Socialism Paper

This essay has a total of 4187 words and 21 pages.

Socialism

Socialism

The term socialism is commonly used to refer both to an ideology--a
comprehensive set of beliefs or ideas about the nature of human society and its
future desirable state--and to a state of society based on that ideology.
Socialists have always claimed to stand above all for the values of equality,
social justice, cooperation, progress, and individual freedom and happiness, and
they have generally sought to realize these values by the abolition of the
private-enterprise economy (see CAPITALISM) and its replacement by "public
ownership," a system of social or state control over production and distribution.
Methods of transformation advocated by socialists range from constitutional
change to violent revolution.

ORIGINS OF SOCIALISM

Some scholars believe that the basic principles of socialism were derived from
the philosophy of Plato, the teachings of the Hebrew prophets, and some parts of
the New Testament (the Sermon on the Mount, for example). Modern socialist
ideology, however, is essentially a joint product of the 1789 French Revolution
and the Industrial Revolution in England--the word socialist first occurred in
an English journal in 1827. These two great historical events, establishing
democratic government in France and the conditions for vast future economic
expansion in England, also engendered a state of incipient conflict between the
property owners (the bourgeoisie) and the growing class of industrial workers;
socialists have since been striving to eliminate or at least mitigate this
conflict. The first socialist movement emerged in France after the Revolution
and was led by Francois BABEUF, Filippo Buonarrotti (1761-1837), and Louis
Auguste BLANQUI; Babeuf's revolt of 1796 was a failure. Other early socialist
thinkers, such as the comte de SAINT-SIMON, Charles FOURIER, and Etienne CABET
in France and Robert OWEN and William Thompson (c.1785-1833) in England,
believed in the possibility of peaceful and gradual transformation to a
socialist society by the founding of small experimental communities; hence,
later socialist writers dubbed them with the label utopian.

THE EMERGENCE OF MARXISM

In the mid-19th century, more-elaborate socialist theories were developed, and
eventually relatively small but potent socialist movements spread. The German
thinkers Karl MARX and Friedrich ENGELS produced at that time what has since
been generally regarded as the most sophisticated and influential doctrine of
socialism. Marx, who was influenced in his youth by German idealist philosophy
and the humanism of Ludwig Andreas FEUERBACH, believed that human beings, and
particularly workers, were "alienated" in modern capitalist society; he argued
in his early writings that the institution of private property would have to be
completely abolished before the individual could be reconciled with both society
and nature. His mature doctrine, however, worked out in collaboration with
Engels and based on the teachings of classical English political economy, struck
a harder note, and Marx claimed for it "scientific" status.

The first important document of mature MARXISM, the COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (1848),
written with Engels, asserted that all known human history is essentially the
history of social classes locked in conflict. There has in the past always been
a ruling and an oppressed class. The modern, or bourgeois, epoch, characterized
by the capitalist mode of production with manufacturing industry and a free
market, would lead according to Marx and Engels to the growing intensity of the
struggle between capitalists and workers (the proletariat), the latter being
progressively impoverished and as a result assuming an increasingly
revolutionary attitude.

Marx further asserted, in his most famous work, Das KAPITAL, that the capitalist
employer of labor had, in order to make a profit, to extract "surplus value"
from his employees, thereby exploiting them and reducing them to "wage-slavery."
The modern state, with its government and law-enforcing agencies, was solely the
executive organ of the capitalist class. Religion, philosophy, and most other
forms of culture likewise simply fulfilled the "ideological" function of making
the working class contented with their subordinate position. Capitalism, however,
as Marx claimed, would soon and necessarily grind to a halt: economic factors,
such as the diminishing rate of profit, as well as the political factor of
increasing proletarian "class consciousness" would result in the forcible
overthrow of the existing system and its immediate replacement by the
"dictatorship of the proletariat." This dictatorship would soon be superseded by
the system of socialism, in which private ownership is abolished and all people
are remunerated according to their work, and socialism would lead eventually to
COMMUNISM, a society of abundance characterized by the complete disappearance of
the state, social classes, law, politics, and all forms of compulsion. Under
this ideal condition goods would be distributed according to need, and the unity
of all humankind would be assured because of elimination of greed.

