The Hunter gatherer era Essay

This essay has a total of 956 words and 5 pages.

The Hunter gatherer era



The Stone Age was a time early in the development of human cultures before the use of
metals when tools and weapons were made of stone, and human food was mainly produced from
hunting and gathering. The dates of the Stone Age vary considerably for different parts
of the world and even until very recently there were some cultures that lived in much the
same way as the hunter-gatherers of thousands of years ago.

In the Stone Age, the hunting and gathering of food was the norm. The males of this time
specialized in hunting - usually with stone-tipped weapons, while the females gathered
items. “Incidental tools” were the first tools to be used. These tools were stones,
sticks and other such items that the early humans found just lying about. Next came “dawn
stones” – the first stone tools to be fashioned. These were usually crudely chipped
pebbles or flaked stone implements that were used for many purposes, but dawn stones also
included the stone and anvil which was used for breaking bones open to get to the marrow
deep inside. Over time, a wide variety of tools were made for many purposes. By about
100,000 years ago, humans already had several types of stone tools and were using bone and
wood implements as well.

As time went by, these modern humans (Homo sapiens) made such specialized tools as bone
needles, bone fishhooks, nets, hand axes, choppers, scrapers, backed knives, burins,
points, spears, and wooden bows & sharp stone-tipped arrows.

Needles were used to sew animal skins together for clothing using sinews as the thread.
Fishhooks and nets were used to catch fish. Hand-axes could be used for cutting meat,
scraping skins, chopping wood, digging holes, and hammering bone or wood. Choppers were
used for smashing bones open to obtain marrow, hacking wood, softening meat, and possibly
as a primitive hammer. Scrapers were deployed for dressing hides and possibly obtaining
meat from bones. Backed knives were made for the ability to easily cut flesh. Burins
were chisels used to carve and shape bone and wood. This would include creating sharp
points on spears for hunting. Points, on the other hand, were hafted on to the spears.
Rawhide and sinews were used to haft the stone points to the spears and other implements
such as axes and arrows. Hafting was a major step in tool development as it enabled the
user to put much more force behind his swing.

Early humans participated in close range kills, meaning that they literally had to be
within a foot of their prey when they attacked it. The Bow and arrow appeared after
20,000 BC. This amazing weapon, along with the spear, allowed the early humans to hunt
and kill its prey from a distance. The bows were made from strong but flexible wood while
the bowstrings were made from sinews. The arrows were made of wood, but the tips were
made of sharp, pointed stones.

The stones they preferred to use for their tools and weapons, like flint and obsidian,
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