Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, Essay

This essay has a total of 1840 words and 12 pages.

Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, And Critical

Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, and Critical

Comment on the three types of sociological theories, explain and argue, based
on your library or Internet research, which type of theory is the most
appropriate theory for sociology to adopt.

The three general types of sociological theory are positivistic, interpretive
and critical theory.In determining which theory is the most appropriate for
sociology to adopt,a basic understanding of each theory's strengths and
weaknesses is necessary.In defining each of these theories, it is important to
determine the ontological basis orthe theory's basis for determining what is
knowable; the epistemological basis or the theory's relationship between the
knower and the knowable; and, finally, the methodological basis or the theory's
method for gathering data and obtaining knowledge.

A.POSITIVISTIC

1.Ontology.

The positivistic theory is based on an ontology ofbeing a realist.The realistic
slant of positivism is also known as determinism.The positivist knows that a
reality is "out there" to be defined and categorized.The hard sciences from the
time of Newton and Decartes have traditionally relied on the positivistic
approach.The positivist hopes to be able to approximate "reality" in a detailed
generalization or theory on how reality operates.The theories of a positivist
generallytake the form of cause and effect laws describing the outside
reality.Robert Merton defined these theorems as "clear verifiable statements of
the relationships between specified variables."

2.Epistemology.

Positivism relies onan objective epistemology.The observer remains distant and
does not interact with the observation or experiment.Values and any other
factors that might lead to bias are to be carefully removed so that the cold,
monological gaze of science can be used to analyze the data.The positivist is an
objectivist.

3.Methodology.

The methodology of positivism is experimental and manipulative. The approach is
the same as propounded in most junior high science classes:begin with a
hypothesis on how "reality" works, then gather data and test the data against
the hypothesis.The question propounded initially is tested against empirical
data gathered in the experiment under carefully controlled conditions.

B.INTERPRETIVE

1.Ontology.

The interpretivist ontology is relativism.The belief, unlike the positivist, is
that knowledge is relative to the observor.Reality is not something that exists
outside the observor, but rather is determined by the experiences, social
background and other factors of the observor.Because of this view sociological
law is not a constant, but a relationship between changing variables.

2.Epistemology.

The epistemology of interpretivism is the subjective.The inquirer in
interpretisim becomes part of an interaction or communication with the subject
of the inquiry.The findings are the result of the interaction between the
inquirer and the subject. Reality becomes a social construction.

3.Methodology.

The methodology ofinterpretivism can best be described as hermenutic or
dialectic.Hermenutics is the study of how to make interpretive inquiry.Dialectic
is reflective of the dialogue imagined in the subjective approach and the need
to test interpretive theory against human experience. Max Weber described the
methodology as "a science which aims at the interpretative understanding of
social conduct and thus at the explanation of its causes, its course, and its
effects."

Through hermenutics, the raw data consists of description.The description is
made through the naturally symbolic use of language.The meaning of the language
is derived in part by the society from which it arises.Interpretive theory is
tested by referring back to human practice within the society.If the interaction
produces the anticipated result then the theory is corroborated and vice versa.

C.CRITICAL THEORY

1.Ontology.

Criticalrealism is the ontology of critical theory.Critical realism believes
that a reality exists "out there" and is not merely relative.However, reality
can never be fully comprehended or understood.Natural laws still control and
drive realityand to the extent possible should be understood.

2.Epistemology.

Critical theory is value oriented.Therefore, the critical theorist is subjective
to the extent that the inquiries are governed and conducted in the context ofthe
values expounded by the theorist.

3.Methodology.

Critical theory has a transformative methodology.The answers provided should be
on how we should live.The status quo is critiqued and attacked.Actions are
criticized because of the result they will bring.The transformation is brought
about by making societal participants more aware of the language and the world
in which they live.By rallying members of society around a common, clear and
"true" point, societal injustice and exploitation can be eliminated.

