The Choosing Of A Landfill Site Essay

This essay has a total of 3076 words and 19 pages.

The Choosing Of A Landfill Site

The Choosing of a Landfill Site

There is currently much debate on the desirability of landfilling particular
wastes, the practicability of alternatives such as waste minimisation or pre-
treatment, the extent of waste pre-treatment required, and of the most
appropriate landfilling strategies for the final residues. This debate is likely
to stimulate significant developments in landfilling methods during the next
decade. Current and proposed landfill techniques are described in this
information sheet.

Types of landfill

Landfill techniques are dependent upon both the type of waste and the landfill
management strategy. A commonly used classification of landfills, according to
waste type only, is described below, together with a classification according to
landfill strategy.

The EU Draft Landfill Directive recognises three main types of landfill:

Hazardous waste landfill
Municipal waste landfill
Inert waste landfill

Similar categories are used in many other parts of the world. In practice, these
categories are not clear-cut. The Draft Directive recognises variants, such as
mono-disposal - where only a single waste type (which may or may not be
hazardous) is deposited - and joint-disposal - where municipal and hazardous
wastes may be co-deposited in order to gain benefit from municipal waste
decomposition processes. The landfilling of hazardous wastes is a contentious
issue and one on which there is not international consensus.

Further complications arise from the difficulty of classifying wastes accurately,
particularly the distinction between 'hazardous'/'non-hazardous' and of ensuring
that 'inert' wastes are genuinely inert. In practice, many wastes described as
'inert' undergo degradation reactions similar to those of municipal solid waste
(MSW), albeit at lower rates, with consequent environmental risks from gas and
leachate.

Alternatively, landfills can be categorised according to their management
strategy. Four distinct strategies have evolved for the management of landfills
(Hjelmar et al, 1995), their selection being dependent upon attitudes, economic
factors, and geographical location, as well as the nature of the wastes. They
are Total containment; Containment and collection of leachate; Controlled
contaminant release and Unrestricted contaminant release.

A) Total containment

All movement of water into or out of the landfill is prevented. The wastes and
hence their pollution potential will remain largely unchanged for a very long
period. Total containment implies acceptance of an indefinite responsibility for
the pollution risk, on behalf of future generations. This strategy is the most
commonly used for nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes. It is also used in some
countries for MSW and other non-hazardous but polluting wastes.

B) Containment and collection of leachate

Inflow of water is controlled but not prevented entirely, and leakage is
minimised or prevented, by a low permeability basal liner and by removal of
leachate. This is the most common strategy currently for MSW landfills in
developed countries. The duration of a pollution risk is dependent on the rate
of water flow through the wastes. Because it requires active leachate management
there is currently much interest in accelerated leaching to shorten this
timescale from what could be centuries to just a few decades.

C) Controlled contaminant release

The top cover and basal liner are designed and constructed to allow generation
and leakage of leachate at a calculated, controlled rate. An environmental
assessment is always necessary to that the impact of the emitted leachate is
acceptable. No active leachate control measures are used. Such sites are only
suitable in certain locations and for certain wastes. A typical example would be
a landfill in a coastal location, receiving an inorganic waste such as bottom
ash from MSW incineration.

D) Unrestricted contaminant release

No control is exerted over either the inflow or the outflow of water. This
strategy occurs by default for MSW, in the form of dumps, in many rural
locations, particularly in less developed countries. It is also in common use
for inert wastes in developed countries.

Options C and D might be considered unacceptable in some European countries.

Landfill techniques

Landfill techniques may be considered under seven headings:

location and engineering
phasing and cellular infilling
waste emplacement methods
waste pre-treatment
environmental monitoring
gas control
leachate management

1) Location and engineering

Site specific factors determine the acceptability of a particular landfill
strategy for particular wastes in any given location. In theory an engineered
total containment landfill could be located anywhere for any wastes, given a
high enough standard of engineering. In practice, the perceived risk of
containment failure is such that many countries restrict landfills for hazardous
wastes, and perhaps for MSW, to less sensitive locations such as non-aquifers
and may also stipulate a minimum unsaturated depth beneath the landfill. In
other cases, acceptability is dependent on the results of a risk assessment that
examines the impact on groundwater quality of possible worst-case rates of
leakage.

