Book Report on Stem Cell Research

This essay has a total of 997 words and 6 pages.

Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research
Stem cells are a large focus of study in today's biomedical world. Stem cell research
offers the hope of transplants being done without the sacrifice of another person losing
an organ. There are many different pros and cons when it comes to discussing the use of
stem cells.

In order to develop an opinion of whether or not stem cells should be used, one must first
understand what they are and how they are used. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential
to develop into many different cells types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system
for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long
as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the
potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more
specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell or a brain cell," (National
Institute of Health, 2004).

In the face of prevention and treatment of human diseases, devastating illnesses such as
heart disease, diabetes, cancer, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's continue to deprive people of
health. With the research of stem cells, scientist can now carry out experiments aimed at
determining what causes these diseases. Although it is impossible to predict the outcomes,
scientist and the public will gain new knowledge to help prevent these diseases. (National
Institute of Health, 2004).

There are primarily two different types of stem cells that scientist work with, embryonic
stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic and adult stem cells each have many advantages
and disadvantages regarding their potential use. Adult and embryonic stem cells differ in
the number and type of cells that they can become. (Antkowiak, 2001).

"Embryonic stem cells are cells from the embryo that have the potential to become a wide
variety of specialized cell types," (National Institute of Health, 2004). Embryonic stem
cells have certain advantages over adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are easier to
obtain because most of them come from in vitro fertilization. Embryonic stem cells are
more flexible, they "appear to have the potential to make any cell. They are also
immortal; one embryonic stem cell line can potentially provide an endless supply of cells
with defined characteristics," (Velazquez, n.d.).

Embryonic stem cells also have many disadvantages. Embryonic stem cells can mean
destruction of human life. They are usually come from a random donor and are more likely
to be rejected by someone that receives them through a transplant. Most embryonic stem
cells are obtained from embryos that have been made in a lab through in vitro
fertilization and they are used for test purposes only. This is one of the most argued
facts by protestor's against stem cell research (Marshall, 1998). Many people believe that
it is murder because they are killing a human life. Embryonic stem cells are also capable
of forming tumors or promoting tumor formation because they are not put back into their
original donor's body. (Velazquez, n.d.).

"Adult stem cells are stem cells found in adults and they typically generate the cell
types in which they are found," (National Institute of Health, 2004). Adult stem cells
have a stronger advantage than embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells usually come from
umbilical cords, placentas amniotic fluids, bone marrow, liver and other various tissues
and organs. Bone marrow and umbilical cord cells have recently been isolated which can
allow them to be as flexible as the embryonic type. These stem cells are of a higher
quality and are more likely to take because the "recipient who receives the products of
their own stem cells will not experience immune rejection," (Velazquez, n.d.). Another
fact that most protestors argue is that, adult stem cells do not cause any harm to the
donor.

Adult stem cells also have many disadvantages. Limited quantity is a huge disadvantage
because sometimes it can be difficult to obtain these stem cells in large numbers. This is
an important distinction between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells because large
numbers of cells are needed for stem cell replacement therapies. Adult stem cells may not
live as long as embryonic stem cells if grown in culture. Adult stem cells are also not as
flexible; it may be more difficult to reprogram them to form other tissue types.
(Velazquez, n.d.).

Adult stem cells are more preferable than embryonic stem cells for multiple reasons.
Continues for 3 more pages >>