VARIETIES OF EUROPEAN SOCIALISM

Marxist ideas made a great impact on European socialist movements. By the second
half of the 19th century socialists in Europe were organizing into viable
political parties with considerable and growing electoral support; they also
forged close links in most countries with trade unions and other working-class
associations. Their short-term programs were mainly concerned with increasing
the franchise, introducing state welfare benefits for the needy, gaining the
right to strike, and improving working conditions, especially shortening the
work day.

Moderate Socialism

Ideas other than those of Marx were at this time also becoming influential. Such
ideas included moderate socialist doctrines, for example, those of the FABIAN
SOCIETY in England, founded by Sidney WEBB and including among its adherents the
writers H. G. Wells and George Bernard Shaw; those of Ferdinand LASSALLE in
Germany; and of Louis BLANC in France. These moderates sought to achieve
socialism by parliamentary means and by appealing deliberately to the middle
class. Fabianism had as one of its intellectual forebears the utilitarian
individualism of Jeremy BENTHAM and John Stuart MILL, and it became a doctrine
that sought to reconcile the values of liberty, democracy, economic progress,
and social justice. The Fabians believed that the cause of socialism would also
be aided by the advancement of the social sciences, especially economics and
sociology. These doctrines, collectively known as social democracy, did not,
like Marxism, look toward the complete abolition of private property and the
disappearance of the state but instead envisaged socialism more as a form of
society in which full democratic control would be exercised over wealth, and
production would be controlled by a group of responsible experts working in the
interests of the whole community. The achievement of socialism was seen by
social democrats as a long-term goal, the result of an evolutionary process
involving the growth of economic efficiency (advanced technology, large-scale
organization, planning), education in moral responsibility, and the voluntary
acceptance of equal shares in benefits and burdens; socialism would be the
triumph of common sense, the inevitable outcome of LIBERALISM, the extension of
democracy from politics to industry.

CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM spread from its beginnings in England to France and Germany.
Charles KINGSLEY, John Malcolm Forbes Ludlow (1821-1911), and Frederick Denison
MAURICE were among its founders. They in the main supported moderate social
democracy, emphasizing what they understood as the central message of the church
in social ethics, notably the values of cooperation, brotherhood, simplicity of
tastes, and the spirit of self-sacrifice. Their ideas proved fertile in both the
short and the long runs, although in actual political terms Christian socialism
never succeeded in altering the predominantly secular orientation of most
socialist movements.

Radical Socialism

On the other hand, many doctrines and movements were decidedly more militant
than Marxism. Anarchists (see ANARCHISM), influenced mainly by the ideas of the
Frenchman Pierre Joseph PROUDHON and later of the Russian emigres Mikhail
Aleksandrovich BAKUNIN and Pyotr Alekseyevich KROPOTKIN, were intent on
immediately overthrowing the capitalist state and replacing it with small
independent communities. Unlike the Marxists, whom they bitterly criticized,
anarchists were against the formation of socialist parties, and they repudiated
parliamentary politics as well as the idea of revolutionary dictatorship. Their
followers, never very numerous, were and are found mainly in the Latin countries
of Europe and America. SYNDICALISM, an offshoot of anarchism, was a movement of
militant working-class trade unionists who endeavored to achieve socialism
through industrial action only, notably by using the weapon of the general
strike. Their doctrine was similar to Marxism in that they also believed that
socialism was to be achieved only by and for the working class, but unlike the
Marxists they rejected the notion of a future centralized socialist state. Their
most eminent theorist was Georges SOREL. Syndicalist ideas also had intermittent
success in the British and American trade union movements, for example, the
INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD, an American-based syndicalist union active
around the turn of the century. Guild socialism in England, dominated by George
Douglas Howard Cole (1889-1959), the academic economist and historian,
represented a modified and milder form of syndicalism.

In Russia, where it was impossible to organize openly a popular socialist
movement under the tsarist regime, socialism became mainly the ideology of young
militant intellectuals whose favored means of furthering the cause were secret
conspiracies and acts of individual terrorism. Debate raged between those who
believed in the native socialist ethos of the Russian village community and
those who wanted to adopt Western ideas of modernization. The latter party,
which eventually emerged victorious, soon came under Marxist influence. Among
its adherents was V. I. LENIN, who emerged as the leader of a small but
dedicated group of "professional revolutionaries," the Bolshevik (see BOLSHEVIKS
AND MENSHEVIKS) wing of the illegal Russian Social Democratic Workers' party.
Lenin was also the theorist who irrevocably gave a markedly elitist and
authoritarian twist to Marxism: he worked out the theory of the proletarian
vanguard--that is, the Communist party--which was destined to lead the masses
toward socialism, irrespective of the masses' inclinations.

