The Money Trail

This essay has a total of 1366 words and 10 pages.

The Money Trail




"The Money Trail"



Without money most of the candidates running for the 2000 presidential election would have
by now disappeared from the race. So where does the money come from? By the end of this
paper this question will be answered, along with many others that many Americans think
about. The focus will basically be on the Federal Campaign Finance Law, soft money and how
it effects the presidential race, and lastly Governor Bush and Vice-President Gore's views
on campaign finance reform.


The only way to survive a presidential or congressional election race is with money. All
of the 2000 presidential candidates got as far as they did with lots and lots of money.
But, since most funds are donated, each candidate has to follow certain guidelines
provided by the Federal Election Commission. This commission created the Federal Election
Campaign Act, which has many different restrictions on contributing money. FECA requires
candidate committees, party committees, and PACs to file periodic reports disclosing the
money they raise and spend (FEC 1). Also candidate committees and party committees must
identify individuals who give more than two hundred dollars a year (FEC 1). This committee
also restricts who can give money, such as corporations, labor organizations, federal
government contractors, and foreign nationals. One other limitation is that no one may
make a contribution in another person's name and no one may make a contribution in cash of
more than one hundred dollars (FEC 1). The Federal Election Campaign Act also states
contribution limits. The chart below shows the limits and which participants they affect
(FEC 1).








Mills 2 The chart below shows the limits and which participants they affect (FEC 1).





Not only does the Federal Election Campaign Act limit parties; it also gives guidelines to
the candidates. Eligible candidates in the presidential primaries may receive public funds
to match the private contributions they raise (FEC 4). Now that is a great plus for a
candidate but here comes the rub. An individual may give up to one thousand dollars to a
primary candidate, but only the first two hundred and fifty of that contribution will be
federally matched (FEC 4). So even though candidates can receive public funding, it is
only for a small amount of money. Also even before they can receive public funding,




Mills 3

each candidate must demonstrate broad-based support by raising more than five thousand
dollars in matchable contributions in each of twenty different states (FEC 4). These rules


are only a small part of the guidelines that candidates and political parties have to
follow in order to use money in their campaigns.


Myth or truth; Is soft money a key component in campaigns? This statement is very true.
But soft money, by definition and law, is not supposed to be part of our federal campaign
finance system (Common Cause 1). If it is not supposed to be used then why do political
parties still use it? Without soft money political parties would not be able to fund many
campaign activities which help their candidate. Political parties spend soft money on such
things as television campaign ads, "get-out-the-vote" efforts, or dinner for a big
investor. Soft money is raised by federal candidates and federal officeholders and the
spending of soft money, although nominally done by parties, is controlled by or
coordinated with federal candidates (Common Cause 2). Also unlike "hard money," with its
firm limits on contributions, soft money is largely unregulated (Washington Post 1). The
myth of soft money is that it is contributed and spent for what is euphemistically called
"party building" purposes that are unrelated to influencing federal elections (Common
Cause 1). But that is not really the case. Most of the soft money donations are given in
such great amounts (between fifty thousand and one million dollars) that donors may want
something in return. If the donors are big businesses they may want laws to be changed in
their favor or if it is a private donor they may want a "voice" in the government. Soft
money has really only been around since 1978, but during the 1988


presidential race the problem exploded. First when the Dukakis campaign, then the Bush
campaign began aggressive soft money fundraising (Common Cause 1). Before parties




Mills 4

raised only small amounts. Then during the 1996 presidential campaign, the money increased
drastically. The two major parties raised more than two hundred and sixty two million in
soft money - three times more than in 1992 (Washington Post 1). So it is obviously safe to
say that without soft money candidates would not get as much publicity as they do now. As
former Democratic National Committee fundraiser Johnny Chung said about the business of
campaigns that "the White House it like a subway - you have to put in coins to open the
gates" (Common Cause 1).


