The rise of communism in russia Essay

This essay has a total of 2383 words and 13 pages.

the rise of communism in russia



The Rise of Communism In Russia

"Unless we accept the claim that Lenin's coup d'etat gave birth
to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of
mankind, we must recognize in today's Soviet Union the old empire of
the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980's"
(Luttwak, 1).

In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in
which all class differences would disappear and humankind would live
in harmony. Marx and Engels claimed to have discovered a scientific
approach to socialism based on the laws of history. They declared that
the course of history was determined by the clash of opposing forces
rooted in the economic system and the ownership of property. Just as
the feudal system had given way to capitalism, so in time capitalism
would give way to socialism. The class struggle of the future would be
between the bourgeoisie, who were the capitalist employers, and the
proletariat, who were the workers. The struggle would end, according
to Marx, in the socialist revolution and the attainment of full
communism (Groiler's Encyclopedia).

Socialism, of which "Marxism-Leninism" is a takeoff, originated
in the West. Designed in France and Germany, it was brought into
Russia in the middle of the nineteenth century and promptly attracted
support among the country's educated, public-minded elite, who at that
time were called intelligentsia (Pipes, 21). After Revolution broke
out over Europe in 1848 the modern working class appeared on the scene
as a major historical force. However, Russia remained out of the
changes that Europe was experiencing. As a socialist movement and
inclination, the Russian Social-Democratic Party continued the
traditions of all the Russian Revolutions of the past, with the goal
of conquering political freedom (Daniels 7).

As early as 1894, when he was twenty-four, Lenin had become a
revolutionary agitator and a convinced Marxist. He exhibited his new
faith and his polemical talents in a diatribe of that year against the
peasant-oriented socialism of the Populists led by N.K. Mikhiaiovsky
(Wren, 3).

While Marxism had been winning adherents among the Russian
revolutionary intelligentsia for more than a decade previously, a
claimed Marxist party was bit organized until 1898. In that year a
"congress" of nine men met at Minsk to proclaim the establishment of
the Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party. The Manifesto issued in
the name of the congress after the police broke it up was drawn up by
the economist Peter Struve, a member of the moderate "legal Marxist"
group who soon afterward left the Marxist movement altogether. The
manifesto is indicative of the way Marxism was applied to Russian
conditions, and of the special role for the proletariat (Pipes, 11).

The first true congress of the Russian Social Democratic
Workers' Party was the Second. It convened in Brussels in the summer
of 1903, but was forced by the interference of the Belgian authorities
to move to London, where the proceedings were concluded. The Second
Congress was the occasion for bitter wrangling among the
representatives of various Russian Marxist Factions, and ended in a
deep split that was mainly caused by Lenin -- his personality, his
drive for power in the movement, and his "hard" philosophy of the
disciplined party organization. At the close of the congress Lenin
commanded a temporary majority for his faction and seized upon the
label "Bolshevik" (Russian for Majority), while his opponents who
inclined to the "soft" or more democratic position became known as the
"Mensheviks" or minority (Daniels, 19).

Though born only in 1879, Trotsky had gained a leading place
among the Russian Social-Democrats by the time of the Second party
Congress in 1903. He represented ultra-radical sentiment that could
not reconcile itself to Lenin's stress on the party organization.
Trotsky stayed with the Menshevik faction until he joined Lenin in
1917. From that point on, he acomidated himself in large measure to
Lenin's philosophy of party dictatorship, but his reservations came to
the surface again in the years after his fall from power (Stoessinger,
13).

In the months after the Second Congress of the Social Democratic
Party Lenin lost his majority and began organizing a rebellious group
of Bolsheviks. This was to be in opposition of the new majority of the
congress, the Menshiviks, led by Trotsky. Twenty-two Bolsheviks,
including Lenin, met in Geneva in August of 1904 to promote the idea
of the highly disciplined party and to urge the reorganization of the
whole Social-Democratic movement on Leninist lines (Stoessinger, 33).