SCHISM AND CONTROVERSY

Throughout the 19th century the socialist movement was beset by a number of
ever-deepening conflicts and doctrinal controversies.

The Internationals

The International Workingmen's Association (First International; see
INTERNATIONAL, SOCIALIST), founded in 1864, was expected to achieve unity among
various socialist and militant trade union organizations, but its efforts were
greatly hindered by, among other things, the conflict between the followers of
Bakunin and those of Marx. It came to an end soon after the suppression of the
COMMUNE OF PARIS (1871).

The Second International (1889-1914) assumed for a time at least an outward
appearance of unity, in that it represented the high watermark of classical
Marxist influence in West European socialism. It was dominated by the largest
socialist parties then in existence, the French--led by Jean JAURES, Jules
Guesde (1845-1922), and Paul Lafargue (1842-1911)--and the German--led by August
BEBEL, Karl Johann KAUTSKY, and Wilhelm Liebknecht (see LIEBKNECHT family)--who
agreed at least in their broad understanding of the aims and methods of
socialism. Their spokesmen emphasized the need to foster international
solidarity among the mass of the working class and thus to avert the threat of a
major war in Europe. This effort proved singularly unsuccessful: NATIONALISM in
1914 and later proved a much stronger mass emotion than socialism. Apart from a
few exceptions, such as Lenin and his Bolshevik group, socialist movements
supported the war effort of their respective governments. As a result of the
general conflagration in 1914 the Second International disintegrated and
therewith also the hopes of socialist unity.

Revisionism

Another important controversy broke out in the 1890s within Marxism, involving
the German Social Democratic party. This party was divided then between a
militant revolutionary left wing, an orthodox center that held to the classical
Marxist doctrine of economic determinism, and a right wing moving rapidly toward
a position of open reformism. The right wing had as its most renowned spokesman
Eduard BERNSTEIN, a personal friend of Marx and Engels, who was, however, also
influenced by English Fabian ideas.

Bernstein repudiated the notion of violent revolution and argued that conditions
in civilized countries such as Germany made possible a peaceful, gradual
transformation to socialism. He sought to reinterpret Marxist doctrine in the
light of fresh advances made in economic science, such as those also embraced in
Fabian doctrine, and argued that socialism was compatible with individual
economic responsibility. He rejected, furthermore, the idea of "class morality,"
which judged all actions according to their revolutionary import. Instead he
advocated a code of individual morality, derived from Kant's moral philosophy.
Consequently, Bernstein asserted the need for socialists to concentrate on
immediate tasks instead of ultimate and remote objectives; the movement, he
wrote, was everything; the goal, nothing.

This doctrine, henceforward called revisionism, immediately became the subject
of bitter attacks by the revolutionary left wing, represented above all by Rosa
LUXEMBURG, which on this issue was supported by the orthodox center and its
Continues for 11 more pages >>