During this 2000 presidential election both major candidates feel strongly about tougher
campaign finance reform. It seems quite contradicting of them both, when their political
parties use soft money. Tougher campaign finance would hurt them instead of help them. But
whatever they say must be the truth! Governor Bush and Vice-President Gore have extremely
good proposals to strengthen campaign finance reform. Governor Bush has six proposals
(George W. Bush 1):


1. To prevent corporate boards and union bosses from diminishing the influence of individuals.
Continues for 5 more pages >>




  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • War Bonds
    War Bonds War Bonds in WWI War bonds are money that you give the government to finance wars in exchange for a certificate that entitles you to a larger sum of money in the future for their generosity. There were many ways that were used to advertise war bonds. The United States didn’t want only the civilians to buy war bonds, they also wanted and advertised to the soldiers in the United States. The military issued a series of five cards encouraging the purchase of war bonds. These cards were giv
  • Business analysis of a Limited Company
    Business analysis of a Limited Company The Limited, Inc. Three Limited Parkway Columbus, Ohio 43230 614-415-7000 www.limited.com Written by:Dan Di Pietro s_djdipietro@clarion.edu Administrative Decision Making BSAD 490 Dr. Roth July 12, 1999 Overview Name: The Limited, Inc. Headquarters: Three Limited Parkway Columbus, Ohio 43230 Telephone: 614-415-7000 Internet Address: www.limited.com Top Officers: Leslie H. Wexner, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Kenneth B. Gilman, Vice Chairman and Chie
  • GenesisYour vision for the Future
    GenesisYour vision for the Future Introduction: “GENESIS” – Your Vision for the Future “GENESIS” Corporation is a company that deals with production of computer software and business applications that are essential for successful conduct of business today. We strive to provide affordable, innovative software solutions to users worldwide by applying creativity, experience and teamwork. The result of our efforts is production of high quality business solutions that make our customers’ live easier
  • None Provided4
    None Provided4 Sample Work When evaluating the quality of EssayEdge\'s edits, please bear in mind the quality of the original version to understand the dramatic improvement made to the essay. Praise The below edit and critique earned this comment from the customer: I would like to thank you for a job well done! You improved upon these essays immensely. Unedited Version: Unedited version will contain poor writing and uncorrected typos. To view the edited version and critique, please click here. Q
  • The euro
    The euro In Europe, the debut of the euro is widely hailed as the most important event affecting the international monetary landscape since the breakup of the Bretton Woods System in 1971 to 1973, or since the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944, or maybe even since the founding of the Federal Reserve System in 1913. It has become a contest for European officials and commentators to see who can push the analogy back furthest in time. Eminences elsewhere in the world have similarly greeted the euro w
  • Web advertising
    web advertising web advertising Web Advertising Web advertising, not to mention the Internet itself, finds itself in a stage of relative infancy and therefore provides marketers with novel challenges and situations which need to be dealt with caution . The realm of Web advertising is unchartered terri tory! In terms of South Africa, the country finds itsef somewhat behind technologically. However, this may not prove to be a disadvantage as the uncertain nature of Web advertising may make a polic
  • Conflict in the middle east
    Conflict in the middle east Conflict In the Middle East Since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947- 49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, especially with Palestinian Arabs, has continued because of the lack of co-operation by the Arab
  • Canadian Dollar Fluctuations
    Canadian Dollar Fluctuations ˙ The Canadian dollar has declined by over thirty percent versus the United States dollar, since it was at its highest in 1970. The reason for this is mainly the following factors: the Quebec factor, the inflation factor, the productivity factor, the growth in government and taxes factor, and the commodity price factor. These all come together to bring us to what the Canadian dollar is worth compared to the U.S. dollar today. The Quebec factor is partly responsible f
  • CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM
    CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese Economic Refrom
    Chinese Economic Refrom Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese reform
    chinese reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced
  • Economical Views in the 2000 Presidential Election
