The Economics Of The Clean Air Act Essay

This essay has a total of 1239 words and 6 pages.

The Economics Of The Clean Air Act

The Economics of The Clean Air Act


Air is a part of all of our lives. Without clean air, nothing we know of can
exist. The debate over clean air, it's regulations, their teammates and
opposition, and the economic factors coming into play into this ever-more
recognizable problem is a widespread and ever more controversial one. Like a
long countdown to eventual disaster, the pollution effecting our world has no
doubt made increasingly more impact on our daily lives, and has increased the
intensity on Washington and other countries to solve the problem. The Clean Air
act is a step in the right direction, but with every answer their comes two
questions and likewise more and more people taking sides. There have been long
debates not over the effectiveness of such regulations, but the lack of
opportunity such regulations and deregulations provide for other companies.
Global warming has increased the tension over the economics of cleaner air, but
with little the government can do to limit the use of cars, the production of
necessary coal-fired power plants and other such human resources, the topic just
turns into another fog for debate and argument over stricter regulations and the
impeached right these sources have to operate. The continual power struggle of
such economic and social issues and the debate over the effectiveness of
stricter, present or more lenient regulations has turned into a smorgasboard of
prectical solutions, with opponents quickly changing minds and becoming
supporters and vice-versa.

The expenditure of about 20 billion on the part of companies since 1990 to
clean up such hazardous pollutants as cars, factories, and thousands of other
measures have reaped about 400 billion in saved hospital costs, lost workdays,
reduced productivity, and other conditions while at the same time theoretically
helping to reduce smog and pollution. The findings of a report on experiments
done for the Clean Air act was passed into law in 1970. The Enviornmental
Protection Agency has recently come under attack by critics however, and
Washington has threatened to cut the agencies' budget citing high costs of
enviornmental legislation, even while their is solid proof that the agencies'
measures are paying off. Congress is skeptical of reports that the whole system
is reaping more benefits on the enviorment than the whole operation actually
costs.

Economically, the Clean Air Act is definitly sound and good for the economy.
For example, American fishermen average $24 billion a year in expenditures and
ultimately generate $69 billion yearly for the economy. Moreover, the average
American worker recieves $20 in value in reduced risks of death, illness, and
other adverse effects for every dollar spent to control air pollution. All in
all, the country spent roughly $436 billion enforcing clean air regulations, and
gained about $6.8 trillion in benefits in 1990. The amounts of harmful
chemicals and pollutants in the air has also found to be dramatically reduced
since 1970. 40 percent of sulfer dioxide in the air has been reduced, as well
as 30 percent of nitrous oxide, and 50 percent of carbon monoxide.

As well as air, the EPA has produced results in protecting our nation's
waterways. For example, the Clean Water Act, which passed in 1972, has since
given states grants of $66 million to help install water sewage treatment plants.
They also found that the act has required the industry to install tens of
billions of dollars of anti-polltion technology. The effect on the liquid
industry has been enormous. Boating sales generate $14 billion alone while
fishermen produce $3 million, and the nation spends an estimated $35 million
anually for fish.

The economics of the Clean Air Act and the regulations pioneered by the EPA
have set new standards for the production of companies. Under the current
regulations, there is a set amount of pollution that can be produced in the U.S.
each year. The units of pollution, or credits, are distributed evenly among
production companies, mining factories, and other producers of such
externalities based on size, output and strength in the industry. Companies are
allowed to sell their credits if they want, which enables companies whose
pollution rates exceeds their limit in a particular area to still operate in a
Continues for 3 more pages >>




