Text And Traditions: Work Requirement One Historic Essay

This essay has a total of 2305 words and 12 pages.

Text And Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction

Text and Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction


Major events in Jewish history to the first century AD

1250 BC Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans.
931 BC Divided Kingdoms.
721 BC Fall of Samaria.
587 BC Fall of Jerusalem, Babylonian captivity.
333 BC Jews under Hellenistic rule.
63 BC Jews under Roman rule.
70 AD Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans.

Major events between 50 BC - 100 AD

63 BC - 40 BC Hyrcanus2 rules, but is subject to Rome.
41 BC - 30 BC Antony Caesar Roman Emperor.
40 BC - 37 BC Parathions conquer Jerusalem.
38 BC - 4 BC Herod rules as king. Subject to Rome.
37 BC Jerusalem besieged for 6 months.
32 BC Herod Defeated.
31 BC - 14 AD Caesar Augustus Roman Emperor.
19 BC Herod's Temple begun.
16 BC Herod visits Agrppa.
4 BC Herod dies; Archelaus succeeds.
37 AD - 41 AD Caliguta Roman Emperor.
41 AD - 54 AD Claudius Roman Emperor.
54 AD - 68 AD Nero Roman Emperor. The first persecutor of Christians.
66 AD Jews in Palestine tried to revolt. Were crushed by
Titus.
69 AD - 79 AD Vespasia Roman Emperor. He continued the persecution.
70 AD Jewish temple destroyed. Small part of the wall left
standing.
79 AD Titus Roman Emperor.

Detailed analysis of major Jewish groups of the time

Pharisees The Pharisees were a group of Jews, that believed strongly against the
adoption of Greek ways. They wanted to uphold and protect their fragile Jewish
culture, from the Greek influence that was flooding into Israel at the time.
They developed as haters of the tradition Greek ways, because of their customs
were related to idolatry and immorality. They joined up with a group know as the
Hasmoneans and proceeded to conduct a rebellion against the Greek. After gaining
religious freedom, they then separated from their new partners, and formed the
breakaway party, known today as the Pharisees (meaning ‘the separated'). They
had extreme power in the synagogue, and eventually turned it into the center of
the Jewish faith. This didn't last forever, as it was finally replaced by the
temple, erected by David.

Saducees The Sadducees (Sons of Zadok) seemed to be a group of aristocratic
priestly families, that were powerful within the High Priesthood. They held a
monopoly over all the High Priesthood positions and were also powerful in the
Sanhedrin. They came across as being a very selfish group that retained their
rights and traditions, and also trying to stay on the good side of the Roman
Empire. Unlike the Pharisees, they were rigid and closed in sect, and not open
to change. When the Romans destroyed the temple, they disappeared and were never
heard from again.

Zealots The Zealots were a group of radical extremists, that were the cause of
many uprisings throughout their history, and eventually they lead a revolt
against the Romans in 66-73 AD. To stop this, the Roman Emperor destroyed the
third temple, which lead to the end of the uprising. This not only lead to their
downfall, but that of the Jews when they were crushed by Emperor Titus in 73 AD.

Qumrans/Essenes They were an important Jewish group in the community around the
time of Jesus. Although it wasn't until 150 BC until they emerged, they lived
their lives according to a strict set of beliefs and rules. To join the group a
three year probationary period was imposed to new comers. Members were bound to
keep secret the doctrines and practices. Its is believed that John the Baptist
was and Essene, and had high connections to their community. The discovery of
the Dead Sea Scrolls has shed a lot more light on the practices of the Essenes.
These discoveries have proved that some Christian qualities and beliefs are an
exact copy of that of the Qumrans/Essenes.

Samaritans Samaritans originated from the area located between Judea and Galilee,
when the Assyrian settlers intermarried with the Jews that lived there. The
population created followed all the laws of Torah in their own special way, and
considered themselves to be Jewish. The normal Jews did not accept this, as
intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles was forbidden. Throughout the bible, it
has been documented that the Samaritans and the Jews were at each other throats,
constantly.

Analysis of major philosophical ideas of the time

Platonism Plato was an ancient Greek philosopher who taught in the period
between 427 and 347 BC. He reasoned that the senses can't be trusted, and that
one must use reason and maths, to solve problems and to guide oneself throughout
life. Plato was a student of Socrates and throughout his works, he drew from
other Greek philosophies, although as time progressed, he developed an entirely
different philosophical form of thinking that became his own.

Aristotelianism Aristotle was a Greek philosopher that was born nearly 400 year
BC. During his well documented life, he served as the tutor to Alexander the
Great and also wrote many papers on various topics such as Ethics, Physics and
Metaphysics. Aristotle also developed theories on the human soul in relation to
god. He represented it as a trinity of matter, being vegetable, animal and human
in nature, and proposed a ‘non-abstract theory of form, where the initiator of
all existence is acknowledged as God.

Epicureanism Epicurus set up a school in Athens that taught ethics, based on his
writings and opinions, in the Hellenistic world. He proposed that the pursuit of
happiness should be mans greatest concern, rather than modeling his life on the
pleasing of gods and of the deeds needed to be completed for one to have a
pleasurable afterlife. His philosophy was that the pleasure seeking of mankind,
would not only provide fulfilment for one's own self, but also lead to the
advancement and development of society in general.

Stoicism Stoicism was a famous school of Hellenistic thought. Its teachings were
not just philosophical, but could be used by everyday people, in everyday life.
The main goal for the tradition was to attain happiness and liberation from
emotion, through the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom. We can draw many
comparisons between the Christian faith and that of Stoicism. We can also see
the influence that the tradition had on many of the late Christian theologians.

Mystery Cults/Religions The mystery cults originated from many places in the
first century AD. They developed to replace the Olympic pantheons that were
becoming implausible and unsatisfying. The followers of these cults worshiped a
variety of gods or philosophies, each with their own set of obscure rules and
rituals. Secrecy played a great part in these cults (hence the name ‘mystery
religions') as one could incur the death sentence by revealing the mysteries
through speech, dance, pantomime, or any other form of communication. Although
one can debate the point of having these religions, it does prove that the human
soul requires some form of religious worship, mainstream or otherwise.

Gnosticism The Gnostics were a group/sect that existed in the first half of the
20th century, and were thought to lead Christians astray by teaching
manipulations of the Gospel. The mixed the ideas of the Christians with that of
the Greeks, producing a religion that wanted release from the prison of this
world. It draws on the Jewish monldthum, Babylonian anthology and Iranian Deulum,
and believes that light and darkness are entwined in a constant battle of cosmic
realms.
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