The differences between Lenin and the Bogdanov group of
revolutionary romantics came to its peak in 1909. Lenin denounced
the otzovists, also known as the recallists, who wanted to recall the
Bolshevik deputies in the Duma, and the ultimatists who demanded that
the deputies take a more radical stand -- both for their philosophical
vagaries which he rejected as idealism, and for the utopian purism of
their refusal to take tactical advantage of the Duma. The real issue
was Lenin's control of the faction and the enforcement of his brand of
Marxist orthodoxy. Lenin demonstrated his grip of the Bolshevik
faction at a meeting in Paris of the editors of the Bolsheviks'
factional paper, which had become the headquarters of the faction.
Bogdanov and his followers were expelled from the Bolshevik faction,
though they remained within the Social-Democratic fold (Wren, 95).

On March 8 of 1917 a severe food shortage cause riots in
Petrograd. The crowds demanded food and the step down of Tsar. When
the troops were called in to disperse the crowds, they refused to fire
their weapons and joined in the rioting. The army generals reported
that it would be pointless to send in any more troops, because they
would only join in with the other rioters. The frustrated tsar
responded by stepping down from power, ending the 300-year-old Romanov
dynasty (Farah, 580).

With the tsar out of power, a new provisional government took
over made up of middle-class Duma representatives. Also rising to
power was a rival government called the Petrograd Soviet of Workers'
and Soldiers' Deputies consisting of workers and peasants of socialist
and revolutionary groups. Other soviets formed in towns and villages
all across the country. All of the soviets worked to push a
three-point program which called for an immediate peas, the transfer
of land to peasants, and control of factories to workers. But the
provisional government stood in conflict with the other smaller
governments and the hardships of war hit the country. The provisional
government was so busy fighting the war that they neglected the social
problems it faced, losing much needed support (Farah, 580).

The Bolsheviks in Russia were confused and divided about how to
regard the Provisional Government, but most of them, including Stalin,
were inclined to accept it for the time being on condition that it
work for an end to the war. When Lenin reached Russia in April after
his famous "sealed car" trip across Germany, he quickly denounced his
Bolshevik colleagues for failing to take a sufficiently revolutionary
stand (Daniels, 88).

In August of 1917, while Lenin was in hiding and the party had
been basically outlawed by the Provisional Government, the Bolsheviks
Continues for 7 more pages >>