  • THOUGHTS ON ACID RAIN
    THOUGHTS ON ACID RAIN Acid Rain THOUGHTS ON ACID RAIN Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and th
  • Where Have They Gone
    Where Have They Gone For many reasons the human race could be called a blessing. Great advanced in technology, medicine and even the fact we are the most sophisticated species on the planet. Are we a gift to planet Earth, or far from it? With cast amounts of pollution and destruction of the planet, not to mention unthinkable acts of violence and hate that has been going on since the beginning of time. Are we really as sophisticated and important as we have led ourselves to believe? Are we any be
  • The International Space Station
    The International Space Station The International Space Station is the doorway to the future of mankind and the world as it is known. The scientific and medical discoveries that will be made on the station could create billions of dollars annually. A plan like this, arranged to benefit the whole world economy, should sound like a good idea to every person, but some believe that the ISS is too risky, too ineffective, or too costly to create. Whether or not the space station is worth the money, ti
  • The Ozone
    The Ozone Ozone derives from the greek word ozein which means to smell. It was first discovered in 1839 by Christian Friedrick Schonbein who noticed it because of its distinctive acrid smell. He discovered this at the University of Basel in Switzerland. Ozone is merely oxygen, but not the type we breath. Ozone, O3 has three compounds while oxygen has only two. Ozone is reac- tive, meaning it does not stay still, and wants to go back to its original state, with two compounds, O2. This is why ozon
  • Privatization of Airports
    Privatization of Airports For 51 years Bergstrom Air Force Base was home to fighter pilots, bombers, troop carriers and reconnaissance jets. It was the first port of call for President Lyndon B. Johnson on his trips home to LBJ Country aboard Air Force One, it was where Chuck Yeager, the first pilot to break the sound barrier, once brought a disabled jet to rest in an emergency landing. In September 1993, in the path of military cutbacks Bergstrom Air Force Base was closed. But the timing was fo
  • MAQUILADORAS AND THE NAFTAS IMPACT
    MAQUILADORAS AND THE NAFTAS IMPACT Introduction In this paper I will discuss the history and practices of the Maquiladora industry. I will discuss its background, its problems, the benefits it offers to United States companies, and the impact the NAFTA has and will have on the industry. In addition, I will make a suggestion on a possible strategy the Maquiladoras can adopt in order to address the challenges brought on by the NAFTA, to ensure it remains a strong force in the future. Background Me
  • Tosco Marketing Company Quality Control
    Tosco Marketing Company Quality Control TOSCO MARKETING COMPANY Quality control comes in many forms. For some it is following a specific philosophy, such as those developed by Demming or Juran. For others it is achieving a specific degree of merit as that established by the Malcolm Baldridge Awards, or International Standard Organizations (ISO). However, the petroleum industry as a whole has compromised, shifted, and remained adaptable to an ever-changing world filled with government regulations
  • Computer
    computer Acid Rain When thought of acid rain, some people may think of green, burning acid falling from the sky, destroying everything in sight. This may be a bit ridiculous and hard to believe, but as crazy as it sound, it is not far from the truth. Acid deposition has long been a subject of debate because of the widespread environ-mental damage it is responsible for. As one of the major results of air pollution, acid rain can corrode metal and limestone structures, leach important minerals, de
  • Global Warming
    Global Warming Meghan McDonald McDonald 1 Mr.Hrkal OAC World Issues December 18th, 2000 Global Warming Now, for the first time in Earth\'s history, humans may be a decisive factor in future climate change. The actions we make towards the temperature of the earth and the depletion of the ozone layer are irreversible. A warmer future could result from present-day human activities releasing large amounts of heat-trapping gases into the air. These "greenhouse gases" are part of the reason for the 1°
  • Mexico
    Mexico Mexico GENERAL Mexico, or the United Mexican States, (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is located on the continent of North America. It is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, and The United States, Belize, and Guatemala. It has a total of 1972550 Sq. Kilometers of land area. It is slightly less than three times the size of Texas. It has roughly 9330 kilometers of coastline. CLIMATE The climate varies from tropical to desert. There are high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains
  • Czech Republic
    Czech Republic The Economy Of The Czech Republic The government of the Czech Republic faced a political and financial crises in 1997 shattered their image as one of the most stable and prosperous post-Communist states. This somewhat new republic, despite the financial tribulation, has been able to reduce their inflation to 10 percent, formed a balanced budget, and hold unemployment down to only 3 percent, since their break away from the former Czechoslovak federation on January 1, 1993. The coun
  • Gas War