    Economical Views in the 2000 Presidential Election As generations pass, and times change, the people of the United States change as well. What may have been a major issue in the 1980 election might not even concern voters in 2000. Economic issues are continually changing with the times. Each election develops its own “personality.” Despite agreeing on some issues, the four major [now just two] candidates in the upcoming 2000 presidential election hold different opinions on three major economic i
  • Vouchers and Education
    Vouchers and Education l Gore vs. George W. Bush On School Funding Presidential candidates Al Gore and George W. Bush are whetting their stances on what is quickly becoming a central issue in the upcoming presidential election - education reform. Both perceive the issue as an opportunity to draw votes from the other party\'s followers, especially Bush, who stands to gain ground on minority groups, a segment of the population he is particularly weak with. (Business Week; April 10, 2000) The heat
  • Public relations
    public relations Public Relations Public relations is the process used by businesses or organizations to present the most favorable image for them to the public. It is the responsibility for public relations professionals to provide carefully crafted information to the target audience about the individual, its goals and accomplishments, and any thing else that may be of public interest. The public relations professional also helps integrate its client’s image in its business strategies and daily
  • The Drug Debate
    The Drug Debate The Drug Debate For over twenty years the drug debate has been argued over and over. The drug war in the United States has been historically seen as a costly, yet necessary component of public policy; a policy that has been under substantial political fire for years. As we enter a new century, many are reconsidering their feelings towards the drug war. Critics cite the billions of dollars spent every year as well as the overflowing prison problem as reasons to cut back, and even
  • Martin Brian Mulroney
    Martin Brian Mulroney Martin Brian Mulroney became the 18th prime minister of Canada on September 17, 1984, after his party, the Progressive Conservatives won the greatest parliamentary victory ever in Canadian history. Mulroney was born in 1939, the son of an electrician, in the paper mill town of Baie Comeau, Quebec. Mulroney attended a very strict military type all boys’ school until the age of 16 when he entered Saint Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia. There he earned an h
  • Community Assesment Plan
    Community Assesment Plan Substance Abuse Prevention Community Assessment The community that we have chosen to assess is Springfield, Missouri. Springfield is located in Green County in Southwest. According to the USDC, Bureau of the Census in 1999 the population estimate for the Springfield Metropolitan area was 308,332. The annual population growth rate is 1.8% for Springfield. This is compared to 0.6% for the state of Missouri and 1.2% for the United States. Population density of Springfield i
  • Cival war
    cival war Civil War By: shjahja E-mail: samol@hotmail.com Civil War IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were
  • Cival war
    cival war Civil War By: shjahja E-mail: samol@hotmail.com Civil War IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were
  • Cuban history
    cuban history History of Cuba Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Cuba on October 28, 1492, during his initial westward voyage. In honor of the daughter of Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Spain, his benefactors, Columbus named it Juana, the first of several names he successively applied to the island. It eventually became known as Cuba, from its aboriginal name, Cubanascnan. Colonization by Spain When Columbus first landed on Cuba it was inhabited by the Ciboney, a friendly tribe related
  • The Great Depression
    The Great Depression The 1920\'s was a period of general prosperity for many Americans but the decade ended with the most serious depression in United States history. When Herbert Hoover (31st president) took oath into office in March 1929, trade was booming, industry was flourishing. Unemployment was low, wages were up, prices were steady and corporations were making big profits and paying fat dividends. Before the end of Hoover\'s first year in office, the stock market had collapsed. The natio
  • The Great Depression
    The Great Depression The 1920\'s was a period of general prosperity for many Americans but the decade ended with the most serious depression in United States history. When Herbert Hoover (31st president) took oath into office in March 1929, trade was booming, industry was flourishing. Unemployment was low, wages were up, prices were steady and corporations were making big profits and paying fat dividends. Before the end of Hoover\'s first year in office, the stock market had collapsed. The natio
  • The Great Depression
    The Great Depression The 1920\'s was a period of general prosperity for many Americans but the decade ended with the most serious depression in United States history. When Herbert Hoover (31st president) took oath into office in March 1929, trade was booming, industry was flourishing. Unemployment was low, wages were up, prices were steady and corporations were making big profits and paying fat dividends. Before the end of Hoover\'s first year in office, the stock market had collapsed. The natio