  • None Provided4
    None Provided4 CHAPTER 32 The tallest tree is the Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) approx 110 m The tallest Angiosperm is the Australian Eucalyptus regnans Water Uptake and transport (Fig. 32.1) = water is essential because: transport solute, cool the body, photosynthesis and Turgor pressure Osmosis- movement of H2) through a semi-impermeable membrane Osmotic potential ( o)-depend on dissolve solute: Hi concentration means more negative o. Isoosmotic-two solution with same o; Hypoosmotic- solution
  • Metabolic Muscular and Nervous Systems
    Metabolic Muscular and Nervous Systems The immediate source of energy for muscular contraction is the high-energy phosphate compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Although ATP is not the only energy-carrying molecule in the cell, it is the most important one, and without sufficient amounts of ATP most cells die quickly. The three main parts of an ATP molecule are: an adenine portion, a ribose portion, and three phosphates linked together. The formation of ATP occurs by combining adenosine
  • None Provided
    None Provided The Enlightened Machine Brain Science, also known as nerve science, has been classified as an adventure. It mostly deals with our behavior, as well as speech, movement, coordination, and basically any part of our life in general is associated with it. As we study the brain more and more over the last twenty years, we begin to discover more and more about it and its hundreds of thousands of complex and involved tasks. Let us start with the basics, the brain from the out side is abou
  • None Provided1
    None Provided1 Vision and Movement When we discuss our brain, we usually focus on the brains ability to think. That task alone is extremely complex and involved, but the brain also has many other tasks. Most of the time the brain is on autopilot, meaning that most of the activities preformed are just automatic. Our five senses; sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell, are automatically preformed in our brains. We don\'t have to think about how something sounds, we just hear it and we then interpre
  • Praying Mantiss
    Praying Mantiss MANTODEA Most commonly known as the Praying Mantis, order mantodea is a group of about 1800 carnivorous insects which prodominatley live in tropical regions of the earth. Though certain species can be found in locations with moderate climate. With an extremely striking appearence, mantids almost have human like qualities with the ability to hold an erect stance, and arms that face forward. A very efficient killer, mantids were created for hunting and killing prey. Order Mantodea
  • Optical Illusions
    Optical Illusions My research paper is about the anatomy of an optical illusion. Optical Illusions are relevant to aviation in that the main guidance system of most aircraft on most flights is the pilot\'s eyes. Everyone, including pilots, is susceptible to an optical illusion. The hazards of optical illusions are many considering that at any time during the flight they can cause a healthy and experienced pilot to become confused, delusional and generally disoriented with obvious possible conseq
  • Dove
    dove ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA reproduction process by which organisms replicate themselves. In a general sense reproduction is one of the most important concepts in biology: it means making a copy, a likeness, and thereby providing for the continued existence of species. Although reproduction is often considered solely in terms of the production of offspring in animals and plants, the more general meaning has far greater significance to living organisms. To appreciate this fact, the origin of lif
  • None Provided2
    None Provided2 Humans have within their grasp the ability and technology to create life. Many believe that this knowledge will lead to further degradation of the human spirit. But others, like Prometheus and his gift of fire, believe that new technology is the key to a new, and better, reality. Genetic engineering and, specifically, cloning, of human life has become an issue of extreme gravity in the age of technology where anything may be dreamed and many things are possible. Cloning is a reali
  • Who says you cant compare apples and oranges
    Who says you cant compare apples and oranges It has been said that one can not compare apples and oranges. I believe differently. Apples and oranges are both delicious, edible fruits that germinate on trees and are the size of baseballs. Apples are grown in the northern parts of the United States while; oranges are grown in the southern parts. Both make a sweet, vitamin-rich juice and contain seeds. Apples are truly special fruits. Striated, thin reddish-green skin surrounds and protects the moi
  • To clone or not clone
    To clone or not clone To clone or not to clone Cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more feasible in today\'s society than it was twenty years ago. It is a method that involves the production of a group of identical cells or organisms that all derive from a single individual (Grolier 220). It is not known when or how cloning humans really became a possibility, but it is known that there are two possible ways that we can clone humans. The first way involves splitting a