  • Bitter Rivals Henry Cabot Lodge and Woodrow Wilson
    Bitter Rivals Henry Cabot Lodge and Woodrow Wilson Bitter Rivals: Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge Political rivalries define American government. The dual-party system by nature sets up partisan rivalries between members of all three branches of our government – rivalries that have at times pushed our government to progress and at other times slowed it to a grinding halt. The contrasting backgrounds and resulting political ideologies of Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge created a modern
  • Cold war
    cold war Major Sources of Discord between the Bolsheviks and European States: 1917 to 1921 There were several major sources that created discord between the Bolsheviks and western states in Europe from 1917 to 1921. Conflicting ideologies that each attacked the very fabric of the other’s respective society led to the notion that capitalism and communism could not coexist. The attempts of both actors to hold control of their own political system and to expand their political ideas internationally
  • Cold war
    cold war Major Sources of Discord between the Bolsheviks and European States: 1917 to 1921 There were several major sources that created discord between the Bolsheviks and western states in Europe from 1917 to 1921. Conflicting ideologies that each attacked the very fabric of the other’s respective society led to the notion that capitalism and communism could not coexist. The attempts of both actors to hold control of their own political system and to expand their political ideas internationally
  • Ethnography of the city
    ethnography of the city Ethnography in the City: Phillipe Bourgois and the Barrio Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The agricultural surplus from the surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city. Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where imported goods from distant places could be exchanged for
  • Transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx
    transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx Transcending the Barriers "My primary interest is to explain something out there that impinges me, and I would sell my soul to the devil if I thought it would help." Eric Wolf, 1987 Eric Wolf\'s interest into the realm of anthropology emerged upon recognition of the theorist- imposed boundaries, encompassing both theories and subjects, which current and past anthropological scholars had constructed. These boundaries, Wolf believed, were a result of
  • Transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx
    transcending the barrierseric wolf beyond marx Transcending the Barriers "My primary interest is to explain something out there that impinges me, and I would sell my soul to the devil if I thought it would help." Eric Wolf, 1987 Eric Wolf\'s interest into the realm of anthropology emerged upon recognition of the theorist- imposed boundaries, encompassing both theories and subjects, which current and past anthropological scholars had constructed. These boundaries, Wolf believed, were a result of
  • Gary Nash essay
    gary Nash essay In the essay written by Gary Nash, he argues that the reason for the American Revolution was not caused by the defense of constitutional rights and liberties, but that of “material conditions of life in America” were not very favorable and that social and economic factors should be considered as the driving factor that pushed many colonists to revolt. The popular ideology which can be defined as resonating “most strongly within the middle and lower strata of society and went far
  • Women in the Workforce
    Women in the Workforce Western female thought through the centuries has identified the relationship between patriarchy and gender as crucial to the women’s subordinate position. For two hundred years, patriarchy precluded women from having a legal or political identity and the legislation and attitudes supporting this provided the model for slavery. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries suffrage campaigners succeeded in securing some legal and political rights for women in the UK. By the mid
  • CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM
    CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese Economic Refrom
    Chinese Economic Refrom Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese reform
    chinese reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced
  • Nobel Peace Prize winners
    Nobel Peace Prize winners The theories of these five men: John C. Harsanyi, John Nash, Reinhard Selten, Robert W. Fogel, and Douglass C. North, made an abundant progress in the Economic Sciences in America and the economy. For these great accomplishments, these five were awarded the Noble Peace Prize in Economic Sciences in 1994(Harsanyi, Nash, Selten), and 1993(Forgel, North). The three economists who was awarded the Noble Peace Prize in 1994 for their excellent work and progress in game theory
  • American ethics
    american ethics American Ethics William J. Bennett once wrote, “My friend had observed that while the world still regards the United States as the leading economic and military power on earth, this same world no longer beholds us with the moral respect it once did, as a “shinning city on a hill” Instead, it sees a society in decline.” This statement is very true of America’s ethics today. The problems with ethics in America are the medias influence on the population, religious influences on the
  • Mrs dalloway
    mrs dalloway A LIFE VIRGINIA WOOLF SHARED In her writings, Virginia Woolf wanted to capture the realness of life, as one would live it. In turn, Woolf’s shared the significant elements of her life in her poetic prose novels, Mrs. Dalloway and To the Lighthouse, as a relative self-portrayal. In these books Woolf captured the life as she had lived it, performing this task in three different layers of depth. For a general sense, by allowing the characters to live in a similar society as her own, Wo