  • Watergate
    Watergate Watergate Scandal By: Dave Introduction Watergate was the name of the biggest political scandal in United States history. It included various illegal activities constructed to help President Richard Nixon win reelection in the 1972 presidential elections. Watergate included burglary, wire tapping, violations of campaign financing laws, and sabotage and attempted use of government agencies to harm political opponents. It also involved a cover-up of conduct. There were about 40 people ch
  • Watergate 1972
    Watergate 1972 Watergate was the name of the biggest political scandal in United States history. It included various illegal activities designed to help President Richard M. Nixon win reelection in 1972. Watergate resulted in Nixon\'s resignation from the presidency in 1974. Watergate differed from most previous political scandals because personal greed apparently did not play an important role. Instead, Watergate represented an attack on one of the chief features of a democracy--free and open e
  • 5 year plan
    5 year plan Table of Contents Mission Statement Company Objectives Company Overview 1. Historical Outline 2. Products and Services 3. Financial Statements SWOT Analysis § An analysis of company’s strengths § An analysis of company’s weaknesses § An analysis of company’s opportunities § An analysis of company’s threats Business Strategy Marketing Mix § Product § Pricing § Place § Promotion Analysis of Major Competitors in the Field § Kenmore § Whirlpool § Kirby § Maytag § GE International Expansi
  • Chinese economic reform
    chinese economic reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Colgate in Argentina
    Colgate in Argentina Introduction Colgate was founded in the United States in 1806 and for the first 100 years, its business focus was only there. However, in the very early 1900\'s, the Company began a very aggressive expansion program that led to the establishment of Colgate operations throughout the world. Today, Colgate-Palmolive is a billion company, marketing its products in over 200 countries and territories under such internationally recognized brand names as Colgate, Palmolive, Ajax,
  • Innovations in Behavioral Marketing and
    Innovations in Behavioral Marketing and MARKETING MANAGEMENT TERM PROJECT “Innovations in Behavioral Marketing and Electronic Commerce” Date: June 15, 2000 Table of Contents Preface………………………………………………………………………………1 Ă . Introduction Č . Benefits of Electronic Marketing Ę . Effectiveness of E-Commerce I. Ways for Promoting your Website II. Learning about your Visitors III. Segmenting your Internet Market Ë . E-Commerce in Lebanon I. Lebanese Companies on the Net II. Customer Adaptation to E-Commerce
  • Marketing Strategy for Pricelinecom
    Marketing Strategy for Pricelinecom Introduction Which is the one place where you can satisfy your every need (almost every need) at your price? Be it airline tickets, hotel rooms, rental cars, mortgages, new automobiles, or even long distance calling time. The answer would be Priceline.com. All you have to do is know your need, state your terms, and make your offer. It doesn’t get easier than this! Priceline.com was one of the pioneer online companies to traverse the traditional limitations of
  • Advetising
    advetising Web Advertising Web advertising, not to mention the Internet itself, finds itself in a stage of relative infancy and therefore provides marketers with novel challenges and situations which need to be dealt with caution . The realm of Web advertising is unchartered terri tory! In terms of South Africa, the country finds itsef somewhat behind technologically. However, this may not prove to be a disadvantage as the uncertain nature of Web advertising may make a policy of \'watching and l
  • AL Gore the best plan for the us
    AL Gore the best plan for the us Al Gores plan for the future of the United States makes him our countries best choice for president. I will clearly show this by talking about the issues that face the nation in the year 2000 and his stances on them. While most Americans know Al Gore for his leadership in Congress and as Vice President, it is the families and values of Tennessee that have most shaped his life and career. It was on his parents\' family farm in Carthage that he first learned the im
  • Arab isreal conflict
    arab isreal conflict Check out essays at EssayFinder.com Arab-Israeli Conflicts Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s
  • Asian
    Asian Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had
  • Civil war5
    civil war5 In this meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say w
  • Democratice partys
    democratice partys Republic (government) (Latin res publica, literally "the public thing"), form of state based on the concept that sovereignty resides in the people, who delegate the power to rule in their behalf to elected representatives and officials. In practice, however, this concept has been variously stretched, distorted, and corrupted, making any precise definition of the term republic difficult. It is important, to begin with, to distinguish between a republic and a democracy. In the t
