Structures of Resisitance Essay

This essay has a total of 2734 words and 12 pages.

Structures of Resisitance

Th e nature of interaction between traditional agrarian society and the ‘modern world’ has
remained a controversial debate amongst anthropologists, sociologists and political
theorists. It remains contentious as to whether the dominance of modern values over
traditional is desirable; whether the arrival of the market and modern commerce betters or
worsens the conditions of rural society and its relationship with the metropol; whether
such change is received with apprehension or optimism by the members of rural society.
Joel Migdal, for example, puts forth certain arguments proposing the concept of ‘culture
contact’—‘that exposure and contact are the causes of change.’ Migdal identifies three
reasons suggesting why such change would be likely to occur:

(1) The benefits of the modern far outweigh the benefits of the traditional. (2) The
individual is free from severe institutional restraints which would prevent him from
making an unimpeded decision. (3) Those individuals who select the new are rational and
are optimisers, and those individuals who do not accept the modern fail to do so because
of “wrong” or nonrational values.’

Most theorists, however, tend to agree that modern society, for good or bad, is clearly
encroaching on traditional agrarian society and gradually moulding its values, economic
systems and sociopolitical institutions into variants of the modern equivalent.

However, this consensus fails to account for one extremely significant fact: that despite
the overwhelming economic, political and cultural dominance of the modern world,
traditional agrarian structures continue to persist in various forms: the feudal estates
of Third World countries, plantations and latifundismos in Southern Italy and much of
Latin America, and so on. The questions thus arise: why do such traditional social
relations persist in spite of the modern impulse? Why do customs and rituals and social
codes play such an important part in determining rural society? Why do inefficient
labour-intensive technology and archaic labour organisation systems continue to determine
the process of economic production? And why do state attempts at modernising rural
production continually face defeat and fail to effect conclusive change?

This paper attempts to answer these and other questions through an analysis of two similar
anachronistic structures that exist in the contemporary world: the Italian latifondo and
the Latin American latifundismo. Both structures are organised in a very similar manner,
and an analysis of both presents a holistic picture of their social and economic
organisation. The paper begins by describing the administrative structure of the
latifondo, and then goes on to suggest that the socioeconomic peculiarities of the
enterprise may be at least partially explained by the rational voluntarist behaviour of
the landlord, who allows old structures to persist in light of their cultural peculiarity.

In The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, Anton Blok describes the Sicilian latifondo as being
‘in its main features “involutionary”’. Blok invokes this term while alluding to a
complex process in which certain structures undergo internalisation and fixity, as
suggested by Clifford Geertz in Agricultural Involution. ‘Involution’, according to
Geertz, refers to ‘the overdriving of an established form in such a way that it becomes
rigid through an inward elaboration of detail’. Blok’s study of the latifondo leads him
to conclude that this agrarian enterprise underwent such a process at both the social and
the economic level. Before further exploring this process, however, it is necessary to
first understand the power structure and organisation of the Sicilian latifondo.

Accordin g to Blok, the latifondo was typically leased out to a gabelloto, who in turn
hired a number of permanent employees to manage the enterprise. These administrators
generally comprised an overseer (soprastante) and a number of field guards (campieri). The
overseer was the gabelloto’s ‘man of confidence’ — ‘he dealt with the peasants set to work
on the estates and took care of the general protection of the enterprise.’ The campieri
assisted the overseer in his work, and ‘constituted a kind of private police force which,
in the absence of an efficient formal control apparatus, claimed to maintain law and order
in the countryside.’ This hierarchical structure is replicated in Latin American
latifundios, as described by Ernest Feder in ‘Latifundios and Agricultural Labour.’ Feder
further describes the Latin American latifundismo as being characterised by ‘absentee
landlordism’. He asserts that ‘for the rural worker almost every estate owner is an
absenteeist, as the bulk of the large estates is managed by administrators’; the latter
appearing to be Latin American counterparts of the soprastanti. This administrative
structure has several important repercussions for the socioeconomic structural evolution
(‘involution’) of the latifondo.

James C. Scott describes ‘involution’ in agrarian enterprises at the economic level as
involving ‘the shift to more labour intensive techniques in return for minute, but vital,
increments in yield per unit of land.’ Essential to note here is that this shift is
likely to occur even while more productive, capital intensive technologies are available.
Whereas capital investment in agrarian technologies by cultivators or entrepreneurs could
potentially boost agricultural productivity and allow for greater agricultural surplus
production in the long run, they prefer instead to intensify the ‘established form’ and
concentrate on traditional labour intensive techniques, which are only able to provide a
limited return. It is this voluntary adherence to traditional labour intensive
technologies in the presence of more productive alternatives that characterises the
process of ‘involution’. This peculiar behaviour may be explained in light of the
administrative structure of the latifondo as described earlier.

The primary characteristic of indirect management (Feder’s ‘absentee landlordism’) is the
administration’s lack of long term goals regarding farm productivity. Such visionary
objectives may only exist when the administrator forges strong ties with the land, be they
in the form of active involvement of resident owner-cultivators or tenure security for
sharecroppers, so that there exists an incentive to incur sunk costs in the present for
future gains. The existing land arrangements, however, left little need to incur such
costs. Whereas the owners of the Sicilian latifondo were generally absent from the
picture, having leased the land to gabelloti, the latter were merely entrepreneurs who
preferred to indulge in conspicuous consumption and refrained from long-term investment.
Meanwhile, ‘the Sicilian sharecropping peasant . . . lacked any security of tenure over
time. In fact, his position with regard to employment did not basically differ from that
of the landless labourer’, thereby leaving him too with little incentive to undertake
productive investment. Consequently, the latifondo characteristically faced a lack of

investments from the side of both cultivators and entrepreneurs. The latter . . . engaged
in ruthless exploitation of the land and labour rather than undertake long-term
investment. As true rent capitalists they “skimmed off the proceeds.” . . . [P]rofits did
not return to the land, but instead were used to acquire more land or were spent on urban

Finally, the indirect character of management (functioning through the
gabelloto-soprastant e administrative heirarchy) further impeded institutional change, as
the soprastante was allowed to operate only ‘within a strictly limited sphere of action’
and therefore had no jurisdiction (and little incentive) to induce any radical managerial
reform. Feder concludes:

Absentee landlordism is a guarantee that customary methods of farming are strictly
observed though they may be antiquated. Most administrators are not allowed to introduce
changes in the farming pattern, and landlords hesitate to introduce them because this may
require changes in the tenure status of the workers. Therefore the high rate of
absenteeism is an obstacle to technological progress and improved farming. Management
practices cannot improve beyond that permitted by the sparse interest and knowledge of
farming of most absentee landlords, and the limited abilities and responsibilities of

Meanwhile, the status quo suited the gabelloti on various other fronts. For example,
‘[a]ll contracts were arranged with the obvious aim that the gabelloti share only
minimally in the risks of production, which largely devolved upon staff and peasants.’
Consequently, the former had little desire to introduce any technological change that may
subsequently cause renegotiation of contracts.

At the economic level, therefore, the latifondo continued to function with antiquated
technology and rigid management. Instead of evolving, it underwent an ‘involution’ whereby
traditional technology, organisation and administration increased in complexity, became
more rigid and inflexible, but did not alter in any significant way. Traditional means of
operation were constantly reified and labour effort intensified in an effort to extract
the most surplus out of a decadent system. This intensification met little resistance:
‘[n]ot living on the land and even physically separated from it by fixed residence in
agro-towns, the peasants could less easily lay claim to it and thereby challenge large
landownership’. Eugen Weber even goes on to question whether such radical action would
Continues for 6 more pages >>

  • Friday
    Friday It arrived on a Friday afternoon. The idea probably originated somewhere over the Atlantic, off the coast of Africa. It slowly spun its way to the northwest, and the thought finally made landfall in Florida. From there it gained speed and zipped across the eastern seaboard, through South Carolina, over D.C. and up the New Jersey Turnpike. There the idea slowed again, and had been downgraded to a concept by the time it crossed the Hudson. Once across the water it regained speed at the expe
    ALCATRAZ ISLAND AND PRISON Alcatraz Island has quite a distinct history. Many people know that Alcatraz served as a federal prison, but most are reluctant to know that this island served as fort. Built before the Civil War, it served two main purposes. First, that it was to guard the San Francisco bay area from enemy ships against a foreign invasion, and second, to hold hostage prisoners of war or POW\'s as they were called. In this report, I\'ll show you how this fortress came to be a federal p
  • Entrepreneurial Adventure
    Entrepreneurial Adventure Entrepreneurial Adventure: The Development of Economics in The United States “Capitalism came in the first ships.” -Carl N. Degler Barit Brown United States History Saturday, March 18, 2000 4,753 words The United States was a nation of development. It was a nation of growth and of innovation. From the signing of the Declaration of Independence, to the end of World War II and so forth, complex dilemmas called for complex solutions and complex solutions called for innovat
  • FDRs Influence as president
    FDRs Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a new
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of
    JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President, therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented the United States from entering into another world war. Kennedy was especially admir
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • Thomas Jefferson sketch
    Thomas Jefferson sketch Thomas Jefferson A Bio-Sketch Thomas Jefferson- he was a great man. Not only was he one of our founding fathers, he was also the third president of the U.S. and the chairman of the Declaration of Independence committee. Thomas Jefferson was born at Shadwell in Albemarle County, Va. on the thirteenth of April in 1743. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a wealthy land owner, but not really high up. He married Jane Randolph Jefferson who was from one of the first families in V
  • Praying Mantiss
    Praying Mantiss MANTODEA Most commonly known as the Praying Mantis, order mantodea is a group of about 1800 carnivorous insects which prodominatley live in tropical regions of the earth. Though certain species can be found in locations with moderate climate. With an extremely striking appearence, mantids almost have human like qualities with the ability to hold an erect stance, and arms that face forward. A very efficient killer, mantids were created for hunting and killing prey. Order Mantodea
  • Rhinoceros Endangerment
    Rhinoceros Endangerment Rhinoceros Endangerment There are five types of rhinoceros on Earth. They are the Indian, Sumatran, Javan, Black, and White rhinos. All five species of rhinos are very close to extinction. The rhino population made a rapid decrease in the 1970’s when half of the world’s rhinos disappeared. There are an estimated 10,500 rhinos left worldwide. Their endangerment was cause by several reasons. The Black Rhinoceros population had decreased 90 percent since 1970. There were app
  • Wildlife Refuge
    Wildlife Refuge WILDLIFE REFUGE Gray Lodge Wildlife Area, located in Butte County of Northern California, serves many purposes to surrounding communities, including wildlife. Divided in two segments, this refuge serves the wildlife and recreational desires of visitors; one segment is for the waterfowl to rest, and the other designated for hunting. Approximately 50,000 visitors come to this Wildlife refuge every year. Various activities and events bring spectators of nature and sport hunting year
  • Structures of Resisitance
    Structures of Resisitance The nature of interaction between traditional agrarian society and the ‘modern world’ has remained a controversial debate amongst anthropologists, sociologists and political theorists. It remains contentious as to whether the dominance of modern values over traditional is desirable; whether the arrival of the market and modern commerce betters or worsens the conditions of rural society and its relationship with the metropol; whether such change is received with apprehen
  • Between Silence and Light
    Between Silence and Light Between The Silence and The Light Introduction Architecture is a meeting place between the measurable and the unmeasurable. The art of design is not only rooted in the aesthetic form, but in the soul of the work. In Phenomena and Idea, Stephen Holl once wrote, " The thinking-making couple of architecture occurs in silence. Afterward, these "thoughts" are communicated in the silence of phenomenal experiences. We hear the "music" of architecture as we move through spaces
  • Cockpit Video CamerasThe Issues
    Cockpit Video CamerasThe Issues Introduction The National Transportation Board has recommended to the Federal Aviation Administration that all FAR Part 121, 125, and 135 passenger-carrying aircraft be equipped with cockpit video recorders, cockpit voice recorders and digital flight data recorders (Rimmer, 2000). The use of flight data information has been very useful to the National Transportation Safety Board for solving countless aircraft accidents and mishaps. The recent surge for the upgrade
  • Deregulation
    Deregulation Deregulation of the U.S. airline industry has resulted in ticket prices dropping by a third, on an inflation-adjusted basis. As a result some 1.6 million people fly on 4,000 aircraft every day. Airlines carried 643 million passengers in 1998, a 25% increase over 1993 and the FAA estimates that the nation¡¦s airline system will have to accommodate 917 million passengers by the year 2008. The growth in air travel threatens to overwhelm the presently inadequate air traffic control syst
  • Privatization of Airports
    Privatization of Airports For 51 years Bergstrom Air Force Base was home to fighter pilots, bombers, troop carriers and reconnaissance jets. It was the first port of call for President Lyndon B. Johnson on his trips home to LBJ Country aboard Air Force One, it was where Chuck Yeager, the first pilot to break the sound barrier, once brought a disabled jet to rest in an emergency landing. In September 1993, in the path of military cutbacks Bergstrom Air Force Base was closed. But the timing was fo
  • The world has known many great leaders, especially
    FDR The world has known many great leaders, especially in the post-Civil War era. Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Harry Truman all rank with the most prominent leaders of all time. However, in my opinion President Franklin Roosevelt made the most difference out of anybody in this century. He began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had succumbed to in 1929. Without him ending the Depression, who knows where this country could have gone?
  • FDRs influence as president
    FDRs influence as president Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen
  • Life and Legend of Howard Hughes
    Life and Legend of Howard Hughes The Life and Legend of Howard Hughes Throughout the 20th century, it has been the medias job to pinpoint what events and people would prove to be an effective story. This was certainly the case for Howard R. Hughes. Son to the wealthy Howard Hughes Sr., Howard became the interest of the American people and newspapers for most of his life. Being deemed one of the most famous men of the mid-20th century was greatly attributed to Hughess skills as an industrialist
  • All Quiet On the Western Front Report
    All Quiet On the Western Front Report BARRON\'S BOOK NOTES ERICH MARIA REMARQUE\'S ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT ^^^^^^^^^^ERICH MARIA REMARQUE: THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Born Erich Paul Remark on June 22, 1898, he grew up in a Roman Catholic family in Osnabruck in the province of Westphalia, Germany--a city in the northwest part of what is now West Germany. He adored his mother, Anna Maria, but was never close to his father, Peter. The First World War effectively shut him off from his sisters,
  • The Jungle
    The Jungle In Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle not only symbolized an era where dirt and filth ran rampant in meat packing industry, but it also exposed people to the natural human desire of greed, power, and corruptions. This in turn was a socialist transformation itself. Sinclair also provides the meaning to the phrase “wage slavery” in different ways. In the novel Sinclair tells a story about a man name Jurgis, a Lithuanian immigrant who gets married to young lady named Ona Lukoszaite, who’s
  • Asian Crisis
    Asian Crisis Introduction A financial crisis swept like a bush fire through the “tiger economies” of South East Asia between June 1997 and January 1998. One country after another, local stocks markets and currency imploded. When the dust started to settle, the stock markets in many of these countries had lost over 70% of their value. Leaders of some these nations had to approach the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to beg for massive financial assistance. The crisis in Asia has occurred after s
  • Big Oil and Bus Ethics
    Big Oil and Bus Ethics Big Oil in the Arctic It can be argued (convincingly) that humans usage of fossil fuels is responsible for a large part of the worlds pollution problems. The area that I will discuss is the interaction that the big oil companies have had with the environment surrounding their businesses in Alaska. I will not tackle the issue of whether it is right or wrong to extract or use fossil fuels. Instead, I will ignore the larger issue and concentrate on specific issues concernin
  • Bristolmyers squibb
    bristolmyers squibb Prepared by: Michael Zouroudis Cornerstone student in the College of Business Administration University of Central Florida October 15, 1999 Table of Contents Section Introduction/Executive Summary................................................................................................................3 Background..................................................................................................................................................4 Marketing Pr
  • Challenger Disaster
    Challenger Disaster The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster was a preventable disaster that NASA tried to cover up by calling it a mysterious accident. However, two men had the courage to bring the real true story to the eyes of the public and it is to Richard Cook and Roger Boisjoly to whom we are thankful. Many lessons can be learned from this disaster to help prevent further disasters and to improve on organizations ethics. One of the many key topics behind the Challenger disaster is the organi
  • Change
    Change INTRODUCTION “Somebody once said: ‘The only one who likes change is a wet baby’” (Mariotti, 1996, p. 30). We as human beings are always resistant to change if we are comfortable with surroundings and ourselves. We do not like to be challenged with change because of fear of the unknown. “Resistance is a natural reaction to change” (Maurer, 1996, p. 75). In order to fully change an individual’s style of thinking and working, we must understand the theory and techniques in order to break dow
  • Change
    Change INTRODUCTION “Somebody once said: ‘The only one who likes change is a wet baby’” (Mariotti, 1996, p. 30). We as human beings are always resistant to change if we are comfortable with surroundings and ourselves. We do not like to be challenged with change because of fear of the unknown. “Resistance is a natural reaction to change” (Maurer, 1996, p. 75). In order to fully change an individual’s style of thinking and working, we must understand the theory and techniques in order to break dow
  • Creating A Statement of Vision
    Creating A Statement of Vision Creating a Statement of Vision Today\'s companies are faced with an exponential amount of change. Mission statements, goal setting, and planning methods of the past are no longer producing acceptable results. Successful companies are now achieving breakthrough objectives through utilizing a technique of discovering their core ideology, stimulating progress through an envisioned future, and seeking support by the alignment of intellectual capital. Mission statements
  • Ecommerce companies and stock valuations
    ecommerce companies and stock valuations eCommerce Companies and Stock Valuations 1. Introduction A hot topic in today’s business culture is eCommerce. Experts argue about whether eCommerce will change business, whether or not it is a fad, and what viable strategies there are in a business world that is changing at the speed of idea generation. One thing that nobody argues about is the fact that eCommerce oriented companies have stock prices and market capitalizations that are enormous. Based on
  • Ethicks
    ethicks By: Paul Landa Contents 1. Introduction 2. What is Business Ethics? 3. The 10 Benefits of Business Ethics 4. Case Study on Nestle 4.1. The Impact of Business Ethics on Nestle 4.2. Nestle\'s view on Business Ethics 4.3. The Implications of Business Ethics on Stakeholders 5. Conclusion Introduction Businesses have power through their ability to spend vast amounts of money. They have the ability to enhance or change situations that the common individual does not. As organisations affect man
  • Globalization of Coke
    Globalization of Coke Global Influence of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola is a company that is known worldwide for its product. It is a drink that spans all ages, colors, races, and countries. The Coca-Cola Company is one that has been around for over 100 years, and has used this time to perfect its marketing strategy. The success of the company was built on many people with the great business knowledge and know-how to take a simply drink, and make it into a symbol that represents humanity. This paper will
  • Goodyear SWOT Analysis
    Goodyear SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS Size Product diversity Total market coverage An American company International sales Generally increasing sales revenue since 1991 Brand recognition Brand loyalty Reduction in debt since 1991 Introduction of new tire lines The Blimp P/E ratio The world’s No. 1 tire manufacturer Patents: 2,903 Trademarks: 5 WEAKNESSES Size Declining stock price Internet sales Dealer contracts that my be inhibiting Internet sales Layoffs Sales declines in Europe, Asia, Latin Americ
  • International trade
    international trade Introductuion Hong Kong, the pearl of Asia has been the center of trade and finance in Asia since the early 20th century. In a short history of about 150 years, Hong Kong has become the source of growth for many nearby economies. In a certain sense, it can be even said that it is a merchant city founded and managed by businessmen. Traditional "hongs" or trade houses of Hong Kong were the pillar of the economy. Jardine Matheson and Hutchison were major hongs that led the econo
  • KFC in China
    KFC in China KFC in China In 1986, Tony Wang was Vice President of the Southeast Asia division of KFC. He had an opportunity of bringing the world\'s largest chicken restaurant company into the world\'s largest populated country. Wang was an experienced entrepreneur and had been working for KFC for seven years. No other fast food companies were currently operating in the People\'s Republic, so Wang did not have anything to go by and nothing to help him evaluate the attractiveness of the Chinese
  • Managing Diversity
    Managing Diversity Managing diversity in the workplace is a subject that has gained increased attention among managers during the last two decades. After all, the impact of affirmative action and equal employment opportunity programs on the nation\'s work force is undeniable. Women and minorities were the first to dramatically alter the face of the economic mainstream, while gays, persons with disabilities and senior citizens followed not far behind. The result is a diverse American labor force
  • Marketing Plan
    Marketing Plan Marketing plan for ice dreams, an icecream shop Ice Dreams will sell shave ice as its primary product in addition to soft drinks and frosty Latin drinks called licuados. Shave ice is the hottest new dessert since frozen yogurt! Shave ice is heating up rapidly and shows no sign of cooling (Crystal Fresh, Inc., 1995). Shave ice has been around for many years, beginning in Asia, then becoming popular in Hawaii. People would shave ice by hand, creating a cold, flaky snow. Then they\'d
  • Marketing Plan Green Mountain Coffee Roasters
    Marketing Plan Green Mountain Coffee Roasters Marketing Plan Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. I. Executive Summary Green Mountain Coffee Roasters currently has a revenue growth rate of 35.5% over the last 5 years. This company is growing right along side the fastest growing portion of the of the coffee industry, the high-end specialty coffee market. Green Mountain is a product leader in this category, they emphasize quality and enjoyment of their product. Green Mountain\'s target market is n
  • Mercosur
    mercosur Introduction The Sectoral Commission for MERCOSUR (COMISEC) was created on April 1, 1991 by Executive Decree No. 176/991. It is made up of: · Government Representatives and Delegates from the Office of Planning and Budget · Chamber of Industry of Uruguay · National Chamber of Commerce · Mercantile Chamber of Uruguay · Unions (PIT/CNT) · Rural Association of Uruguay · Rural Federation of Uruguay · Agrarian Cooperatives Association · State-owned Enterprises This decree entrusts COMISEC wi
  • The term 'portfolio' is usually applied to combina
    Ms The term \'portfolio\' is usually applied to combinations of securities, but the principles underlying security portfolio formation can be applied to combinations of any type of assets, including investment projects. Most firms diffuse their efforts across a range of products, market segments and customers in order to spread more thinly the risks of declining trade and profitability. If a firm can reduce its reliance on particular products or markets, then it can withstand more comfortably th
  • None Provided4
    None Provided4 Sample Work When evaluating the quality of EssayEdge\'s edits, please bear in mind the quality of the original version to understand the dramatic improvement made to the essay. Praise The below edit and critique earned this comment from the customer: I would like to thank you for a job well done! You improved upon these essays immensely. Unedited Version: Unedited version will contain poor writing and uncorrected typos. To view the edited version and critique, please click here. Q
  • Portrait of a companies success
    Portrait of a companies success Portrait of a Company’s Success by Introduction One can hardly find a party without them, the Kelly products: Popcorn, chips, peanuts have been keeping the American Party flair going for more than 40 years. Kelly’s is a brilliant Viennese company with a long traditional success story. The crunch-munch story began in Vienna during the post wartime, 1955. The US major Howard M. Kelly tried to find a way to stay in beautiful Vienna – he met Herbert Rast. In 1955 nobo
  • Privatization
    privatization Privatization What is Privatization? Privatization is the process of transferring productive operations and assets from the public sector to the private sector. Broadly defined in this fashion, privatization is much more than selling an enterprise to the highest bidder, as it includes contracting out, leasing, private sector financing of infrastructure projects, liquidation, mass privatization, etc. My testimony will argue that there is no single "best" approach to privatization; t
  • Recruitment
    recruitment On dealing with the premiss that the practice of recruitment and selection is a long way from the recommendations of personnel textbooks, distinction must be taken into account between explicit recommendations and guidelines, on one hand, and, on the other, implicit suggestions stemming from the author’s own stance. The implications of distancing from, or identification with, such explicit recommendations and implicit suggestions will be viewed in this paper as well as forms of overt
  • Retailing in the internet
    retailing in the internet INDUSTRY IN GERMANY Country Issues Country issues related to Germany are addressed in four contexts. The areas of consideration are (1) cultural, social, and demographic trends and concerns, (2) political/governmental concerns, (3) exchange rate issues, and (4) macroeconomic issues. Cultural, Social, and Demographic Trends and Concerns Germany is the slightly larger then the combined size of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. (137,691 square miles.) Germany is a nation o
  • Roatcap Cattle Company
    Roatcap Cattle Company Roatcap Cattle Company, Ltd. (RCC) faces changing the focus of its cattle operations. The options are (1) to maintain the cattle operations at the current level, (2) to expand to 100 cows, (3) to expand to 200 cows, or (4) to get out of the cattle business altogether. RCC currently uses a cash or tax based method to account for its cattle operations, RCC has employed our accounting firm to modify, based on RCC’s approval, its accounting methods for the following four objec
  • Small Business funding gap
    Small Business funding gap “The Funding Gap” Due Date: Wednesday November 1st, 2000 The question “The funding gap” is always quoted as a major issue for dstart up and developingh small businesses. What evidence is there to support this view and what measures have relevant organisations taken to overcome the problem? Executive Summary This report critically examine concerned with how young small businesses and start up business fund themselves externally. Firstly we look at the funding ga,p what
  • Social Responsibilities of Business
    Social Responsibilities of Business Social responsibility is the concept that business is part of the larger society in which it exists and must therefore act in a way that not only advances the firm, but also serves the society. More than ever firms are being challenged to integrate social responsibilities in to their operations. Many firms now believe that social responsibility to be a lot more than granting money to community groups or volunteering their time to organizations - although these
  • The risk management of asset and liabilities by de
    The risk management of asset and liabilities by developing countries The risk management of assets and liabilities by developing countries. Greater access to the international financial markets has bestowed many benefits on developing countries, but it has also exposed them to the vicissitudes of these markets. In addition to the macroeconomic challenges posed by large, potentially volatile flows, the sizable external foreign currency debt of many developing countries makes them vulnerable to sw
  • ATT Breakup
    ATT Breakup AT&T Breakup Our book talks about managing strategy and strategic planning. I chose to write my paper on AT&T’s recent breakup into four satellite companies. I intend to show how their past planning was not well-suited for their rapidly changing industry, and how they are now adjusting strategies and preparing for the uncertainties that the future holds. AT&T\'s voluntary breakup marks the end of the bigger-is-better era. For much of the 20th century, business strategy was relatively
  • Computer fundermentals
    computer fundermentals The society in which we live is complex and sophisticated. As consumers we demand a variety of goods and services to enable us to maintain the quality of life we enjoy. In order to satisfy these demands, suppliers must produce the goods and services, which the consumer wants by combining factors of production such as land, labour and capital in the most efficient manner. To do this the hiring of workers, rent or purchase of the appropriate premises, and maybe, even investi
  • Plus
    plus Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sather is an object oriented language designed to be simple, efficient, safe, and non-proprietary. It aims to meet the needs of modern research groups and to foster the development of a large, freely available, high-quality library of efficient well-written classes for a wide variety of computational tasks. It was originally based on Eiffel but now incorporates ideas and approaches from several lan