  • Deep Ecololgy
    Deep Ecololgy Deep Ecology/Ecosophy The ideas behind deep ecology have major implications today. They allow people to think more profoundly about the environment and possibly come to a better understanding of their own meaning. People are intensely concerned about the world’s technological adolescence, massive consumerism, and overpopulation. A man named Arne Naess, former head of the philosophy department at the University of Oslo founded an idea that can direct people’s anxiety away from their
  • Change in Urban Society
    Change in Urban Society Change In Urban Society At the end of the 18th century a revolution in energy and industry began in England and spread rapidly all around Europe later in the 19th century, bringing about dramatic and radical change. A significant impact of the Industrial Revolution was that on urban society. The population of towns grew vastly because economic advantage entailed that the new factories and offices be situated in the cities. The outlook of the city and urban life in general
  • Class struggles
    class struggles The State Having declared in the opening sentence of the Manifesto that all history is the history of class struggles, Marx adds immediately in a footnote "of written history". For prior to the invention of writing, societies were nomadic, organised in tribes, each tribe made of less than 100 individuals. There was hardly any division of labour, other than sexual. The tribe would designate a chief, and modern ethnology tells us the chief had very little power. His main function w
  • A Revisionist perspective of the election of Thoma
    A Revisionist perspective of the election of Thomas Jefferson The Election of Thomas Jefferson Consensus historians paint Thomas Jefferson as the great father of democracy, referring to his election to the presidency as the “revolution of 1800.” In actuality, Thomas Jefferson was an inconsistent man, who was philosophically against the Federalists, but who did not bring about any significant political or ideological changes during his presidency. Recently, revisionist historians have begun to qu
  • Frued as a Prism
    Frued as a Prism Social Recognition of the Human Individual “From the time of puberty onward the human individual must devote himself to the great task of freeing himself from his parents.” -Sigmund Freud (General Intro. to Psychoanalysis) As a child develops from infancy to adulthood, it soaks up its environment and processes it like a biological computer. As it matures, so does the way it copes with the challenges life presents to him. If the child has the opportunity to be well educated, than
  • Politics and the Truman MacArthur Contoversy
    Politics and the Truman MacArthur Contoversy July 7,2000 Politics and the Truman/MacArthur Controversy The precarious “peace” following World War II was at times only seconds from degenerating into a world wide nuclear war. The intensity of the cold war allowed for minimal error in foreign policy. It was during this tense and volatile time that General Douglas MacArthur fought what some deem “his” war in Korea. While he had proven himself time and again a brilliant military leader, his behavior
  • Rational thinking
    Rational thinking The Change in Rational Thinking Before 1750 The idea of rational thinking has been debated ever since the beginning of human existence. As humans we base what we think on what we know, during the 1600\'s if a person was black than they must have been inferior. This thinking seemed "rational" to the people of this period because they didn\'t know any better. The concept of rationality throughout time has always been a matter of perspective. If you are taught from birth that blac
  • Rusian History
    Rusian History Russia has always played a major roll in global politics, economics and thought. However, in the past two centuries, Russia has had probably the greatest influence on the international world in modern times, surpassed only by the United States. The Russia that we\'ve known this century though, has its roots in last centuries Russian. At the end of the nineteenth century, Russia experienced great changes internally, politically, socially and spiritually. The half century leading up
  • Spanish Castilian Empire
    Spanish Castilian Empire Why was it considered necessary for the Spanish Crown to justify and legitimise the conquest of the Americas and what arguments and means did it employ for this purpose? Every colonial country needs an idea to base its conquest and Spain was no different. The ideology behind the Spanish conquest of the Americas was the spread of Catholicism. This belief in the conversion of the Indians is what drove the Spanish to conquer, settle and govern the New World. The Castilians
  • The Influence of Enlightenment on the French Revol
    The Influence of Enlightenment on the French Revolution What is enlightenment? The 18th century Enlightenment was a movement of the intellectuals who dared to prove all the aspects in life scientifically. German philosopher Immauel Kant proclaimed the motto of the enlightenment : “Dare to know!: Have the courage to use your own intelligence!” People were greatly impressed by the scientific revolution. They were also advocating the application of the scientific method to the understanding of all
  • Gun Laws
    Gun Laws States from Michigan to Nebraska to California, as well as the federal government, are considering new rules on letting law-abiding citizens carry guns. Does allowing citizens to carry concealed handguns deter violent crimes? Or does this cause otherwise law-abiding citizens to harm each other? Thirty-one states now have guaranteed their citizens the right to carry concealed handguns if applicants do not have a criminal record or a history of significant mental illness. So what have the
  • Prostitution the uncontrolalble Vise misc