POSITIVISM VERSUS INTERPRETIVISM

The positivistic approach is excellent for examining exterior data that can
essentially be utilized in an objective fashion.The positivist is an excellent
philosophy for viewing societal trends andchanges.The monological or scientific
gazeis limited in its perceptions and can best be used for determining when and
to what extent groups in the society interact.

The interpretivist, on the other hand, wants to know why things are happening in
a particular society.The subjective approach allows communication with the
cultural background of a society and an understanding of why things operate.

An illustration of how the two approaches differ can be seen by examining
something like the local Mormon baptism ritual for 8 year old children.The
positivist would tell percentages of children who participated in comparison to
the time the parents spent in church.The hypothesis may begin that a higher
percentage ofchildren would participate in the ritual if their parents were more
active in the religion.Data would be gathered and tested against the
hypothesis.The conclusion would be that the data confirmed the hypothesis and so
the conclusion could be reached that the more active the parents , the more
likely that the child would participate in the ritual.

The interpretivist would survey and examine why the children were baptized and
what the baptism meant to the participants.The final construct for the
interpretivist would be thatthe baptism signified a religious cleansing and a
new beginning and acted as a right of passage for the young children.

Both conclusions are correct, the results are vastly different.The positivist
looks at the exterior of society, while the interpretivist looks at the
Continues for 6 more pages >>