For the controlled contaminant release strategy, the characteristics of the
external environment in the location of the landfill, particularly its
hydrogeology and geo-chemistry, are integral components of the system. As such
they need to be understood in more detail than for any other strategy.

An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is essential and it must include
estimation of the maximum acceptable rates of leachate leakage. This estimation
will determine the degree of engineered containment necessary for the base liner
and top cover and any associated restrictions on leachate head within the
landfill.

The principal components of landfill engineering are usually the containment
liner, liner protection layer, leachate drainage layer and top cover. The most
common techniques to provide containment are mineral liners (eg clay), polymeric
flexible membrane liners (FMLs), such as high density polyethylene (HDPE), or
composite liners consisting of a mineral liner and FML in intimate contact.
Other materials are also in use, such as bentonite enhanced soil (BES) and
asphalt concrete.

Approximately 20 years experience has now accumulated in the installation of
engineered liners at landfills but there remains uncertainty over how long their
integrity can be guaranteed, and some disagreement as to the suitability of
particular liner materials for the containment of hazardous wastes and MSW, and
the gas and leachate derived from them.

At landfills with engineered containment it is necessary to make provision for
collection and removal of leachate. Often it is necessary to restrict the head
of leachate to minimise the rate of basal leakage. Head limits are typically set
at 300-1000mm leachate depth. This usually requires the installation of a
drainage blanket. This is a layer of high voidage free-draining material such as
washed stone, over the whole of the base of the landfill, to allow leachate to
flow freely to abstraction points. Drainage blankets are necessary because the
permeability of waste such as MSW is usually too low, after compaction, to
conduct leachate to abstraction points while maintaining the leachate head below
the stipulated maximum. The hydraulic conductivity of MSW can fall to less than
10-7m/s in the lower layers of even a moderately deep landfill. Under greater
compaction, values as low as 10-9m/s have been measured, which is of a similar
magnitude to that of mineral liner materials.

For the controlled release strategy the most critical engineered component is
the top cover, whose function is to control the rate of leakage by restricting
the rate of leachate formation. In any given location, percolation through the
top cover is a complex function of several factors, namely:

slope
the hydraulic conductivity of the barrier layer
the hydraulic conductivity of the soils or materials placed above the
barrier layer
the spacing of drainage pipes within the soil layer

Mineral barrier layers are typical for this application. They may also be used
for total containment sites, where FMLs or even composite liners have also been
used for the top cover. A review of mineral top cover performance (UK Department
of the Environment, 1991) found that percolation ranged from zero up to 200mm/a.
To obtain very low percolation rates, protection of the barrier layer from
desiccation was necessary, drainage pipes should be at a spacing of not greater
than 20m, and the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity in the barrier layer to
that in the soil or drainage layer above it should be no greater than 10-4.
Under northern European conditions, protection of the barrier layer from
desiccation would typically require on the order of 900mm of soil material.
Under hotter, drier conditions, a greater depth might be needed.

2) Phasing and cellular infilling

Landfills are often filled in phases. This is usually done for purely logistic
reasons. Because of the size of some landfills it is economical to prepare and
fill portions of the site sequentially. In addition, active phases are sometimes
further sub-divided into smaller cells which may typically vary from 0.5ha to
5ha in area. Often these cells may be engineered to be hydraulically isolated
from each other.

There are two main reasons for cellular infilling:

To allow the segregation of different waste types within a single landfill.
For example, one cell might receive MSW bottom ash, another inert wastes
and another non-hazardous industrial wastes. In hazardous waste landfills
different classes of hazardous waste may be allocated to dedicated cells.
To minimise the active area and thus minimise leachate formation, by
allowing clean rain water to be
discharged from unfilled areas while individual cells are filled.

Where cellular infilling is carried out, the landfill is effectively sub-divided
into separate leachate collection areas and each may need an abstraction sump
and pumping system. This can increase the physical complexity of leachate
removal arrangements and if the cells receive different waste types, each cell
may produce leachate with different characteristics. This may in turn influence
the design of leachate treatment and disposal facilities.