    Prostitution the uncontrolalble Vise misc “There are women who search for love, and there are those that search for money.” Today, the term woman simply denotes one’s sex. It does not define her character, morals and values, or even her profession. However, this was not always the case. At the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century, during the Progressive Era, there was a drive for reform. Various social problems became targets for investigation and intervention: ch
  • Chinese economic reform
    chinese economic reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Asian
    Asian Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had
  • BLACK RAGE HISTORICAL STUDY
    BLACK RAGE HISTORICAL STUDY BLACK RAGE: A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS Outline Thesis Statement: Throughout the history of the United States, as seen through an analysis of African-American literature and rhetoric, black rage has not only existed, but has grown. As the momentum toward equality is clearly evident in the black race’s struggle, the question of where (or when) this rage will subside (if ever) remains unanswered. In examining black rage, four distinct periods of American history should be con
  • Book Review1
    Book Review1 Ancient Greek History HST 333 Sylvia Kaplan Book Review of Slavery in Ancient Greece, By Yvon Garlan, 1988 Submitted by Kerry Sessler Book Review It is obvious from the beginning that, Slavery in Ancient Greece, was written to the authors’ colleagues (Garlan). The language, content, and style are noticeably academic and complex. The body of the text is devoted to a historical study of the different types of slavery existing within the Greek society of antiquity. The chapters are con
  • Book Review1
    Book Review1 Ancient Greek History HST 333 Sylvia Kaplan Book Review of Slavery in Ancient Greece, By Yvon Garlan, 1988 Submitted by Kerry Sessler Book Review It is obvious from the beginning that, Slavery in Ancient Greece, was written to the authors’ colleagues (Garlan). The language, content, and style are noticeably academic and complex. The body of the text is devoted to a historical study of the different types of slavery existing within the Greek society of antiquity. The chapters are con
  • Communications1
    Communications1 Humans have been communicating since four million years. On the other hand, the birth of culture is estimated to have taken place about 35,000 years ago. Today, both culture and communication have evolved considerably and have become interdependent of one another, to the point that communication is considered to be a product of culture. Thus, our own culture has a deep impact on our thoughts and behaviors. Since each culture has its distinct aspects, intercultural communication c
  • Constructing Natioanal Identity
    Constructing Natioanal Identity The nation state is a stage of transition into which larger trading states evolve. For example, the European monetary union of today is enabling a group of countries to trade as one nation. They form the largest trading unit that has ever existed. The benefits of large organisations are obvious, they can demand better value and set higher prices for their own goods. If Britain wants to succeed in the world economy she must unite with other nations, therefore reduc
  • Democratice partys
    democratice partys Republic (government) (Latin res publica, literally "the public thing"), form of state based on the concept that sovereignty resides in the people, who delegate the power to rule in their behalf to elected representatives and officials. In practice, however, this concept has been variously stretched, distorted, and corrupted, making any precise definition of the term republic difficult. It is important, to begin with, to distinguish between a republic and a democracy. In the t
  • Deviant Sociology InterviewReasearch 8 pagebibliog
    Deviant Sociology InterviewReasearch 8 pagebibliography INTRODUCTION: Topically, the subject of this interview is large scale drug dealing , with the questioning to focus on five different areas of deviant sociology. These are : Deviant Socialization, Deviant Ideology, Deviant Identity, Deviant Subculture and Societal Reaction. The anonymity of the subject has been guaranteed . In addition to the interview , an in depth discussion of deviant ideology followed by a summary of drug use/abuse will
  • Drug Trafficking Between US and South America
    Drug Trafficking Between US and South America Introduction Approaching and addressing international drug issues in 1999 is not a simple task due to numerous contradictions that involve the inherent nature of economics, politics, culture, and individual ideologies. The normal attributes of drugs, as well as the changing characteristics of these mind-altering substances, makes them the center of complex studies that end up producing contradictory and inconclusive reports. Furthermore, confusion re
  • Feminist
    Feminist Throughout history, men and women have struggled to understand each other. Society has struggled to meld their complex differences while embracing the wonder of individuality. Biologist attempt to explain why men and women are different yet comes from the very similar genetic make-up. Psychologists have made grand strides in understanding how the mind works in the dynamics of relationships between men and women. And in a society that is governed by economics, the realm of social status
  • Forein affairs
    forein affairs Future Involvement in Foreign Affairs Since the United States is one of the last remaining super powers of the world, we have the obligation to maintain and support good relations with the smaller and weaker nations throughout the world. We should take full advantage of this authority in several different ways. First the U.S. must focus on investing and trading with those nations who have yet to become economic powers; second, we must implement a consistent foreign policy towards
  • Is pokemon evil