  • Alexander The Great
    Alexander The Great Alexander the Great and His Achievements Alexander the Great was the king of Macedon. Alexander of Macedon, or ancient Mecadonia, deserves to be called the "Great". Alexander the Great was considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He was an excellent king, general, and conqueror. During his thirteen-year rule he conquered almost all the then known world and gave a new direction to history. He had established an empire after he died. His new empire helped
  • Ben Franklin BiographyCritique
    Ben Franklin BiographyCritique Ben Franklin: Early Life In his many careers as a printer, moralist, essayist, civic leader, scientist, inventor, statesman, diplomat, and philosopher, for later generations of Americans he became both a spokesman and a model for the national character. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts on Jan. 17, 1706, into a religious Puritan household. His father, Josiah, was a candlemaker and a skillful mechanic. His mother, Abiah Ben’s parents raised thirteen children--the
  • Theory of Evolution
    Theory of Evolution CHARLES DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwin\'s time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution could not come up with a satisfactory mechanism that would
  • Colonialism
    Colonialism The Tiger and The Virgin Colonialism has often spread to areas where it is economically valuable for the colonizer to develop. South America was one of these places. First came the Spanish for gold, then for rubber. As colonization took place two cultures met, thinking they were opposites, but in reality they were very much connected to one another, their histories were now tied together. In considering the question of how Indians have developed their healing practices and spiritual
  • Ayasofya
    ayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: "Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight." More prosaically,
  • Nam June Paik Video Innovations
    Nam June Paik Video Innovations Nam June Paik was born in Seoul, Korea on July 20, 1932. He was the fifth and youngest child of a textile merchant. In 1947, at the age of 14, he studied piano and composition with two of Korea\'s foremost composers. The family moved to Tokyo, Japan in 1950 to avoid the havoc of the Korean War. Paik studied music, history, art history, and philosophy at the University of Tokyo from 1953 to 1956. He did his graduate dissertation on Schoenberg. In 1956, he moved to
  • Jimi Hendrix
    Jimi Hendrix On November 27, 1942, Jimi Hendrix was born as John Allen Hendrix in Washington at Seattle General Hospital. His childhood was not a privileged one, however, he did indulge himself in one particular way: Jimi loved to play the guitar. At first he played an old acoustic, and later a cheap Silvertone electric, which were both strung for a lefty on a right-handed guitar, one of the defining Hendrix traits (Murray 34- 5) . As a teenager, young Jimi listened to the music which affected h
  • Karl Marx
    Karl Marx Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise Above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the Basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think Today, and because of him people are more open to
  • Sir Isaac Newton
    Sir Isaac Newton Thesis Statement: Through his early life experiences and with the knowledge left by his predecessors, Sir Isaac Newton was able to develop calculus, natural forces, and optics. From birth to early childhood, Isaac Newton overcame many personal, social, and mental hardships. It is through these experiences that helped create the person society knows him as in this day and age. The beginning of these obstacles started at birth for Newton. Isaac was born premature on Christmas Day
  • Thomas Jefferson2
    Thomas Jefferson2 The third president of the United States, a diplomat, statesman, architect, scientist, and philosopher, Thomas Jefferson is one of the most eminent figures in American history. No leader in the period of the American Enlightenment was as articulate, wise, or conscious of the implications and consequences of a free society as Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell, a tobacco plantation in Virginia. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a self-made
  • Next of Kin
    Next of Kin Next Of Kin The next of kin a documentation of mind matter and love. This book was very inspirational it gives you a whole new outlook on the experience and the feelings of animals. Trying to relate with how much Roger Fouts has accomplished in his life is unbearable he has had so many experiences that have been recorded in this book. It was the type of book that was hard to put down from the beginning. In the next few pages I will discuss parts of the book that really moved me and l
  • The slaughter house five
    The slaughter house five THE NOVEL - THE PLOT - Billy Pilgrim, like Kurt Vonnegut, was an American soldier in Europe in the last year of World War II. If you come to know a combat veteran well- a veteran of that war, of the Korean War, or of the war in Vietnam- you will almost always find that his war experience was the single most important event in his life. The sights and scars of war remain with the soldier for the rest of his days, and his memories of death and killing help to shape whateve
  • Effects of free agency in sports
    Effects of free agency in sports Professional baseball is in a state of turmoil. While the National Basketball Association and the National Football League are prospering, America\'s "favorite" pastime is faltering. It is no coincidence that this downward spiral began in 1976. That year the court decided in favor of Andy Messersmith and Dave McNally, two pitchers fighting for their own free agency (Burns and Ward, Art. 10). Free agency grants players the ability to choose what team they want to
  • Techniques
    Techniques Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is really real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. In order to acquire absolutely certainty, Descartes must first lay a complete foundation of integrity on which to build up his knowledge. The technique he uses
