Sigmund Freud2 Essay

This essay has a total of 3421 words and 15 pages.


Sigmund Freud2





SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)
His theories and treatments were to change forever our conception of the human condition.

Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia, a part of the Austrian empire at that time,
on May 6, 1856. Today it is a part of Czechoslovakia. He was raised in the traditions
and beliefs of the Jewish religion.


Freud considered a career in law but found legal affairs dull, and so, though he later
admitted to “no particular predilection for the career of a physician” he
chose a medical career. In 1873 he entered the University of Vienna but did not graduate
until 1881.


In the spring of 1884 Freud began to experiment with cocaine. He found that the drug
relieved his feelings of depression, turned his bad moods into cheerfulness, and helped
him work. During the years 1886-87 Sigmund Freud studies hypnosis as a therapeutic
treatment.


He published many aricles and books in his lifetime. Such as “The Psychopathology
of Everyday Life” in 1900, which explored everyday errors in speech, "A
Seventeenth-Century Demonological Neurosis" during 1922 and "The Ego and the Id" in 1923.
In cooperation with Josef Breuer in 1895, and at the age of 39, Sigmund Freud publishes
"Studien über Hysterie" and for the first time he succeeds in analysing one of his own
dreams. The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, which explored everyday errors in speech,
which he believed, were of in 1896, Sigmund Freud applies the term "psychoanalysis" for
the first time and he started with his self-analysis.


In 1901 Sigmund Freud starts analysing 18-year old Dora and in 1902 is appointed professor
at the University of Vienna and the foundation of the "Psychological Wednesday Society".
Freud never saw her again after that but in 1905, he published "Fragment of an Analysis of
a Case of Hysteria," better known as the case of Dora. Dora was not actually a hysterical
patient.


During 1926 on the occasion of his 70th birthday Sigmund Freud was loaded with honours for his work.

Sándor Ferenczi refuses the office of President of the International Psycho-Analytical
Association in 1932 due to conflicting ideas with Freud on aspects of psychoanalysis.
Sigmund Freud exchanges letters with Albert Einstein on the question "Why War?".


In 1935 Sigmund Freud is appointed Honorary Member of the British Royal Society of
Medicine, and later dies on September 23,1939.







Sigmund Freud’s revolutionary ideas have set the standard for modern psychoanalysis
in which students of psychology can learn from his ideas spread from the field of medicine
to daily living. His studies in areas such as unconsciousness, dreams, sexuality, the
Oedipus complex, and sexual maladjustments laid the foundation for future studies. In
result, better understanding of the small things, which shape our lives.


He was the first to talk about psychoanalysis, a technique that allows an individual to
recount dreams by what psychologists call free association. Free association is the
individual saying whatever comes to mind when something is said. The definition of
psychoanalysis can best be defined as “emphasising the roles of unconscious mental
forces and conflicts in determining behaviour.” The main branch of psychology is
“normal thinking” of the mind. Freud thought that many of our problems lived
inside of our unconsciousness and that we where not aware of this.


