or may not come after. It is far easier for humanity to accept that they will go to a safe haven and be rewarded for their lives with pleasures and fantasies of an unfathomable scale than to question the existe
  • Space odyessey
    space odyessey 2001- SPACE ODYSSEY After watching this movie, a lot of it is very confusing to me and is really hard for me to understand. You really have to think about what is being said in the movie to get a good understanding of the points that the director is trying to get across. I would really like to get a professors view of the movie to get a better understanding. Throughout this paper I am going to give a little review of the movie and discuss interesting facts that I thought were help
  • Spontaneous Human Combustion
    Spontaneous Human Combustion 1. What is the leading cause of death with lesbians? Answer: Hairballs. 2. How do you know if a blonde has been sending e-mail? Answer: You see a bunch of envelopes stuffed into her disk drive. 3. What can Life Savers do that men cant? Answer: come in five flavors. 4. What is good on pizza but bad on *censored*? Answer: Crust. 5. Why does Miss Piggy douche with honey? Answer: Because Kermit likes sweet and sour pork. 6. How can you tell if you have a high sperm count
  • The Homebase theory
    The Homebase theory Glynn Isaac Defines "the Homebase Hypothesis" It has been argued since Darwin\'s day that the great apes were man\'s nearest living relatives, and as evidence emerged during the late 1960\'s of the hunting propensities and simple tool use of chimpanzees (Goodall 1986), anthropologists found more and more reason to presume similarity of behavior between modern (e.g., Pan troglodytes or Pan panicus) and ancient varieties of hominids (Tanner 1981). Still, modern humans are not c
  • What makes a primate
    What makes a primate WHAT MAKES ALL PRIMATES THE SAME? What makes all primates the same? The primate order consists of a fairly vast number of species some of which I was able to see up close and personal at this classes recent field trip to the San Diego zoo. Indeed the species belonging to this mammalian order can exhibit almost shocking differences from one species to the next. So in an order of animals that contains differences that can be so vast what ties them all together. What exactly is
  • Psycho
    Psycho Ryan McLeod Comp Lit 271 Psycho Response Section AD Being the props/set designer for the parlor scene in Psycho was a very intriguing task. Originally, boring old Hitchcock wanted to put some stuffed birds in the Norman’s parlor, but lucky for me, and the film, he was sick that day. I liked the idea of Bates being a taxidermist in his spare time, but I wanted to elaborate on that idea a bit more. Instead of putting just birds in the parlor, I decided to put pictures of embalmed bodies on
  • Anthropolgy
    anthropolgy Anthropology- the study of humankind everywhere, through time, seeks to produce reliable knowledge about people and their behavior, both about what makes them different and what they have in common. What They Do- Physical anth- study humans as biological organisms, tracing there evolutionary development of the human animal and looking at biological variations within the species, past and present (human evol, Primates, Human diversity. Cultural Anth- is concerned with human cultures,
  • Heideggers Conceptual Essences Being and the Nothi
    Heideggers Conceptual Essences Being and the Nothing Humanism and Technology Heideggers Conceptual Essences: Being and the Nothing, Humanism, and Technology Being and the Nothing are the same. The ancient philosopher Lao-tzu believed that the world entertains no separations and that opposites do not actually exist. His grounding for this seemingly preposterous proposition lies in the fact that because alleged opposites depend on one another and their definitions rely on their differences, they c
  • The Development of Man
    The Development of Man THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN In the dictionary a human being is defined as a person showing qualities of people. But what exactly is a person or people? Do dictionaries go into detail about that? Where do we come from or why do we have ears? Scientists have been trying to answer questions like these for years, but everyone has a different opinion. Some say people originated from the very human like animal known as the Gorilla, others say we all came from an African American woma
  • Fuure
    fuure A message From Future Generations . Allen Tough . I have no idea why future generations chose me as their messenger on that sunny Friday morning in Kyoto, as I wandered in the lovely gardens beside the conference center, surrounded by colorful autumn hills. Maybe they had noticed my deep commitment to future generations in my papers and in my book, Crucial Questions About the Future. Maybe they knew how strongly that commitment was influencing my teaching at the University of Toronto. Mayb
  • Shycsper
    shycsper at: ftp://tezcat.com/patriot If you have any other files you\'d like to contribute, e-mail them to alex@spiral.org. ------------------------------------------------ THE BATTLE FOR YOUR MIND, by Dick Sutphen -- 22.2 KB Persuasion & Brainwashing Techniques Being Used On The Public Today SUMMARY OF CONTENTS The Birth of Conversion/Brainwashing in Christian Revivalism in 1735. The Pavlovian explanation of the three brain phases. Born- again preachers: Step-by-Step, how they conduct a reviva
  • Big Pimpin
    Big Pimpin STUDY GUIDE 9 1.Describe general characteristics of fossils categorized as Archaic homo sapiens, their temporal and geographic range. Exclude Neandertals. Discuss some of the problems associated with the understanding of this fossil taxon. (a) Increased cranial capacity (b) Appear more similar to modern humans (c) Reduced face, less prognathic, greater frontal lobe (d) Thick cranial bones, no chin Archaic fossils have been found in Europe, Africa and Asia. Problems arise because there
  • Man and Society
    Man and Society In this paper I will try to explain the puzzle of whether individuals are products of society or society is a product of individuals. I believe that in general, and in the beginning, the answer to this question, is that society is a human product. I will start by presenting early man, the hunter and gatherer as an early form of society, but lacking critical qualities of a society. Then I will continue to support my theory by analyzing the beginning of known society some three and