  • None Provided
    None Provided Leadership Leadership Defined As defined by Webster, a leader is someone who has commanding authority or influence or a first or principal performer of a group. It is my position that Leadership, in essence, is the sum of these definitions. In order to have and maintain commanding authority, a leader must be the principal performer of his/her group. Leadership, based on examples presented by Michael Hanna and Gerald Wilson , is dynamic. The field of knowledge has developed through
  • Confusion economics
    confusion economics The Chinese Economy, Culture & Society The social values and history have shaped and formed the economical developments and the current environment of business in the People\'s Republic of China. They have determined the patterns for negotiation and the Chinese perceptions of business, and their feelings towards westerners. The implicit and explicit rules that the Chinese society has on the development of businesses, and the economy in general, are very important issues for a
  • Karl marx
    karl marx Karl Marx Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for humansociety. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the resources of this society. The systems are referred to as governments and the resources as the populace or inhabitants and forces of production. A government must be dynamic in its nature reflecting the change in society. At times these systems have resisted the necessity to adap
  • Nobel Peace Prize winners
    Nobel Peace Prize winners The theories of these five men: John C. Harsanyi, John Nash, Reinhard Selten, Robert W. Fogel, and Douglass C. North, made an abundant progress in the Economic Sciences in America and the economy. For these great accomplishments, these five were awarded the Noble Peace Prize in Economic Sciences in 1994(Harsanyi, Nash, Selten), and 1993(Forgel, North). The three economists who was awarded the Noble Peace Prize in 1994 for their excellent work and progress in game theory
  • None Provided2
    None Provided2 1961-1963 John F. Kennedy was president during this time period and we were under Democratic leadership. Kennedy\'s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States. The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that train
  • Inclusion
    Inclusion Within the past decades and a half considerable discussion has occurred regarding the most appropriate setting within which to provide education for students in special education. Although the change in the educational environment is significant for handicapped student the concepts of inclusion also bring up new issues for the regular education classroom teachers. The movement toward full inclusion of special education students in general education setting has brought special education
  • Inclusion
    Inclusion Within the past decades and a half considerable discussion has occurred regarding the most appropriate setting within which to provide education for students in special education. Although the change in the educational environment is significant for handicapped student the concepts of inclusion also bring up new issues for the regular education classroom teachers. The movement toward full inclusion of special education students in general education setting has brought special education
  • Inclusion
    Inclusion Within the past decades and a half considerable discussion has occurred regarding the most appropriate setting within which to provide education for students in special education. Although the change in the educational environment is significant for handicapped student the concepts of inclusion also bring up new issues for the regular education classroom teachers. The movement toward full inclusion of special education students in general education setting has brought special education
  • Multiple Intelligence
    Multiple Intelligence Harold Gardner (1983) of Harvard University has identified several kinds of intelligence people possess. Particularly, this finding poses significant implications in classroom instructions. More often than not, children and even adults (who are grown up children) are labeled negatively if and when they manifest either a very fast, slow or no understanding at the entire subject matter. Identifying children’s various strengths among these intelligences will direct the teacher
  • My philosophy on education
    my philosophy on education Education is inevitable. It is all around us because we can learn from virtually anything. When you are cooking, dancing, talking or any other activity you have actually had to learn several things to be able to do them. In the educational perspective, I am a pragmatist and I tend to follow after Deweys footsteps. The concept of Pragmatism is one that developed in the 20th century. My philosophy is based on the idea that learning should involve real-life situations. L
  • Philosophy of Education
    Philosophy of Education Philosophy of Education The term philosophy can be defined in many ways. I like to define philosophy to mean “truth.” When evaluating my philosophy of education, my views are clear and concise. Education should be provided to everyone, free of charge, and free of discriminations. Education today is provided to everyone publicly at no expense. Although free, it does not come without distractions. For instance, public schooling has turned into more of a daycare type setting
  • Scaffolding in education
    scaffolding in education Abstract The World Wide Web is being seen more and more as an effective and above all inexpensive means of delivering courses in the tertiary education sector. It is important however that financial imperatives to not take precedence over educational goals. In the search for an effective approach to Web learning, an re-examination of learning theory is required. This paper examines the three broad philosophies of Behaviourism, Cognitive Theory, and Constructivism and rev
  • 19849