  • 1984
    1984 George Orwell was not only a writer, but also an important political reformer. Orwell was born in India in 1903. He considered his family a "lower-middle class" family. He said this because his family was a part of the middle class, but had little money. His father worked for the British government and was able to be apart of the middle class without money. Orwell lived in Britain and went to boarding school there on scholarships. He was the poorest student among many wealthy children. Orwe
  • Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein Albert Einstein Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this man\'s work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Yes, many have heard of Albert Einstein\'s General Theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called, "The greatest single achievement
  • Florence Kelley
    Florence Kelley Introduction Florence Kelley was born in Philadelphia in 1859 into a cultured and affluent family. Her family was actively devoted to social reform. Her father, Congressman William (Pig Iron) Kelley, fought passionately to persuade government to uphold the rights of the poor and weak. He strongly believed that every child in America, whether born rich or poor should be afforded the same opportunities and chances in life. Florence was conditioned from a very early age to despise t
  • Founder of the Black Panther Party Huey P Newton A
    Founder of the Black Panther Party Huey P Newton A Forgotten Legacy In the late 1960\'s and early \'70\'s posters of the Black Panther Party\'s co-founder, Huey P. Newton were plastered on walls of college dorm rooms across the country. Wearing a black beret and a leather jacket, sitting on a wicker chair, a spear in one hand and a rifle in the other, the poster depicted Huey Newton as a symbol of his generation\'s anger and courage in the face of racism and classism. He is the man whose intelle
  • History of labor in america
    history of labor in america The Industrial Revolution was dawning in the United States. At Lowell, Massachusetts, the construction of a big cotton mill began in 1821. It was the first of several that would be built there in the next 10 years. The machinery to spin and weave cotton into cloth would be driven by water power. All that the factory owners needed was a dependable supply of labor to tend the machines. As most jobs in cotton factories required neither great strength nor special skills,
  • Huey P Newton and The Black Panther Party
    Huey P Newton and The Black Panther Party During the late 1960\'s and early \'70\'s posters of the Black Panther Party\'s co-founder, Huey P. Newton were plastered on walls of college dorm rooms across the country. Wearing a black beret and a leather jacket, sitting on a wicker chair, a spear in one hand and a rifle in the other, the poster depicted Huey Newton as a symbol of his generation\'s anger and courage in the face of racism and imperialism (Albert and Hoffman 4, 45). His intellectual ca
  • Populist Party
    Populist Party The Populist Party, a third political party that originated in America in the latter part of the nineteenth century, derived as a result of farmer discontent and economic distress. This was caused by the country\'s shift from an agricultural American life to one in which industrialists dominated the nation\'s development. The public felt as if they were being cheated by these "robber barons," a term given to those who took advantage of the middle and lower classes by "boldly steal
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • The jungle
    the jungle The Jungle is one of the most famous American novels ever written. Most people associate The Jungle with the federal legislation it provoked. Americans were horrified to learn about the terrible sanitation under which their meat products were packed. They were even more horrified to learn that the labels listing the ingredients in tinned meat products were full of lies. The revelation that rotten and diseased meat was sold without a single consideration for public health infuriated Am
  • Unionism
    unionism Michael Paul 099 66 3949 History 316z Trade unionism, industrial unionism, and socialism were the main forms of organized labor in the late nineteenth century early twentieth century, yet rarely did these shifting currents flow in complementary ways that might appeal to the vast majority of struggling workers. The three most important formal organizations were the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the Socialist Party of America. All three
  • Upton Sinclair
    Upton Sinclair READ ALL ABOUT IT... UPTON SINCLAIR!! “My cause is the Cause of a man who has never yet been defeated, and whose whole being is one all devouring, God-given holy purpose”, declared Upton Beall Sinclair. This man is not only an American novelist, essayist, journalist, but also deeply involved in politics. He has accomplished so many things throughout his life span, it is tough to compare him to anyone else. Until Sinclair was in his later life, he was an unknown failure to many, bu
  • None Provided
    None Provided Chapter 1(pgs.15-24) In first chapter, the reader is introduced to all of his wonderful animals. Obviously most of the chapter is intended to spark pity and a sense of sympathy for the poor, suffering farm animals, but the old Major\'s words are very telling. The "wise" old pig addresses the central conflict of the book, and of Orwell\'s intended meaning-- tyranny. The first (and seemingly only) dictatorship the animals must overcome is the rule of Mr. Jones and the other humans. T
  • China
    China China is a Communist Republic government. This means that the government regulates, sets rules, and runs most business in China. However, the increase in a worldwide economy around the middle of the 20th century caused China to evaluate their government and decide that something must be done to stimulate the Chinese economy and bring entrepreneurs to China otherwise they will be left behind in the forever-growing global economy. In fact, China has changing a lot from the past 30 years, and