  • Drugs and Alcohol
    Drugs and Alcohol One of the biggest problems people cope with today is the addiction of drugs and alcohol. The effects of taking these drugs are dangerous: domestic violence, crimes, accidents, sexual assault or becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Different studies of domestic violence show a big involvement of high quantities of alcohol and other drugs. These increase the level of aggression. Alcoholism and child abuse, including incest, seem tightly intertwined as well. Parents, being under alco
  • Sickle Cell Anemia1
    Sickle Cell Anemia1 The problem is that sickle cell anemia affects about 72,000 Americans in the United States. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease in which the body is unable to produce normal hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein. Abnormal hemoglobin can morph cells that can become lodged in narrow blood vessels, blocking oxygen from reaching organs and tissues. The effects of sickle cell anemia are bouts of extreme pain, infectious, fever, jaundice, stroke, slow growth, organ, and fai
  • Breast Cancer
    Breast Cancer In the United States in 1999 alone, an estimated 43,700 people will die from breast cancer. It is the number two cancer killer among females ages 15 to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancy drops drastically. This cancer is within the top three cancers of all women above the age of 15, and comprises a great amount of all health care costs in the U.S. totaling an astounding 37 billion dollars a year in direct medical costs. An average woman is said to ha
  • Dothiepin Vs Fluoxetine Mechanism of Action and Ph
    Dothiepin Vs Fluoxetine Mechanism of Action and Pharmacodynamics Comparison Between Mechanism of Action and Pharmacodynamics of Dothiepin and Fluoxetine Description of medicines Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamics Dothiepin Dothiepin is a tricyclic antidepressant. It acts by promoting the effectiveness of several amines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which is also known as 5HT and serotonin). It functions by inhibiting their reuptake at the terminals of nerve cells, thu
  • Medical Ethics
    Medical Ethics Medical Ethics “ Bioethics comprise every possible aspect of health care, medical, moral, social, political, religious, legal and financial” (Weiss 3). This includes the questions raised by new research. It takes a look at the results of that research that is used on patients. It takes into consideration contemporary ideas of personal freedom and human dignity. It deals with growth in medical services available in the United States and the sky rocketing cost. Bioethics also deals
  • Medical Ethics1
    Medical Ethics1 Medical Ethics ? Bioethics comprise every possible aspect of health care, medical, moral, social, political, religious, legal and financial? (Weiss 3). This includes the questions raised by new research. It takes a look at the results of that research that is used on patients. It takes into consideration contemporary ideas of personal freedom and human dignity. It deals with growth in medical services available in the United States and the sky rocketing cost. Bioethics also deals
  • Medical Ethics2
    Medical Ethics2 Medical Ethics ? Bioethics comprise every possible aspect of health care, medical, moral, social, political, religious, legal and financial? (Weiss 3). This includes the questions raised by new research. It takes a look at the results of that research that is used on patients. It takes into consideration contemporary ideas of personal freedom and human dignity. It deals with growth in medical services available in the United States and the sky rocketing cost. Bioethics also deals
  • Medical Ethics3
    Medical Ethics3 Medical Ethics ? Bioethics comprise every possible aspect of health care, medical, moral, social, political, religious, legal and financial? (Weiss 3). This includes the questions raised by new research. It takes a look at the results of that research that is used on patients. It takes into consideration contemporary ideas of personal freedom and human dignity. It deals with growth in medical services available in the United States and the sky rocketing cost. Bioethics also deals
  • Medical Ethics4
    Medical Ethics4 Medical Ethics ? Bioethics comprise every possible aspect of health care, medical, moral, social, political, religious, legal and financial? (Weiss 3). This includes the questions raised by new research. It takes a look at the results of that research that is used on patients. It takes into consideration contemporary ideas of personal freedom and human dignity. It deals with growth in medical services available in the United States and the sky rocketing cost. Bioethics also deals
  • Treating Disease with Stem Cells
    Treating Disease with Stem Cells Treating Disease with Stem Cells This article was written by Dr. Gregory Hale, professor of Pediatrics at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, in response to questions posed by Scientific American Magazine regarding the treatment of certain diseases with cord blood stem cells. There is some additional information provided by Viacord, a medical service company that provides private family cord blood banking, processing, and research. Dr. Hale discussed