3) & 4) Waste emplacement methods and pre-treatment
Continues for 10 more pages >>




  • Privatization of Airports
    Privatization of Airports For 51 years Bergstrom Air Force Base was home to fighter pilots, bombers, troop carriers and reconnaissance jets. It was the first port of call for President Lyndon B. Johnson on his trips home to LBJ Country aboard Air Force One, it was where Chuck Yeager, the first pilot to break the sound barrier, once brought a disabled jet to rest in an emergency landing. In September 1993, in the path of military cutbacks Bergstrom Air Force Base was closed. But the timing was fo
  • Waste
    waste Environmental pollution encompasses the different ways that the human activity damages the natural environment. It can be in the form of an open garbage dump or as simple as a burning house. Pollution can also be invisible, odourless, and tasteless, thus, making environmental pollution one of the most serious and insidious problems facing humanity and other life forms today. One of the chief sources and most visible forms of environmental pollution is solid waste. In order to reduce solid
  • Global Warming
    Global Warming Meghan McDonald McDonald 1 Mr.Hrkal OAC World Issues December 18th, 2000 Global Warming Now, for the first time in Earth\'s history, humans may be a decisive factor in future climate change. The actions we make towards the temperature of the earth and the depletion of the ozone layer are irreversible. A warmer future could result from present-day human activities releasing large amounts of heat-trapping gases into the air. These "greenhouse gases" are part of the reason for the 1°
  • Plastics
    Plastics The Recycling of Thermoset Materials into Thermoplastic Composites Abstract Thermoset process scrap costs companies millions of dollars annually. Specific thermoplastics could benefit from the addition of recycled thermoset material. The incorporation of thermoset regrind into thermoplastic material would provide a viable alternative for the thermoset scrap that is currently sent to the landfills. Theory and Background When a thermoset part has been cross-linked, that material either ha
  • Household recycling easier than you think
    household recycling easier than you think HOUSEHOLD RECYCLING: EASIER THAN YOU THINK! by Amy Newman Thesis: After reading this essay, I will fully understand the issue of recycling and the three solutions I have found. Primary Audience: Myself Purpose: To provide myself with the information necessary to choose the proper recycling program I feel is the most efficient and effective. English 1302, 7010 Professor Ice September 22, 2000 Annotated Bibliography Carless, Jennifer. Taking Out The Trash:
  • I would rather dream Vancouver than Hong Kong
    I would rather dream Vancouver than Hong Kong “I would rather dream Vancouver than Hong Kong.” With its beautiful weather conditions and natural atmosphere, Vancouver is regarded as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Hong Kong, on the other hand, is a booming center for industry and business that suffers from high urbanization and pollution. It is this extreme difference in both climate and scenery that makes Vancouver seem like a pleasant dream, compared to the nightmare that is Hon
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • Global Warming1
    Global Warming1 Global Warming Now, for the first time in Earth\'s history, humans may be a decisive factor in future climate change. The actions we make towards the temperature of the earth and the depletion of the ozone layer are irreversible. A warmer future could result from present-day human activities releasing large amounts of heat-trapping gases into the air. These "greenhouse gases" are part of the reason for the 1°F (.5°C) rise in global average temperature documented over the past 100
  • Hazardous Waste
    Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste and its proper disposal have become a major sociological problem today due to its capability of contaminating the area in which we live and its potential to be lethal to all living things. In order for the United States and the rest of the world to save itself from a potentially life threatening problem they must fix the causes which lead to the improper disposal of hazardous wastes and like materials. Some reasons that hazardous waste has become a problem in the
  • Landfills
    Landfills When asked to think of the largest man made structure, people will invariably come up with an answer like The Great Wall of China, the Great Pyramids, or the Taj Majal. In contrast to these striking achievements of mankind is the Durham Road Landfill outside San Francisco, which occupies over seventy million cubic feet. It is a sad monument to the excesses of modern society [Gore 151]. One must think this huge reservoir of garbage must be the largest thing ever produced by human hands
  • Landfills1
    Landfills1 Landfills- A Growing Menace When asked to think of the largest man made structure, people will invariably come up with an answer like The Great Wall of China, the Great Pyramids, or the Taj Majal. In contrast to these striking achievements of mankind is the Durham Road Landfill outside San Francisco, which occupies over seventy million cubic feet. It is a sad monument to the excesses of modern society [Gore 151]. One must think this huge reservoir of garbage must be the largest thing
  • Recycling