    19849 1984:The Quintessential Negative Utopia (Or How to become really depressed about the future of the human condition in 267 pages or less.) 1984 is George Orwell\'s arguably his most famous novel, and it remains one of the most powerful warnings ever made against the dangers of a totalitarian society. George Orwell was primarily a political novelist as a result of his life experiences. In Spain, Germany, and Russia, Orwell had seen for himself the peril of absolute political authority in an
  • Fahrenheit 4512
    Fahrenheit 4512 Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 “It was a pleasure to burn. It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed,” begins Fahrenheit 451 (1). This opening of Bradbury’s novel immediately evokes the consequences of the careless use of new technology and modern-man’s refusal to recognize these consequences (de Koster 44). The book Fahrenheit 451 is one of only two novels that Ray Bradbury has written, the other being Something Wicked This Way Comes. (Man
  • J D Salinger
    J D Salinger J. D. Salinger "The worth of a book is to be measured by what you can carry away from it." -James Bryce* In 1945, a novel was published that would forever change the way society views itself. The book, entitled The Catcher in the Rye, would propel a man named Jerome David Salinger to fame as one of the most famous authors of the twentieth century. This same man, not ten years after the publication and while still in the peak of his career, would depart from this society- the one tha
  • Life of Comenius
    Life of Comenius In Moravia in 1592, Comenius, one of the greatest educational theorists to date, was brought into life. From his father he received ordinary elementary and grammar school education. While attending school the incompetence of his teachers drove him to become a school reformer. Still today, 300 years later, we find his teachings to be the origins of contemporary or recent trends of thought. Comenius’s theories can be seen today through the relatively young philosophy of progressiv
  • Margaret Atwood
    Margaret Atwood Fight for the Female Margaret Atwood, a contemporary Canadian author, has been classified as one of this century’s\' most feminist, and near dystopian novelists. Her works illustrate how feminism has caused the downfall of contemporary society. Margaret Atwood, a prominent feminist author of the twentieth century, is driven by her sense of social reform and her realistic view of a disturbed society to produce works such as The Handmaids Tale. Atwood was born on November 18, 1943
  • Ray Bradbury
    Ray Bradbury 01 Ray Bradbury "Ray Bradbury is one of the immortals among us, whose classic works of science fiction, fantasy and horror will be read a thousand years from now by our descendents and the relatives alike of the planets of a thousand distant stars." ( Dragon*con, website). He’s won many awards for his writings and lectures, and I have no doubt in my mind that his writings will live on forever. "It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed. With
  • Romanticism3
    Romanticism3 Romanticism It was a reaction against the Enlightenment and yet akin in that they both assumed life was designed for human happiness. However the Enlightenment placed reason at the center of human acheivement. Romanticismm distrusted the human intellect and placed its value on the emotions and intutive qualities. The natural and spontaneous was deemed good. The highest truths would be derived from the instantaneous of the individual. It gloried in the unlimited potential of the indi
  • Romanticism3
    Romanticism3 Romanticism It was a reaction against the Enlightenment and yet akin in that they both assumed life was designed for human happiness. However the Enlightenment placed reason at the center of human acheivement. Romanticismm distrusted the human intellect and placed its value on the emotions and intutive qualities. The natural and spontaneous was deemed good. The highest truths would be derived from the instantaneous of the individual. It gloried in the unlimited potential of the indi
  • LIsbon
    LIsbon The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake and Candide In 1755, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale occurred in Lisbon, Portugal, changing European history and philosophy. But how does one geologic event trigger a paradigm shift from naturalism to liberalism Naturalism unites with rationalism during the Age of Enlightenment, a philosophical movement during the 18th century, which rejects traditional social, religious and political ideas with an emphasis on rationalism. People believe in a wo
  • 18th Century European Enlightenment
    18th Century European Enlightenment 18th Century European Enlightenment The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophes in France) were committed to secular views based on reason or human understanding only, which they
  • A Time of Change
    A Time of Change Robert Chaplin History 112 Dr. Farrell 12 April 2000 A Time of Change The enlightenment was a great time of change in both Europe and America. Some of the biggest changes, however, happened in the minds of many and in the writings of many philosophers. These included some of the beliefs of David Hume, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and Francois Voltaire. Writers during this time focused on optimism, which is the opinion to do everything for the best (Chaney 119), and the
  • Optimistic ideas of the Enlightenment
    Optimistic ideas of the Enlightenment 1. To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in eighteenth century Europe? Illustrate your answer with references to specific individuals and their works. (1998, #5) During the eighteenth century, Europeans experienced the dawning of an age of knowledge, reasoning, and of great scientific achievements. Their views toward new discoveries and advancements were optimistic. People began to turn to science for a better understanding of their w