  • Whipples Procedure
    Whipples Procedure Whipple’s Procedure Dietetic Intern 1996 Personal Data: Name: W. F. Date of Admission: Sept. 26 1996 Admitting Diagnosis: Ca of the Duodenum Age: 48 yrs Sex: M Ht: 180 cm Admission Wt: 77.9 kg Attending Physician: Dr. G. Groot Social Hx: W. F. is divorced and lives alone in a private dwelling. He has worked as a city bus driver for the past 10 yrs and plans to return to his job when he is able. W. F. also works part time as a carpenter with a friend doing custom carpentry afte
  • Cloning
    cloning The biological definition of a clone is an organism that has the same genetic information as another organism or organisms ("Cloning", 1997). From this definition and from information about the science behind cloning, my current view on cloning is that it is ethical. This statement ignores information about how we can misuse cloning and what consequences occur when the procedure is unsuccessful. I currently do not think cloning should be used until it is perfected. I doubt however that
  • Anatomy
    Anatomy ‘Overview of Anatomy & Physiology’ Anatomy - is the study of the structure of the body parts & their relationship to one another. Physiology - concerns with the function of the body’s structural machinery - how the body works. Topics of Anatomy Gross Anatomy - is the study of the large body structures visible to the naked eye. It can be approached in different ways. Regional Anatomy - is the study of all the structures in one particular region. Systematic Anatomy - is when anatomy is stu
  • Blood saving
    blood saving A S e d t December 21, 1999 The Hope, and Hype, of Cord Blood By DENISE GRADY Should parents pay a blood bank to store the blood from their newborn baby\'s umbilical cord and placenta, in case that child or another family member ever needs it to treat cancer or leukemia? Expectant parents are being urged to do so by companies that have sprung up during the past few years to sell cord-blood banking as a form of "biological insurance" against such dreaded diseases. The pitch is based
  • Chemotherapy
    chemotherapy Chemotherapy: The treatment of disease with drugs that directly poison the diseased organism. Most often referred to for cancer treatment, where powerful drugs with potentially sever side effects are used to eliminate or contain the spread of tumors. In treating physical diseases, probably the most common form of therapy in Western medicine is chemotherapy, or drug therapy. Some physical conditions, where chemotherapy is not the best option, can be corrected through surgery while ot
  • Circulatory Systerm
    Circulatory Systerm The circulatory system, which functions in the rapid internal transport of substances to and from cells. Your body\'s differentiated cells, which perform specialized tasks, cannot fend for themselves. Different types must interact in coordinated ways to maintain the composition, volume, and temperature of a tissue fluid surrounding them, the interstitial fluid. A circulating connective tissue-blood-interacts with tissue fluid, making continual deliveries and pickups that help
  • Cloning15
    cloning15 When one thinks of cloning, what comes to mind? Movies such as “Multiplicity” can give the layperson a much-distorted image of cloning. In this particular movie, actor Michael Keaton plays a father who cannot handle his crazily busy lifestyle. In an effort to be the perfect father, husband and employee, he has himself cloned easily at a nearby medical center. The three clones each have their own personality: one is sarcastic and bitter, one is sweet and sensitive and one is a half-wit
  • Dreams1
    dreams1 Over a seventy-year life span, you will spend at least fifty thousand hours to dreaming (Segell 42). What you dream about can be very different from one individual to another and from one dream to another in the same individual. Many things affect what we dream about and the theories about why we dream vary. Scientists believe that dreaming is a natural process of the brain. On the other hand, Psychologists believe that our dreams are secretive emotions. Both sides have been spending yea
  • Dreams1
    dreams1 Over a seventy-year life span, you will spend at least fifty thousand hours to dreaming (Segell 42). What you dream about can be very different from one individual to another and from one dream to another in the same individual. Many things affect what we dream about and the theories about why we dream vary. Scientists believe that dreaming is a natural process of the brain. On the other hand, Psychologists believe that our dreams are secretive emotions. Both sides have been spending yea
  • Endorphines
    Endorphines Endorphins In 1975, Dr. John Hughes and Dr. Kosterlitz discovered Endorphins. It has been confirmed that Endorphins have both neurological and spinal effects. Twenty different types of Endorphins have been discovered in the nervous system. The most effective, beta-endorphin, which gives the most euphoric effect to the brain, has been found to be composed of 31 amino acids. The word Endorphin is abbreviated from \'endogenous morphine\' which means morphine produced naturally in the bo