    Recycling People Need to Recycle In the United Sates, where the population is inflated every year. The amount of space for landfills decreases every day. The need for recycling should not be asked, it should just be done out of habit. Everyone in America needs to recycle, to help the lamdfill problem, help the environment, and help produce new products from recycled goods. In America there is about two-hundred and eight tons of residential and commercial trash generated a year, 4.3 pounds per pe
  • The Concept of The Natural Step
    The Concept of The Natural Step Can Natural Step promote sustainability in Organisations? There are three examples where companies have used The Natural Step and the outcomes prove whether it promotes sustainability. The examples shown are Stena Metall AB, an industrial recycling, trading and shipping company. The second example is Scandic Hotels and example three is Interface, a manufacturer of commercial floor covering. The Natural Step is a non- profit environmental education organisation wit
  • Water
    Water Water pln256 by Cheese Many people assume that water is an unlimited natural resource. Is this true? Although water appears abundant, recent circumstances indicate that it is seriously vulnerable to pollution and depletion. Throughout this essay we will examine what ground water is, how it is important in the water cycle, how it’s contamination can affect us, and what we can do to protect our ground water from contamination. Ground water is the water found in spaces between soil particles
  • Water Table
    Water Table Introduction: Many people assume that water is an unlimited natural resource. Is this true? Although water appears abundant, recent circumstances indicate that it is seriously vulnerable to pollution and depletion. Throughout this essay we will examine what ground water is, how it is important in the water cycle, how it’s contamination can affect us, and what we can do to protect our ground water from contamination. What is Ground Water: Ground water is the water found in spaces betw
  • Water Table1
    Water Table1 Introduction: Many people assume that water is an unlimited natural resource. Is this true? Although water appears abundant, recent circumstances indicate that it is seriously vulnerable to pollution and depletion. Throughout this essay we will examine what ground water is, how it is important in the water cycle, how it’s contamination can affect us, and what we can do to protect our ground water from contamination. What is Ground Water: Ground water is the water found in spaces bet
  • RECYCLING
    rECYCLING Reusing products is one way to cut down on what we throw away this is called recycle. Recycle reduces the amount of waste that needs to be buried in a landfill. This reduction in volume may result in reduced disposal costs to add to the useful life expectancy of a landfill. And recycling puts discarded material to valuable use, cutting down on a litter and conserving natural resources. In some localities, recycled materials are sold. A person living in an industrialized, wealthy nation
  • Env racism
    env racism Communities are not all created equal. Have you ever heard of or considered the concept of Environmental Racism and what role it plays in the lives of Afro-Americans? I presume your answer is “no.” Well then, have you ever wondered why so many housing projects, which are majority Black occupied, are located near industrial parks? I presume you haven’t even noticed. Well, I have. Growing up in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, New York, I often visited my older cousin who resided in the Re
  • Global oil crisis
    global oil crisis When I was a child, recycling was only important at school. My teachers would always tell me that recycling was good for the earth. But, I didn\'t really show any concern, because my parents never really mentioned recycling until I got older. I started recycling aluminum cans, because I found out that companies paid money for recycled cans. The first time I took my cans to be recycled I got forty dollars, so naturally it became a regular hobby of mine. Not only did the money im
  • Global warming
    global warming Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to EarthÆs atmosphere. 2- The sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, that are
  • Global warming1
    global warming1 Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to earth’s atmosphere. 2- the sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, which ar
  • Global warming
    global warming Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to EarthÆs atmosphere. 2- The sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, that are
  • Global warming1
    global warming1 Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to earth’s atmosphere. 2- the sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, which ar
  • Global warming1
    global warming1 Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to earth’s atmosphere. 2- the sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, which ar
  • Global warming
    global warming Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to EarthÆs atmosphere. 2- The sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, that are
  • Golbal warming