  • The shackles of socialist realism
    the shackles of socialist realism The civil strife and chaos that had torn Russia limb from limb in the early 20th Century, although brutally devastating, did not hail the end of the stability and power that had characterized the massive country for so much of history. The continuing strength of what was now the Soviet Union lay in the newly formed support structure provided by Socialist Realism, a force that directed the awareness of, and the arts produced by, the Soviet people. The ideals of S
  • 1984
    1984 1984 by George Orwell Outline Thesis Statement- This paper will examine how George Orwell wrote 1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism. I Introduction II Summary of 1984 III Roles of major Charters A. Big Brother B. Winston C. O\'Brien D. Julia E. Shop owner IV Propaganda A. Ministry of Truth B. Ministry of Love V Orwell\'s thoughts on Totalitarianism A. From life experiences B. From a writers point of view VI Conclusion Introduction "Orwell observed that every line of seriou
  • Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein Albert Einstein Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this mans work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Yes, many have heard of Albert Einsteins General Theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called, "The greatest single achievement o
  • Albert Einstein1
    Albert Einstein1 Einstein Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this man’s work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Yes, many have heard of Albert Einstein’s General Theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called, "The greatest single achievement of huma
  • Jack London
    Jack London INTRODUCTION Jack London (1876-1916) was easily the most successful and best-known writer in America in the first decade of the 20th century. He is best known for his books, The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and The Sea-Wolf, and a few short stories, such as "To Build a Fire" and "The White Silence." He was a productive writer whose fiction traveled through three lands and their cultures such as the Yukon, California, and the South Pacific. His most famous writings included war, boxi
  • Jack London1
    Jack London1 One is led to believe that if a person is an author, then that person would have the best education that is available to them. However, this is not the case for Jack London. He dropped out of school at the age of fourteen and explored San Francisco, stole oysters, worked for the government, went to Japan, and traveled around the United States by hitching rides on freight trains. This is just a list of the few things he did during the five-year period while he did not attend school.
  • Kim il sung
    kim il sung KIM IL SUNG AN AUTOCRATIC LEADER Kim Il Sung was the pseudonym for Kim Song Ju. He was born on April 15, 1912, at Mangyongdae, Pyongyang, to a poor peasant family. He and his family emigrated to Manchuria in the 1920\'s like many Korean families did at the time. His family was a most patriotic and revolutionary one, and fought for many generations, from the beginning of the modern revolutionary movement of the Korean people for the independence of the country. He grew up receiving hi
  • 1984 A Bleak Prediction of the Future
    1984 A Bleak Prediction of the Future Nineteen Eighty-Four was written by a major contributor to anticommunist literature around the World War II period, and is one of the greatest stories of an anti-utopian society ever. Nineteen Eighty-Four was not written solely as an entertaining piece of literature or as a dream of what the future could be like, it was written as a warning of what could happen as a result of communism and totalitarianism. This was not necessarily a widely popular vision of
  • 1984 and a brave new world misc 12 00
    1984 and a brave new world misc 12 00 The Importance of 1984 1984 was a very important book. First, it helped show where communism was headed, and helped create repulsion towards Communism. Before this book (and Animal Farm) a lot of people thought Communism was a good thing. The major mainstream generally neutral about it, but this book really opened up and showed what a bad idea it was, because it showed where communism was headed, not a place where everyone was equal, but a place that was onc
  • 1984 fact or fiction misc 12 00
    1984 fact or fiction misc 12 00 Since the onset of the United States, Americans have always viewed the future in two ways; one, as the perfect society with a perfect government, or two, as a communistic hell where free will no longer exists and no one is happy. The novel 1984 by George Orwell is a combination of both theories. On the "bad" side, a communist state exists which is enforced with surveillance technology and loyal patriots. On the "good" side, however, everyone in the society who was
  • 1984 vs Animal Farm
    1984 vs Animal Farm 1984 vs. Animal Farm 1984, by George Orwell, is a very powerful drama which involves man and totalitarian society. It is a story of a lonely rebel whose only valuable is his mind and who later conspires with another in an attempt to separate from their increasingly dominant hate-infested society. In 1984, Orwell depicts the susceptibility of today\'s society and its possibility of becoming a realm of lies. In it, the masses live in constant fear, being monitored at all times.
  • 19842
    19842 1.) List the title and author of the work you read? 1984 written by George Orwell which is a pen name for Eric Blair, his real name. 2.) Briefly describe the plot (action) of the work. What happens? 1984 a story of dictators who are in complete control of a large part of the world after the allies lost in World War II. The government in this novel gives no freedoms to its citizens. They live in fear because they are afraid of having corrupt thoughts about the governments of Oceania, a crim