  • The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment The Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment was a period that took place after the Renaissance and is characterized by profound changes in mind and attitude of many Europeans. For centuries before, the Roman Catholic Church was a dominant force in society. People believed that by accepting the hardships there were in life, and devoting themselves to God, they could expect a better afterlife. However, at the start of the Renaissance, people began to question the ideas of Christia
  • The Evolution fo Renaissance Art
    The Evolution fo Renaissance Art The Renaissance was an era of beautiful artwork and structures that flourished all over Western Europe. The artists began to be more expressive and creative in their designs. Art evolved by way of subject matter, technique, influences, and of course the artists. Some of the most noted artists, architects, and sculptors of the High Renaissance include Giotto, Donato Bramante, Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. It was one of the high points of humanism a
  • Progressive Stuff
    Progressive Stuff TRUTH AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE PROFESSIONS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF \'TRUTH IN ADVERTISING\' AND \'TRUE AND FAIR\' FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN NORTH AMERICA DURING THE PROGRESSIVE ERA Both advertisers and auditors wrestled with the truth of their text during the Progressive Era (1880-1940). Although in North America, advertisers adopted "truth in advertising" as a theme, auditors rejected "true and fair" as a description of financial statements. Auditors instead adopted the weaker s
  • 18th Century European Enlightenment
    18th Century European Enlightenment 18th Century European Enlightenment 18th Century European Enlightenment The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophes in France) were committed to secular views based on reason or
  • 1968 LIfe
    1968 LIfe Analysis of Life for 1968 The year 1968 was a time of war, civil rights movements, and riots. Many big events took place during 1968. Many lives were changed by these events. Out if the 1960’s, 1968 stands out the most. In January of 1968 the United States thought that the Vietnam War was coming to a close, but President Johnson made a statement that changed the direction of Vietnam. President Johnson said the South Vietnamese could not win. This caused the South Vietnamese could not w
  • American Verna
    American Verna The American Verna Why is that humans were able to practically take over their environment and leave all other animal species far behind in the race of survival? Not many would argue that we were able to do so just because we can walk upright and we have unspecialized teeth. In fact, humans are capable of many things that separate us from the animals. Our far most important trait is the ability to analyze and comprehend complex subject matters. From that we can learn, understa
  • Early Civilizations1
    Early Civilizations1 EARLY CIVILIZATIONS AND THE DAWN OF THE MEDIEVAL AGE 1.0 Introduction History is an account of mans achievements during the last five thousand years. Though man has been on this planet for about 500,000 years, history only covers a part of this period. The reason for this is that history is essentially based on written documents However the art of writing become known to man, only after 3000 B. C. 1.1 History : Meaning and Importance The word history is derived from the G
  • Education in the 1800s
    Education in the 1800s Education had an emphasis on many different aspects during the time prior to the Civil War. There was a certain irony that set the mode of this time making things that were said irrelevant to the actions that were taken. The paradoxes of education in Pre civil war America, are evidenced in subject matter, gender, class and race, as well as purpose. American education developed from European intellectual traditions and institutions transplanted to the new world and modified
  • Europe in teh 1960s
    Europe in teh 1960s A Decade in Europe The 1960’s Europe is an ever-changing landscape of culture and society. Many major advances in technology and knowledge were introduced to this scene in the nineteen-sixties. Political transformation took place in this decade as well as social and ethnic changes. The beginning of the Space Age marked scientific enhancements just as the second Vatican Council meeting was a sign of cultural attempts to bring a group up to date with the times. The building of
  • Europe in teh 1960s1
    Europe in teh 1960s1 A Decade in Europe The 1960’s Europe is an ever-changing landscape of culture and society. Many major advances in technology and knowledge were introduced to this scene in the nineteen-sixties. Political transformation took place in this decade as well as social and ethnic changes. The beginning of the Space Age marked scientific enhancements just as the second Vatican Council meeting was a sign of cultural attempts to bring a group up to date with the times. The building of
  • Info on tedd and wilson
    info on tedd and wilson Fun Fact: Sheep on the White House lawn? A flock of sheep grazed during Woodrow Wilson\'s term. Their wool was sold to raise money for the Red Cross during World War I. Fast Fact: Woodrow Wilson tried in vain to bring the United States into the League of Nations. Biography: Like Roosevelt before him, Woodrow Wilson regarded himself as the personal representative of the people. "No one but the President," he said, "seems to be expected ... to look out for the general inter
  • Jesus or hitler
    jesus or hitler Jesus or Hitler? Anti-Semitism was widespread in Europe at the time Hitler came to power. Much of this anti-Semitism was rooted, first, in religious beliefs that arose more than 1500 years before Hitler came to power, and second, on political beliefs, often cynically exploited for political gain. Though it was not accepted by everyone, this existing anti-Semitism was common and provided a receptive audience for Hitler\'s anti-Semitic claims. Hitler did not just exploit the existi