    Golbal warming Introduction Global warming is not a myth it is a fact. It has been proven that the temp has gone up in the last 2 decades. Yes, it is possible to stop it and even fix it. At the rate we are going it will be the same as it was in 1980 by 2050. Yes I think that global warming is a fact to be reckoned with. But I agree with both sides because both are right each in their own way. It is proven that the earth has been cooling down over the last 6,000 years since the Holocene Maximum.
  • Golf course effects on environment
    golf course effects on environment There are many things that have an affect on the environment such as erosion, gases in the air, the population growing so rapidly that the environment cannot sustain what we have, and many others. But how many people look at golf courses and think of the effect that the courses being built and sustained has on the environment. Most people would say that golf courses are good for the environment because there are trees and grass and things that seems undisturbed
  • Green Chemistry
    Green Chemistry The Presidential Green Chemistry Awards-Dr. Mark Holtzapple In 1996, Mark Holtzapple of Texas A&M University received the Academic Award for the Green Chemistry challenge. This award was given to him for the development of a family of technologies that converts waste biomass into animal feed and industrial chemicals and fuels by adding lime to a fermentation process. This waste biomass includes municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, manure, and agricultural residues. As we all kno
  • Landfill
    landfill THE LANDFILLS INFRASTRUCTURE What is the largest construction you can think of? Does a landfill come to your mind? Probably not. One of the largest buildings on the face of the earth is the Pyramid of the sun, constructed in Mexico and covers approximately thirty million cubic feet of space. Now if you think that is big just imagine an even larger structure: a landfill that occupies over seventy million cubic feet of biosphere, we are talking about the Durham Road landfill, outside San
  • Landfills
    landfills Fact is more ominous than fiction It has long been believed that the largest entity brought upon the Earth by humankind is the Pyramid of the Sun, constructed in Mexico around the start of the Christian era. The mammoth structure commands nearly thirty million cubic feet of space. In contrast, however, is the Durham Road Landfill, outside San Francisco, which occupies over seventy million cubic feet of the biosphere. It is a sad monument, indeed, to the excesses of modern society . One
  • Nike
    nike Barker 2 Inside Nike Introduction The Nike Company History; Beginning to the Present For more than 25 years, Nike has been committed to giving people who compete and recreate the very best performance product. The company that we know today as Nike (received this name in 1972) was formally known as “Blue Ribbon Sports.” Between 1957-1960, Bill Bowerman, a coach at the University of Oregon was handcrafting shoes for his runners, when he met Phil Knight an athlete at Stanford Business school.
  • Nike
    nike Barker 2 Inside Nike Introduction The Nike Company History; Beginning to the Present For more than 25 years, Nike has been committed to giving people who compete and recreate the very best performance product. The company that we know today as Nike (received this name in 1972) was formally known as “Blue Ribbon Sports.” Between 1957-1960, Bill Bowerman, a coach at the University of Oregon was handcrafting shoes for his runners, when he met Phil Knight an athlete at Stanford Business school.
  • Nuclear waste
    nuclear waste The United States alone produces an average volume of commercial low-level radioactive waste of about 500,000 cubic feet each year. That is a lot of waste! This comes from a variety of places. Mainly though, it is produced by nuclear power plants. This waste brings up a problem though. It is difficult to dispose of radioactive materials for two reasons. One, some radioactive materials last for thousands of years. Two, most radioactive materials are hazardous and can\'t be stored wi
  • People need to recycle
    People need to recycle People Need to Recycle In the United States People Need to Recycle In the United Sates, where the population is inflated every year. The amount of space for landfills decreases every day. The need for recycling should not be asked, it should just be done out of habit. Everyone in America needs to recycle, to help the landfill problem, help the environment, and help produce new products from recycled goods. In America there is about two hundred and eight tons of residential
  • Policy Memo Global Warming
    Policy Memo Global Warming Global Warming Is A Serious Issue That Should Have Immediate Attention As Vice President Al Gore has said about the threat of global warming, it is "the most serious problem our civilization faces" (2). It has become quite an issue internationally because of the threat of increasing greenhouse gasses. It is these gasses, when released into the air, accumulate and then trap the heat inside our atmosphere. Our climate is greatly affected by this. Therefore, affecting all
  • Polution
    polution Pollution Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. It is a major problem in America and as well as the world. Pollution not only damages the environment, but damages us also. It has cause many problems ranging from lung cancer to the greenhouse effect. It is all among us and but we continue to live in our own filth. What is the reason behind this flawed logic? In this paper I will examine the problems and solutions for this issue. Automobiles