  • All Quiet On the Western Front Report
    All Quiet On the Western Front Report BARRON\'S BOOK NOTES ERICH MARIA REMARQUE\'S ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT ^^^^^^^^^^ERICH MARIA REMARQUE: THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Born Erich Paul Remark on June 22, 1898, he grew up in a Roman Catholic family in Osnabruck in the province of Westphalia, Germany--a city in the northwest part of what is now West Germany. He adored his mother, Anna Maria, but was never close to his father, Peter. The First World War effectively shut him off from his sisters,
  • Jungle
    jungle The Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair in 1905, the author supports Socialism over Capitalism and used the struggle to keep the house in order to portray the evils of Capitalism on the family and the society in General. The struggle to buy the house and to try keeping it is a symbol of unity in the family represented by the house, which they battle against Capitalism to try to keep it. It takes virtually all their money to get the house, and it will take almost all to keep it. Jurgis worke
  • Sensational 1984
    Sensational 1984 George Orwell’s View Of Totalitarianism Through The Novel 1984 James Hawkins 1 “Few novels written in this generation have obtained a popularity as great as that of George Orwell’s 1984.” George Orwell’s popular and powerful novel was not just a figment of his imagination, it was spawned from many experiences from childhood to early adulthood, as well as from events circa World War II. At age eight, he was shipped off to boarding school where he was the only scholarship student
  • The Communist Manifesto
    The Communist Manifesto The Communist Manifesto By Karl Marx Also words By Friedrich Engles and A JP Taylor Volumes and volumes could be written about communism, but in fact, the actual Communist Manifesto is a mere forty pages. Karl Marx, the principal former of communism as we know it now, later wrote many books fulfilling the outline or skeleton of communism, which is the Communist Manifesto. Communism cannot be summed up in one sentence, but it can be summed up in ten main ideas, sort of lik
  • The Jungle
    The Jungle In Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle not only symbolized an era where dirt and filth ran rampant in meat packing industry, but it also exposed people to the natural human desire of greed, power, and corruptions. This in turn was a socialist transformation itself. Sinclair also provides the meaning to the phrase “wage slavery” in different ways. In the novel Sinclair tells a story about a man name Jurgis, a Lithuanian immigrant who gets married to young lady named Ona Lukoszaite, who’s
  • The Jungle2
    The Jungle2 In the Book The Jungle by Upton Sinclair the extreme horrors of the meat packing industry in the 1900’s were exposed to all. He vividly displayed the hardships that new immigrants had faced upon their arrival to this great nation. Also I found that this book was a huge promoter of socialism, and it was believed that this method of economy would be the end of poverty in America. The book goes through the life a Lithuanian family that just moved to America in pursuit of wealth and pros
  • The Jungle3
    The Jungle3 The Jungle By Upton Sinclair "The Jungle" portrays the lower ranks of the industrial world as the scene of a naked struggle for survival. Where workers not only are forced to compete with each other but, if they falter, are hard pressed to keep starvation from their door and a roof over their heads. With unions weak and cheap labor plentiful, a social Darwinist state of "the survival of the fittest" exists. The real story revolves around the integration and eventual disintegration of
  • The Junglea review
    The Junglea review As I opened the cover of The Jungle, I anticipated reading a tragic story about the cruelness inflicted upon a poor, working-class family. I had read an excerpt from the novel and had conversed with people who had read it; I thought the story was going to be solid, and perhaps even entertaining. I was incredibly wrong. The beginning of the story started out slow, as it was just another American Dream type story. Jurgis and family came to the States seeking a better life and
  • Upton Sinclairs The Jungle
    Upton Sinclairs The Jungle The Jungle by Upton Sinclair Upton Sinclair\'s The Jungle is the tale of a Lithuanian immigrant, Jurgis Rudkus, and his family. Jurgis and his family move to the United States in the middle of the Industrial Revolution, only to find themselves ill-equipped for the transition in the workplace and in society in general. Jurgis faces countless social injustices, and through a series of such interactions, the theme of the book is revealed: the support of socialism over cap
  • Problems In Chinas Economy
    Problems In Chinas Economy Problems In China¡¯s Economy And Their Solutions Today, at the turn of the century, the People¡¯s Republic of China who has a history of over 5000 years is facing a very important choice. After the revolution of 1949,new China has devoted himself to improving his peoples¡¯ living condition, and developing the economy. Although we encountered some difficulties on the way of development, we still make a rapid progress in many fields, such as, we have already solve the p
  • ACTIVITYBASED COSTING BEYOND THE SMOKE AND MIRRORS
    ACTIVITYBASED COSTING BEYOND THE SMOKE AND MIRRORS ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING: BEYOND THE SMOKE AND MIRRORS Summary The business environment in the 1990s is markedly different from that of the past when conventional cost accounting procedures were established. Activity-based costing (ABC), pioneered in the late 1980s, offered a new costing approach consistent with the changed environment. However, ABC did not diffuse rapidly into the business community. This article demonstrates why adopting ABC is
  • Entrepreneurship