  • Female anatomy
    female anatomy The Vagina The vagina is a thin walled-tube, 8 to 10 cm long. It lies between the bladder & the rectum & extends from the cervix to the body exterior. The urethra is embedded in its anterior wall. Often called the birth canal, the vagina provides a passageway for delivery of an infant & for menstrual flow. Since it receives the penis (& semen) during sexual intercourse, it is the female organ of copulation. The highly distensible wall of the vagina wall consists of three coats:
  • Human cloning1
    human cloning1 Human cloning has become a hot topic for debate. As we progressed one step closer to successfully cloning and developing a human being, legislators and the general public have become more concerned about the ethical and moral implications of this procedure. The federal government has been unsuccessful in reaching an agreement as to what policy to pass and enact. Thus, any current legislation on human cloning has been developed and enforced by individual states. The state of Califo
  • Human cloning1
    human cloning1 Human cloning has become a hot topic for debate. As we progressed one step closer to successfully cloning and developing a human being, legislators and the general public have become more concerned about the ethical and moral implications of this procedure. The federal government has been unsuccessful in reaching an agreement as to what policy to pass and enact. Thus, any current legislation on human cloning has been developed and enforced by individual states. The state of Califo
  • Junk
    junk Phenylketonuria (PKU) Phenylketonuria is one of the commonest inherited disorders - occurring in approximately 1 in 10,000 babies born in the U. S. It occurs in babies who inherit two mutant genes for the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). This enzyme normally breaks down molecules of the amino acid phenylalanine that are in excess of the body\'s needs for protein synthesis. Because we inherit two copies of the gene for the enzyme, both must be defective to produce the disease. A labor
  • Pg.8
    lsd Pg.8 LSD CHEMISTRY OF LSD Longo-Vega To understand the ways that LSD affect the brain we must first discuss how the brain sends signals to the body. In the brain and the brain stem there are special cells called neurons. Neurons release a number of chemicals that are sent to various receptors. The receptors interpret chemical signals and use them to make you move, see, hear, learn, etc. These neurons are also responsible for such behaviors as obsessive-compulsive behavior and insomnia. The c
  • The Brain
    The Brain The Brain Can you image a hunk of pinkish-gray tissue the size of your hand that is controlling your entire body? This organ in your body is called the brain. The brain is not the largest organ but is the most complex organ in your body. (Metos, 1990, p. 10 ) When you think of the brain do you think of the control center of movement, sleep, hunger, thirst, and virtually every other vital activity necessary to survive? Or do you think of the brain as the organ that controls emotions inc
  • Rave culture
    rave culture RAVE CULTURE kentith kaniff Rough draft ged-155 This essay will explain rave culture. The reason that I chose to research and write on this topic is that I am involved with rave scene and enjoy going to “raves.” From researching this topic I discovered that rave culture displays many of life’s simple pleasures, such as dancing. Over the last 10-15 years, a new trend of parties has been evolving. These gatherings are known in the media as raves, and are often simply called parties by
  • Cloning
    Cloning Since the late seventies scientists have been cloning mammals using cells taken from embryos. In July 1996, medical history was made when a sheep named Dolly was cloned. The only thing that set Dolly the sheep apart from the other clones was that she was cloned from an adult sheep cell. Before Dolly was cloned, scientists thought adult cell cloning was impossible. A clone is defined as a group of genetically identical cells. The goals and purposes for cloning range from making copies of
  • Language acquistion
    Language acquistion Language acquisition is the process of learning a native or a second language. Although how children learn to speak is not perfectly understood, most explanations involve both the observation that children copy what they hear and the inference that human beings have a natural aptitude for understanding grammar. Children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, and grammar is seldom taught to them; that they rapidly acquire the abilit
  • Narcolepsy
    Narcolepsy An article in the Scientific American, by Jerome M. Siegel, focused on a dangerous sleeping disorder called Narcolepsy. A Narcoleptic has Symptoms such as cataplexy, which is the loss of skeletal muscle tone, and always feeling sleepy during daytime hours. The people suffering from this disorder tend to feel as if they hadn\'t gone to sleep for 48 hours. In addition, they sleep poorly at night. Laughter, embarrassment, sudden anger, social interactions with strangers, and sexual inter
  • Anorexia Nervosa A Complex Disorder Both