    Gas War Gasoline is produced by a distillation process where crude oil is heated and fumes are captured and converted into many products such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline to name a few. Therefore the price of crude oil, which is extracted from oil wells beneath the earths surface, is a major factor in gas prices. The five leading oil-producing countries and their approximate shares of the world supply of oil are: Soviet Union 21%, Saudi Arabia 17%, The United States 15%, Venezuela 4%, and
  • Israel Foreign Policy
    Israel Foreign Policy Israel is located in the Middle East, along the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean Sea, bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. It lies at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. Long and narrow in shape the country is only 290 miles in length and 85 miles in width at its widest point. Israel is a country of immigrants. Since its creation in 1948, the population has increased seven-fold. Today, its over six million inhabitants represent many di
  • The price of gasoline is a major interest to almos
    Mr The price of gasoline is a major interest to almost everyone in the country and almost everywhere in the world. It seems that every month and sometimes more frequently, gas prices are either spiking or dropping, never staying stable. Gasoline prices are affected by many factors, including the price of crude oil in the world market, supply and demand for gasoline, local market competition, temporary supply interruptions, government regulations, or taxes. Gasoline is produced by a distillation
  • Spend Your Money Wisely
    Spend Your Money Wisely Spend Your Money Wisely The United States has faced a very significant economic growth after the Second World War. At that time, war was finished, and the American soldiers were back to their homes. There were ready to make their future houses and start families. In other words, they started spending money in the market acquiring commodities and services rendered at that time. The country faced a population growth, -as they are refereed to baby boomers- production growth,
  • Automobile Emissions
    Automobile Emissions ABSTRACT Pollution from automobile emissions has become over the past few decades an issue of great concern. With a growing number of motor vehicles on our roads great concern has been attributed to the effects of these emissions to our health and to the environment. Several of the gases emitted, which when present in certain concentrations in our atmosphere can be toxic, therefor these ultimate concentrations must never be achieved. Strict legislation as well as sophisticat
  • Household recycling easier than you think
    household recycling easier than you think HOUSEHOLD RECYCLING: EASIER THAN YOU THINK! by Amy Newman Thesis: After reading this essay, I will fully understand the issue of recycling and the three solutions I have found. Primary Audience: Myself Purpose: To provide myself with the information necessary to choose the proper recycling program I feel is the most efficient and effective. English 1302, 7010 Professor Ice September 22, 2000 Annotated Bibliography Carless, Jennifer. Taking Out The Trash:
  • Pollution
    Pollution Pollution. What is pollution? According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary pollution is “the action of polluting esp. by environmental contamination with man-made waste.” The United States runs on power. Much of the United States’ powers come from various nuclear power plants all across the country. Some power plants are getting old and are not up to date. These power plants are emitting various gasses and chemicals into the air. Transcendentalists believe that people should coexist wit
  • Acid Rain
    Acid Rain Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States. In Canada, th
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • AIR POLLUTION
    AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid
  • Cairo air pollution
    cairo air pollution A glimpse on Cairo\'s air The path to the implementation of Law 4/1994, known as the Environment Law, is overworked with obstacles, but advancement is being made nonetheless. The need to regulate lead foundries and other polluting industries, cut down vehicle exhaust emissions often has environmentalists wondering which way to turn next. But the Ministry of Environment seems to be adopting a step by step approach that is producing concrete, but still finite, results. Cairo is
  • Environmental hazadous
    environmental hazadous ENVIRONMENT: Every thing present in this universe is a part of environment including ourselves. Whether they are animals , living thing, or nonliving things. All of the external factors affecting an organism. These factors may be other living organisms (biotic factors) or nonliving variables (abiotic factors), such as water, soil, climate, light, and oxygen. All interacting biotic and abiotic factors together make up an ecosystem. Organisms and their environment constantly
  • Global Warming1
    Global Warming1 Global Warming Now, for the first time in Earth\'s history, humans may be a decisive factor in future climate change. The actions we make towards the temperature of the earth and the depletion of the ozone layer are irreversible. A warmer future could result from present-day human activities releasing large amounts of heat-trapping gases into the air. These "greenhouse gases" are part of the reason for the 1°F (.5°C) rise in global average temperature documented over the past 100
  • Globalwarming
    Globalwarming What happens when too much carbon dioxide gets omitted into the Earth’s atmosphere? The condition known as Global Warming occurs. Global Warming is the rising of the Earth’s surface temperature due to chemicals in the atmosphere. Global Warming has many threats on the climate and even the health of the people on this planet. Some of these threats include the altering of crop seasons and even effect the way organisms survive on the planet. The first thing I think I should discuss wh