    is pokemon evil "Gotta catch \'em all" - Why has Pokémon received such acclaim and criticism The world\'s most common thought systems, the \'-isms\' of the world - conservatism, liberalism, fundamentalism, fascism, etc - are ideologies. Collins dictionary defines Ideology as \'a body of ideas that reflects the beliefs of a nation, political system etc.\'. Yet it is difficult to define the word and the concept of ideology as those that often arise create contradictions. Terry Eagleton highlights
  • Is the inequality between men and women a human un
    Is the inequality between men and women a human universal In this essay I will look at whether the inequality between men and women is a human universal, or whether there are or have been societies in which women shared power equally with men, or even exercised power over them. In order to do so, I will look at the writings of a number of anthropologists. In "The Subordinance of Women: A Problematic Universal", author Ruth Bleier indicates that a central premise in the biological explanations in
  • Liberalism in political ideologies
    Liberalism in political ideologies Political ideology, Webster’s defines it as integrated assertions, theories and aims, that constitute a sociopolitical program (Webster, 2000). In essence, an ideology is a set of beliefs about economical, political, social and cultural issues. These beliefs together form a plan for a productive and beneficial political system. This paper will focus on the ideology of liberalism and its influence of the political issue of equal opportunity employment. We begin
  • MacCarthy
    MacCarthy The single most important factor in understanding the United States involvement in Vietnam is fear. In the years leading to the Vietnam Conflict the United States was immersed in paranoia toward Communist Russia and the communist movement as a whole. This paranoia has its roots in the depression of the nineteen thirties and was fueled by the exploits of men like MacCarthy and other politicians who saw this as an opportunity to further their careers or push policies. This paranoia was t
  • Maccarthyism
    Maccarthyism The single most important factor in understanding the United States involvement in Vietnam is fear. In the years leading to the Vietnam Conflict the United States was immersed in paranoia toward Communist Russia and the communist movement as a whole. This paranoia has its roots in the depression of the nineteen thirties and was fueled by the exploits of men like MacCarthy and other politicians who saw this as an opportunity to further their careers or push policies. This paranoia wa
  • Macroeconomic policy
    macroeconomic policy Economic Policy in Recent U.S. History In the highly materialistic world that we live in, success is generally measured in financial terms. The same is true in politics, where the success of a politician, especially the President, is measured by how well the economy did during his term in office. It is specifically measured by how well they bring down unemployment, grow the economy and fight inflation. Two basic modes of thought on the subject have pervaded public policy sin
  • The Rise of superpowers
    The Rise of superpowers THE RISE OF THE SUPERPOWERS: HOW WWII BUILT THEM THE RISE OF THE SUPERPOWERS: HOW WWII BUILT THEM It is often wondered how the superpowers achieved their position of dominance. It seems that the maturing of the two superpowers, Russia and the United States, can be traced to World War II. To be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense international political power and, related to this, a strong national ideology. It was this
  • Thinking Values and Essay
    Thinking Values and Essay Thinking, Values, and BeliefsEssay written by O. ColtonIdeology is a way of thinking that reflect the social needs and political doctrines of an individual or group. There are many different people and different circumstances this results in a variety of different ways of thinking, values and beliefs. Our ideology grows with us from childhood. From the moment you are born the family influence begins to impact your thought process. A child is like a sponge that absorbs i
  • Victorian social classes
    victorian social classes In the Mid-Victorian period in English history there were distinct class differences in its society. There were three classes in England. These were the Aristocracy, the Middle-Class (or Factory owners) and the working class. Each class had specific characteristics that defined its behavior. These characteristics were best seen in four areas of British society. During the time-period known by most historians as the Industrial Revolution, a great change overtook British c
  • Little white lie
    little white lie Orwell & Marx Animalism vs. Marxism ³Every line I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism," quotes George Orwell in the preface to the 1956 Signet Classic edition of Animal Farm. The edition, which sold several millions copies, however, omitted the rest of the sentence: "and for democratic Socialism, as I understand it.² It is in Animal Farm, written in 1944 but not published until after World War Two in 1945, which Orwell offers
  • ConservatismLiberalismSocialism
    ConservatismLiberalismSocialism Conservatism, liberalism and socialism can be called ideologies, as they constitute “comprehensive set of beliefs and attitudes about social and economic institutions and processes” (Lawson, 44). These three ideologies, which have been developed throughout history, share both similarities and differences. Conservatism, unlike liberalism, generally opposes radical changes in social and economic domain. As the word connoted, the accumulated knowledge of the past and
  • Democracy in Latin America
    Democracy in Latin America Is Democracy Sustainable in Latin America? In order to determine if democracy is sustainable in Latin America, it is important to understand or at least have an idea of what democracy is. There are several types of democracy and each is different. According to the English dictionary, democracy is “ a government by the people; especially: rule of the majority by a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly