This essay has a total of 1106 words and 7 pages.


As human beings we have the capabilities of thought and reasoning, which is why we have
evolved the way we have. However one can never be to sure that what we think and what we
reason is really truth. And that idea can lead a person asking certain questions; What is
the nature of existence? What is the nature of reality and it's principles? but then more
questions follow within These; What are we touching? What are we looking at? What are
these things interfering and altering our lives? Are they the same in reality as they are
in our mind? What are these substances? Are they even substances? If they are real then
why are they, and what are they? Many great philosophers tackled these questions.
Philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Spinoza, and Berkeley. All of them came
up with an idea of what substance is.

Plato's whole idea of the forms are what would be considered substance. The form is the
standard pattern or ideal model of the object or action that's being named or mentioned.
In order to understand the natural world and or the material world, we need to associate
them with the substance we find in the intelligible world. Sensory perception attends
merely to a thing's superficial appearance, and is therefore worthless for comprehending
the world. These forms are required not only to comprehend the material world, but even to
understand language itself. These forms of substance are a good way of explaining what we
understand of the natural and material world.

Aristotle refuted Plato's idea of the forms. He felt that the forms caused neither
movement nor change, nor helped to understand what is real and what is knowable. Aristotle
presents the concept of substance in his work "The Categories". He states that substance
is the fusion of matter and form. Matter is that out of which the substance arises and
form is that into which the matter develops. In building a table, the wood, nails, etc.,
are the matter. The idea of a table is the form, and the construction is the fusion, and
the end result is the substance.

Rene Descartes started out doubting everything. For Descartes, reason was both the
foundation and guide for pursuing truth. He wanted to fulfill some certainty into his
life. Therefore he started fresh. He rejected everything he had been taught. He rejected
God, the Church, Aristotle, all the other philosophers and even ancient literature were
ditched in the search for rational principles from which to construct a secure system of
knowledge. He became a solipsist. After long meditations he came back to reality with the
statement "I think therefore I am." He saw everything to be substance but he categorized
them and explained the relevance of each. The first few which are considered the (summa
genera), which means the two highest kinds of things. Are the secondary and primary
substances. For Descartes, secondary qualities arise from what he calls "objects of the
senses," and primary qualities from "objects of mathematics." The following shows the

| Objects Qualities

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