    Anorexia Nervosa A Complex Disorder Both Anorexia Nervosa: A Complex Disorder Both Psychologically and Nutritionally by Jamie Stone Introduction Eating disorders are a cause for serious concern from both a psychological and a nutritional point of view. They are often a complex expression of underlying problems with identity and self concept. These disorders often stem from traumatic experiences and are influenced by society=s attitudes toward beauty and worth (Eating Disorder Resource Center, 19
  • Are There Health Benefits to Wine
    Are There Health Benefits to Wine INTRODUCTION More than 100,000 deaths per year are attributed to alcohol, in the United States. Alcohol-related auto accidents account for approximately 24,000 of these deaths (most often the victims are under 30 years of age), while alcohol-related homicide account for 11,000 and suicide 8,000 deaths. Certain types of cancer, which are partly associated with the consumption of alcohol, contribute to another 17,000 deaths. Alcohol-related strokes are responsible
  • Genetic Disorders
    Genetic Disorders Chris Grounds CCS Biology II 10/3/00 Earth’s inhabitants have populated all of the regions of the world, discovered places never dreamed of, and have advanced beyond normal understanding, while man can still be conquered by an object which is immeasurably small. While man has been so busy trying to find a way to get rid of all pain and suffering, he has finally discovered that there are things that cannot be stopped. This relentless phenomenon is called a genetic disorder. A ge
  • Hydroponics2
    Hydroponics2 Imagine being able to grow plants and/or crops everyday of the year in smaller spaces without the use of any soil. Hydroponics is a soiless agriculture that does just this. The idea for the use of plant growth without any soil was developed in the eighteen hundreds. Hydroponic gardening is an old idea yet new methods have been formed to give you three hydroponic gardening options. These three options are defined by uses of different mediums. Fifteen to twenty minutes of care per day
  • Hydroponics3
    Hydroponics3 Imagine being able to grow plants and/or crops everyday of the year in smaller spaces without the use of any soil. Hydroponics is a soiless agriculture that does just this. The idea for the use of plant growth without any soil was developed in the eighteen hundreds. Hydroponic gardening is an old idea yet new methods have been formed to give you three hydroponic gardening options. These three options are defined by uses of different mediums. Fifteen to twenty minutes of care per day
  • Immunology of Aids
    Immunology of Aids The Immunology of Aids Introduction Although HIV was first identified in 1983, studies of previously stored blood samples indicate that the virus entered the U.S. population sometime in the late 1970s. Worldwide, an estimated 27.9 million people had become HIV-infected through mid-1996, and 7.7 million had developed AIDS, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). AIDS is a disease of the immune system, and is caused by Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV). HIV targets a
  • LSD The psychedelic effects of d-Lysergic Acid Die
    LSD LSD The psychedelic effects of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-25 (LSD) were discovered by Dr. Albert Hoffman by accident in 1938. In the 1950s and 1960s, LSD was used by psychiatrists for analytic psychotherapy. It was thought that the administration of LSD could aid the patient in releasing repressed material. It was also suggested that psychiatrists themselves might develop more insight into the pathology of a diseased mind through self experimentation. 1,2 During the late 60s, LSD became po
  • Medical Article
    Medical Article December 21, 1999 The Hope, and Hype, of Cord Blood By DENISE GRADY Should parents pay a blood bank to store the blood from their newborn baby\'s umbilical cord and placenta, in case that child or another family member ever needs it to treat cancer or leukemia? Expectant parents are being urged to do so by companies that have sprung up during the past few years to sell cord-blood banking as a form of "biological insurance" against such dreaded diseases. The pitch is based on repo
  • Meiosis Vs Meitosis
    Meiosis Vs Meitosis More than one celled organisms grow by way of mitosis and the cytoplasmic division of body cells. On the other hand, meiosis occurs only in germ cells, which are put aside for the formation of gametes (sperm and egg). Reproduction by meiosis allows for species survival and it increases genetic variability. The process, during which the germ cells are generated is called meiosis. It represents nature\'s solution to the problem of chromosome doubling that would occur, if two di
  • Nitrogen fixing
    nitrogen fixing Clover, growth rate, inoculation with Nitrogen fixing bacteria in Nitrogen deficient conditions Nitrogen Fixation was proved to increase the growth of clover plants over a ten-week experiment in Nitrogen deficient conditions. The Hypothesis was proved correct with no difficulties encountered. Nitrogen is approximately 78% (volume) of dry air. It is present in the protoplasm of living matter and the compounds contained in Nitrogen (Nitric Acid, Explosives, Cyanides, Fertilisers an