  • Ethics Essay
    Ethics Essay Essay Paper This paper will discuss the moral and ethical issues concerning how and why Locally Undesirable Land Uses (LULUs) and Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) are located. A LULU, or TSDF, can be a power plant, a munitions factory, a county landfill, a medical waste incinerator, a hazardous waste storage facility, a military base, an airport or any number of other facilities that people need, but do not want to live next to. The siting of these types of facilit
  • Hey hey hey
    Hey hey hey The Great Depression By: Raymond Torres E-mail: SableLvr17@aol.com The 1920\'s was a period of general prosperity for many Americans but the decade ended with the most serious depression in United States history. When Herbert Hoover (31st president) took oath into office in March 1929, trade was booming, industry was flourishing. Unemployment was low, wages were up, prices were steady and corporations were making big profits and paying fat dividends. Before the end of Hoover\'s first
  • How the other half lives
    how the other half lives How the Other Half Lives Jacob A. Riis Unlike the majority of immigrants of his time, Jacob Riis assimilated easily into America’s melting pot. A Dutch born police reporter and amateur photographer, Riis dove into the impoverished streets of America’s most populated city and proved to the upper classes that horror does exist next door. In his early days of church exhibitions and in the writing of his novel, How the Other Half Lives, originally published on 15 November 18
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the Unit
    JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president w
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the Unit
    JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president w
  • Jimmy Carter1
    Jimmy Carter1 James (Jimmy) Earl Carter Thirty-Ninth President, 1977-1981 Jimmy Carter (James Earl Carter, Jr.) was born October 1, 1924, in the small farming town of Plains, Georgia, and grew up in the nearby community of Archery. His father, James Earl Carter, Sr., was a farmer and businessman; his mother, Lillian Gordy, a registered nurse. He was educated in the Plains public schools, attended Georgia Southwestern College and the Georgia Institute of Technology, and received a Bachelor degree
  • John F Kennedy1
    John F Kennedy1 John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States 1961 to 1963. He was the youngest person ever to be elected president. Also, He was the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20the century. He served in World War II on PT boat. He also helped to solve the Cuban Missile Crisis and started Peace of Corps to help 3rd world countries better them selves. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore, h
  • NIXON
    NIXON RICHARD M. NIXON. The first president of the United States to resign from office was Richard M. Nixon. Before his mid-term retirement in 1974, he had been only the second president to face impeachment. In 1968, in a political comeback unprecedented in American history, Nixon was elected the 37th president of the United States. This victory followed two major political defeats. In his first bid for the presidency in 1960, the Democratic candidate, John F. Kennedy, defeated him. Two years la
  • One Nation One People One Culture
    One Nation One People One Culture One Nation, One People, One Culture As the eighteenth century drew to a close, the new American Republic teetered between the danger of collapse and the promise of greatness. By expanding westward to occupy most of North America, the United States might develop into imperial wealth and power; if the nation could survive its first vulnerable decades. The great paradox of the new nation was that its short-term prospects appeared dire and its long-term prospects ap
  • Peanut Butter Allergies
    Peanut Butter Allergies Company Introduction One does not need to look far to witness a variety of contributions to our everyday lives from the talented scientists and researchers, past and present, at Proctor & Gamble (P&G). At least one P&G product can be found in virtually every home in the United States, and the Company\'s products are in 140 countries worldwide. P&G credits its success in product innovation to deeply understanding consumer needs and desires then bringing these to life throu
  • Polarization in the Political System
    Polarization in the Political System On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, in what has been perceived as the years biggest non-event, the federal government shut down all "non-essential" services due to what was, for all intents and purposes, a game of national "chicken" between the House Speaker and the President. And, at an estimated cost of 200 million dollars a day, this dubious battle of dueling egos did not come cheap (Bradsher, 1995, p.16). Why do politicians find it almost congenitally impossib