In Freud’s psychoanalysis, he believed that all humans were born with instincts,
which drives a person to act the way in which they do. There are two classifications for
this, they are the libido, this is based on sexual pleasures, and the second type is
called aggression this motivates the behaviour. This type of thinking happens from the
time a person is born, according to Freud. When growing up, the child will go though three
different libidinal stages. The first is called the oral stage, in this stage the infant
takes his or her thumb and stimulates the mouth with it, we may know this act as the baby
sucking his or her thumb. The second stage of libidinal is the anal stage. In this stage,
pleasures like the ones in the oral stage are similar. These pleasures are repeated
through pleasures to the anus. The bowel movements mark this pleasure. The final stage in
the libidinal stages of a child is the phallic stage. This is done when the child
manipulates their genitalia in order for gratification. Freud thought that a child in the
phallic stage had a strong attraction to the parent of the opposite sex. He called this
Oedipus complex. Most people throughout the world turned against this idea of
Freud’s. Which was the attraction to the parent of the opposite sex. According to
Freud, the child is taught to turn against those feelings and desires which then fall into
their unconscious minds. This leads to three defence mechanisms of the mind in
Freud’s psychosexual theory of personality development. The first one is the ID,
this is “the unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and
death instincts and operates only on the pleasure principle.” The ID is completely
unconscious and is the source of basic impulses and drives; it is the biological reservoir
that underlies all actions. It operates in accordance with the pleasure principle and
seeks immediate gratification and satisfaction. The second is known as the Ego, “in
Freudian theory, the rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates
according to the reality principle. It derives its energy from the ID, but it is the
instrument of reason and sanity. Much of the ego is conscious, and uses memory,
perception of the environment, and habits to perform the role of a rational executive.
The last and final stage in the Freudian theory is the Superego. By definition the
Superego can best be defined as “the moral system of the personality, which consists
of the conscience and the ego ideal.” It incorporates absolute standards of
morality and ethics. Certain avenues of satisfaction are not allowed, and so, loosely
speaking, the superego plays the role of the conscience. According to Freud, they all
function together in a healthy personality largely as a result of a strong ego. When the
Id, Ego, and Superego clash, a problem can occur. What can happen is a person can have
nightmares or a slip of the tongue can happen. When a traumatic event takes place, the Id,
Ego and Superego become significantly out of balance. If this should occur, then a
psychological disorder is present. The psychological disorder includes: depression,
anxiety, hysteria, and phobias. This is known as psychoneurotic theory. Hysteria was
called the first application of psychoanalytical treatment back then. Hysteria today is
referred to as a conversion disorder. This sickness can intrude on a completely healthy
person. The symptoms include numbness or paralysis of limbs, blindness or laryngitis. In
Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, he believes that this can be caused by fantasies
produced by the unconscious mind. One must bear in mind that the id, ego and superego are
only metaphors despite the fact that Freud wrote of them as though they were real entities
resident somewhere within the person.


Unlike his companion Charcot, Freud believed that based on his clinical studies, some
mental disorders like hysteria were based on sexual manner. For example, Freud linked
“the etiologic of neurotic symptoms to the same struggle between a sexual feeling or
urge and the psychic defences against it”. He felt that being able to talk about
such problems were crucial in helping the patient and using free association was the best
way to confront and treat these feelings. In his clinical observations Freud found
evidence for the mental mechanisms of repression and resistance. He described repression
as a device operating unconsciously to make the memory of painful or threatening events
inaccessible to the conscious mind. Resistance is defined as the unconscious defence
against awareness of repressed experiences in order to avoid the resulting anxiety. He
traced the operation of unconscious processes, using the free associations of the patient
to guide him in the interpretation of dreams and slips of speech. He also developed the
theory of transference, the process by which emotional attitudes, established originally
toward parental figures in childhood, are transferred in later life to other. The end of
this period was marked by Freud's most important work, The Interpretation of Dreams in
1900. Here Freud analysed many of his own dreams recorded in the 3-year period of his
self-analysis, begun in 1897 (“Freud: Interpretation Of Dreams”). This work
expounds all the fundamental concepts underlying psychoanalytic technique and doctrine.


In 1902 Freud was appointed a full professor at the University of Vienna. This honour was
granted not in recognition of his contributions but as a result of the efforts of a highly
influential patient (“Freud”). The medical world still regarded his work with
hostility (“Freud”). As a result, Freud continued to work virtually alone in
what he called “splendid isolation.” In 1904, Sigmund Freud published the
book, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, which explored everyday errors in speech,
which he believed, were of interpretable importance (Appignanesi). These "Freudian
slip's" were contrasted dreams in the sense that they can arise from immediate hostile,
jealous, or egotistic causes.


Freud stated that sexuality was of importance in human behaviour. He derived his attitudes
Continues for 8 more pages >>