  • Recycling
    recycling People Need to Recycle In the United States People Need to Recycle In the United Sates, where the population is inflated every year. The amount of space for landfills decreases every day. The need for recycling should not be asked, it should just be done out of habit. Everyone in America needs to recycle, to help the landfill problem, help the environment, and help produce new products from recycled goods. In America there is about two hundred and eight tons of residential and commerci
  • Recycling1
    recycling1 Today I chose to try to persuade everybody into helping every body in this world now and for generations ahead, it sounds like a pretty big task but really its very simple. All you need to do is recycle. Recycling is a very needed thing in order to keep this planet from turning into a trash dump. Between 1960 and 1986 the amount of American trash has grown 80% from 87.5mill tons to 157 tons per year, not including the 90 million tons created by industry every year. In 1988 over 70% of
  • Recycling
    recycling People Need to Recycle In the United States People Need to Recycle In the United Sates, where the population is inflated every year. The amount of space for landfills decreases every day. The need for recycling should not be asked, it should just be done out of habit. Everyone in America needs to recycle, to help the landfill problem, help the environment, and help produce new products from recycled goods. In America there is about two hundred and eight tons of residential and commerci
  • Recycling2
    recycling2 recycling, the process of recovering and reusing waste products—from household use, manufacturing, agriculture, and business—and thereby reducing their burden on the environment. During World War I and World War II, shortages of essential materials led to collection drives for silk, rubber, and other commodities. In recent years the environmental benefits of recycling have become a major component of waste management programs. For many years direct recycling by producers of surplus an
  • Ecology and Technology
    Ecology and Technology QUESTION 1: Technology owes Ecology an Apology. Indeed, in my opinion, technology does owe ecology an apology. This is because ecological imbalances were as a result of the Industrial revolution, which could be said to be the beginning of the non-ending technological advancement cycle. During Industrial revolution, we began altering or climate and environment through changing agricultural and industrial practices. Before the industrial revolution, human activity released v
  • Enviormentalismn
    enviormentalismn Evironmentalism: The Next Step Broad Social Change Through Personal Commitment Introduction In the last thirty years, America has witnessed an environmental revolution. New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. Social phenomena like Earth Day, organized by Dennis Hayes in 1970, and the beginning of large-scale recycling, marked by Oregon\'s 1972 Bottle Bill, have help change the way Americans think
  • Global warming2
    global warming2 Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to EarthÆs atmosphere. 2- The sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, that are
  • Nuclear waste
    nuclear waste The United States alone produces an average volume of commercial low-level radioactive waste of about 500,000 cubic feet each year. That is a lot of waste! This comes from a variety of places. Mainly though, it is produced by nuclear power plants. This waste brings up a problem though. It is difficult to dispose of radioactive materials for two reasons. One, some radioactive materials last for thousands of years. Two, most radioactive materials are hazardous and can\'t be stored wi
  • PCBs
    PCBs PCBs: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Polychlorinated biphenyls are a family of man-made chemicals that contain two hundred and nine individual compounds with varying toxicity. Many different combinations are possible. In chemical terminology, “phenyl” denotes a ring structure of six carbon atoms attached to something else; “biphenyl” results when two such rings are attached to each other. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is any molecule having multiple chlorine atoms attached to the carbon atoms o
  • Pond Lab Report
    Pond Lab Report Introduction In the pond water lab experiment, our group has chosen to test the effects of nitrates on a pond community. After a lot of research, we have found that nitrates in a pond community can increase growth rates of plants and some animals. The effects of nitrates include algal blooms, which is when too much food or nutrients are consumed by producers, (i.e. algae) causing them to grow and spread, so they consume all of the dissolved oxygen in the water. Most animals in wa
  • Recycling
    recycling RECYCLING. Recycling is an ancient practice with many modern applications. It refers to the recovery and reuse of materials from spent products. In recent years recycling has become a major part of environmental policy, mainly because of the increased costs of solid- and hazardous-waste disposal, the scarcity of natural resources, and the growing concern over polluted land, water, and air. There are two types of recycling operations: internal and external. Internal recycling is the reu