  • Mtbe
    mtbe 1990, the federal Clean Air Act was passed to improve air quality in the United States. President Bush\'s proposed amendments to the Clean Air Act initially would have led to the introduction of alternative, non-petroleum fuels. The petroleum and oxygenate industries responded by offering a reformulated gasoline program as a substitute for most of the alternate fuel proposals. As a result, the amendments to the federal Clean Air Act adopted in 1990 required steps to achieve lower vehicle em
  • Pesticides
    Pesticides Putting Aside Pesticides There are 2.5 billion pounds of pesticides being applied to agricultural products each year in the United States. This is ten times more than was applied forty years ago. It is still unknown as to what type of exact effects these chemicals may have on individuals. Some farmers that have been using pesticides in their fields and developed leukemia are finding that the cause of their disease is from inhaling pesticides. These chemicals are still in use today and
  • Silent destroyer
    Silent destroyer America the Beautiful! So why are we destroying it everyday with the use of pesticides? It has been proven that pesticides have affects on it’s surrounding, although made to improve earths resources, they typically take there negative effect on the environment in time. Pesticides affect more than the environment; they also affect the animals and humans living in the environment. There are alternative, to this major problem but, we as the caretakers of earth must act fast. In the
  • A orange
    a orange Just saying the name Agent Orange gets the attention of every Vietnam veteran, and I dare say most of the Australian and American public, not to mention the Vietnamese. It has been argued about, written about, researched and debated, published in magazines and newspapers, talked about on radio and television. It was the subject of documentaries, legal battles, and in Australia a Royal Commission that lasted some two years and cost 3.8 million dollars. Agent Orange was the code name for
  • Air pollution
    air pollution Factories and transportation depend on huge amounts of fuel--billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. When these fuels burn they introduce smoke and other, less visible, by-products into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke given off by power plants and automobiles, the cumulative effect of air pollution poses a grave threat to humans and the environment. In many places smoke from factories and cars combines with
  • Development geography
    development geography Using a variety of contemporary geographic issues, discuss how they are related to the levels of development in nations that you have studied. The reasons for high or low development within any nation directly relates to an assortment of geographic issues. These can include things such as the changes to social and political power within a nation, people’s access to housing and employment, and the environmental quality in which the nation is surrounded. Environmental quality
  • Jamaica
    Jamaica The country of Jamaica has an ideal location. Located just south of Cuba, it is the third largest island in the Caribbean Sea with 10,990 km². Although the capital is Kingston, there are many other important centers of trade and business. The official language is English and the major religion is Protestantism. Transportation in Jamaica connects the entire country and movement thought out the island is very easy. There is a coastal highway traveling the whole coast. Air Jamaica and cruis
  • Norway
    norway Geography The official country name in conventional long form is the Kingdom of Norway. Norge is the local short form. The capital of Norway is Oslo. Norway is situated far to the north in the western corner of Europe bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. Norway shares borders with Sweden, Finland and Russia. The Kingdom of Norway, in addition to the mainland, includes the Svalbard archipelago and Jan Mayen. Norway also has territories in the Antarctic region. These are Bo
  • Rocky Mountains or Rockies
    Rocky Mountains or Rockies Rocky Mountains or Rockies, great chain of rugged mountain ranges in western North America, extending from central New Mexico to northeastern British Columbia, a distance of about 3220 km (about 2000 mi). The Great Basin and the Rocky Mountain Trench, a valley running from northwestern Montana to northern British Columbia, border the Rockies on the east by the Great Plains and on the west. The Rocky Mountains form part of the Great, or Continental, Divide, which separa
  • Rocky Mountains or Rockies1
    Rocky Mountains or Rockies1 Rocky Mountains or Rockies, great chain of rugged mountain ranges in western North America, extending from central New Mexico to northeastern British Columbia, a distance of about 3220 km (about 2000 mi). The Rockies are bordered on the east by the Great Plains and on the west by the Great Basin and the Rocky Mountain Trench, a valley running from northwestern Montana to northern British Columbia. The Rocky Mountains form part of the Great, or Continental, Divide, whi
  • Corporate Elite
    Corporate Elite Elitist theory holds that the majority of political power is held by a relatively small and wealthy group of people, which share similar principles and interests. Most members of this group are born into affluent families. The majority of top leaders in the United States come from this privileged group. The power elite utilizes a variety of resources to dictate public policy. These individuals tend to hold top management positions within big corporations. These corporations are u
  • TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME (TSS) was discovered almost 2
    tss TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME (TSS) was discovered almost 20 years ago. At first no one knew what was causing it, although it was quickly linked with "superabsorbent" tampons (which are no longer on the market). Eventually researchers discovered that a poison produced by a type of bacteria known as Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for TSS. Some theorized that tampons may produce small ulcerations, which allow bacteria to enter the body. Another theory is that stagnating blood within or behind the
  • Globalization Threat to the Environment
    Globalization Threat to the Environment Global change has become a popular word in scientific debates on long-range structural change in the earth’s ecology. Globalization has in the past played a major role in the controversial environmental debates. Many problems resulted in this area of discussion, in regard to the intricate linkages between globalization, government, trade and transport, and environmental decay. The current debate on the environmental effects of globalization is particularly
  • Speed limit
    speed limit Should Highway Speed Limits Be Increased? Should highway speed limits be increased? Should we strike down every sign that the government posts and uses to regulate the speed limit on the thousands of highways around the country? Should we trust the driving ability of each and every person to drive within a reasonably safe speed? The response that most people lean toward is one of negativity. People automatically assume that the speeds presently posted on our highways are there only f
  • 5 year plan
    5 year plan Table of Contents Mission Statement Company Objectives Company Overview 1. Historical Outline 2. Products and Services 3. Financial Statements SWOT Analysis § An analysis of company’s strengths § An analysis of company’s weaknesses § An analysis of company’s opportunities § An analysis of company’s threats Business Strategy Marketing Mix § Product § Pricing § Place § Promotion Analysis of Major Competitors in the Field § Kenmore § Whirlpool § Kirby § Maytag § GE International Expansi
  • Business analysis of mexico canada japan
    business analysis of mexico canada japan SWOT Analysis Strengths§ Complete product line§ Good reputation§ Customer loyalty § Employees’ creativity§ High quality products§ Excellent post-sale services§ Experienced management team Weaknesses§ Unfamiliarity with foreign markets§ Lack of exporting experience § Lack of foreign trained employees§ Small market share in the U.S. Opportunities§ International Expansion § Innovative R&D § Penetrating unsaturated markets of Japan, Canada, and Mexico§ Develo
  • Acid Rain1
    Acid Rain1 The Acid Rain Pain With scientists and so-called “experts” on the environment disagreeing on so many issues, it is easy for the public to be lost in the fray of what is truth and what is media hype. Though the term “acid rain” has been present in our society since the early 1970’s, many people are not exactly clear on what it is what causes it, and the detrimental effects acid rain has on our environment. More confusing than all of the facts and scientific theories surrounding acid ra
  • Acid Rain1
    Acid Rain1 The Acid Rain Pain With scientists and so-called “experts” on the environment disagreeing on so many issues, it is easy for the public to be lost in the fray of what is truth and what is media hype. Though the term “acid rain” has been present in our society since the early 1970’s, many people are not exactly clear on what it is what causes it, and the detrimental effects acid rain has on our environment. More confusing than all of the facts and scientific theories surrounding acid ra
  • Acid Rain1
    Acid Rain1 The Acid Rain Pain With scientists and so-called “experts” on the environment disagreeing on so many issues, it is easy for the public to be lost in the fray of what is truth and what is media hype. Though the term “acid rain” has been present in our society since the early 1970’s, many people are not exactly clear on what it is what causes it, and the detrimental effects acid rain has on our environment. More confusing than all of the facts and scientific theories surrounding acid ra
  • Acid rain5
    acid rain5 Acid Rain Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States. In
  • Alumionum
    alumionum Aluminum Aluminum is a lightweight, silver-colored metal that can be formed into almost any shape. It can be rolled into thick plates for armored tanks or into thin foil for chewing gum wrappers. It may be drawn into wire or made into cans. Aluminum does not rust, and it resists wear from weather and chemicals. Aluminum is called aluminium in English-speaking countries outside the United States. Its atomic number is 13 and its atomic weight is 26.9815. Pure aluminum, known as Al on the
  • Amazon Rainforest
    Amazon Rainforest Science; Rainforests and Earth The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat
  • Austria
    Austria Austria History Thousands of years ago, the great valley of the Danube River was an important pathway for the tribes who came to Europe from the east. Settled in prehistoric times, the central European land that is now Austria was overrun in pre-Roman times by various tribes, including the Celts. Traders also came from the north, carrying goods to trade in Rome and Alexandria. The route from the north and the route from the east crossed at a place in the Danube valley in the region now c