    Entrepreneurship \'A Balanced Economic State\' Two main economic systems have been developed since the Industrial Revolution, these are Capitalism and Socialism. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages, this essay will explain these, and also give my proposals for a mixed system for the whole society of the United Kingdom. Capitalism Capitalism generally started as an economic system in the United Kingdom at the time of the Industrial Revolution. The basic explanation of Capitalism would
  • Why the Wall Street Bubble Must Burst
    Why the Wall Street Bubble Must Burst Why the Wall Street Bubble Must Burst? In 1938, and in the teeth of the longest and fiercest depression that the United States had ever known, capital spending hit an all time high. Thats right! In 1938 the men who owned America began to pour millions of Dollars into new plant and equipment as if there was no tomorrow. We dont think much about it today, because it has been a long time since the United States has experienced a real bone jolting economic slo
  • Eastern Djibouti
    Eastern Djibouti Eastern Djibouti The country of Eastern Djibouti is located in eastern sub-Saharan Africa near the countries of Ethiopia and Sudan. The government of this nation takes after that of World War II Italy in that it is a fascist dictatorship. Eastern Djibouti is led by the military’s top official, General Ryan Schutte. The economic situation in this country is bleak. Large businesses bribe the corrupt government in order to keep their share of the market. There are only two classes
  • Introspective Look Into
    Introspective Look Into Written on the wings of a long lost trip.. April 19, 1999 A gross and sickening introspective look into the mind of a truly demented person.. You better believe.. C\'mon mothers, set your children free. Let them run with us, in the forests and the streams. Let them dwell amongst us, may we all get along? I remember what happened last time your children freed themselves, all hell broke loose. That won\'t happen again though, we promise. Sign the permission slip and let the
  • China a High Performing Economy
    China a High Performing Economy __________________________________________________________________________________________ China: A High Performing economy Boston University __________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present China as a nation that has gone through several economic phases until it reach a point that has made several consider this country as a promising future power in the region. While Japan
  • Chinas Growing Economy
    Chinas Growing Economy After North America, Europe, and Japan, the area of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong "is a fourth growth pole in the world economy" (Jue 108) which in 1994 was expected to double in size by 2002. Today, the growth rate is still on track to fulfill that prediction. Recent Chinese economic policies have shot the country into the world economy at full speed. As testimony of this, China’s gross domestic product has risen to seventh in the world, and its economy is growing at over
  • CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM
    CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese Economic Refrom
    Chinese Economic Refrom Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese reform
    chinese reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced
  • Fall of russian communism
    fall of russian communism The Reasons for the fall of Socialism/Communism and the Troubles of Starting the New Democratic System in the Russian Federation "Let\'s not talk about Communism. Communism was just an idea, just pie in the sky." Boris Yeltsin (b. 1931), Russian politician, president. Remark during a visit to the U.S. Quoted in: Independent (London, 13 Sept. 1989). The fall of the Communist regime in the Soviet Union was more than a political event. The powerful bond between economics a
  • Historical Transformation of Class
    Historical Transformation of Class Historical materialism is the Marxist approach for interpreting history. It is the interpretation of relations between groups of people and the resulting class struggles. According to Marxist theory, there exists a sequence of historical stages each with its own ruling class. Under feudalism the ruling class is the nobility, whereas the capitalists are predominant in capitalism, and socialism has its proletariats. An understanding of historical materialism is o
  • IndiaA Political outlook
    IndiaA Political outlook Jason D\'Aleo 5/1/00 Eco 330Z Eco 330Z India- A Political Aspect Politics play a crucial role in the origin and growth and even decay of cities in India. It also plays a great role in general urban development, decay and renewal. In most cases these policies are sponsored by the government, therefor, they obviously play a key role in the development of cities. In the following paragraphs I will describe different political aspects of the growth of an Indian city and how
  • Ludvig Von Mises
    Ludvig Von Mises Ludwig von Mises: Defender of the Free Market Ludwig von Misis thoughts on human behavior, socialism, and money and credit have had a major impact on economic thought. He championed true free markets and is seen as a defender of liberty. Former President of the United States Ronald Reagan said “Ludwig von Mises was one of the greatest economic thinkers in the history of Western Civilization. Through his seminal works, he rekindled the flames of liberty. As a wise and kindly ment
  • Paul a samuelson
    paul a samuelson BIG ECONOMIC ISSUES Samuelson has offered the world many economic theories. One area he is widely known for is his views on the spending multiplier. Samuelson has presented a way through his aggregate demand model to demonstrate how the spending multiplier affects individual types of spending. There are several components of aggregate demand. The basis for understanding this model is as follows: Ø An increase in prices causes a drop in household assets, thus causing consumers to