The social revolution as advocated by Carlos Fuent Essay

This essay has a total of 1596 words and 6 pages.

The social revolution as advocated by Carlos Fuentes in "tThe Death of

The significance of the Mexican revolution lies not in the repercussions this insurrection
exerted on the international level, but rather in the way it served as a precursor to the
direction the 20th century would follow. For while Mexico had gained significance
internationally by being a leading exporter of raw material under Porfioro Diaz, it was
not the only Latin American, or Luso-American country to follow this route. One must also
bear in mind that the materials being exported out of Mexico were not exclusive to the
region. Even within it's geographic hemisphere, the Mexican revolution did not lead to the
massive changes that the American Revolution had caused. Yet that is not to say that the
Mexican revolution is not a significant event, for it established the rebellious pattern
the 20th century would take. Disparities in classification of the revolution arise from
the numerous factions and ideological assumptions advocated for the overthrow of Diaz's
rule, hence one can argue that it was a political, social, or economical revolution.
Carlos Fuentes argued in his book, The Death of Artemio Cruz, that the form Mexico's
revolution can best be described as social.

A social revolution advocates a complete transformation of all characteristic aspects of
society, encompassing the political structure, economically distribution, and social
hierarchy. Disparities over the definition of this revolution results from the
interdependent relationship social status has with the economic and political realm. For a
higher social status correlates with a higher economic foundation, and political power,
creating a model of tri-dependency in which each of the three is reliant upon the other.
Hence in evaluation of the social revolution one must examine the changes exerted in all
three of these categories, where with a political and economic revolution the realm of
implacability falls exclusively within their own grouping.

The social structure during the waning era of Porfirio Diaz's reign can best be described
as a highly rigid hierarchical establishment, with the elite being reluctant to cede power
in any sense to the growing middle class, which consequentially lead to a complete
alienation of the lower classes and a growing anti-Diaz sentiment. For the reasoning
behind this reluctance to embrace the new intelligentsia and middle class one must
understand the methods implored by the established elite in their own rise to power were
not docile. During the conversation between Ludivinia Menchacha and her son Pederito,
owners of the Hacienda Artemio Cruz grew up on, the methods of Diaz's followers were
mentioned, "Have you come to tell me that there is no more land or greatness for us, that
others have taken advantage of us as we took advantage of the original owners.1" She
continues with, "That the enemies we had shot so we could be the masters, or the ones
whose tongues were cut out or hands were cut off on your father's orders so that he could
continue to be the master…were victorious one day and set our house on fire and took
away what wasn't ours, what we had by force not by right?2" What the author was alluding
to was the vicious cycle of the new elite plundering the established elites economic base.
Santa Ana's followers were given unlawful land grants for their service to him, and Diaz
allowed his followers to continue this tradition and confiscated all of Santa Ana's
loyalist's wealth. Hence one can see that the apprehension to share power with emerging
middle class was based on valid concerns. This emerging new elite class, one that is
characterized by Artemio Cruz, did continue this plundering cycle after overthrowing the
old regime. The meeting between Don Gamaliel and Artemio demonstrates this tendency, for
while Artemio is an archetype for the emerging elite class, Don Gamaliel embodies the old
hacienda owners. "Artemio Cruz. So that was the name of the new world rising out of the
civil war; that was the name of those who had come to take his place. Unfortunate land
that has to destroy its old possessors with each new generation and put in their place new
owners just as rapacious and ambitious as the old ones.3" This theme is brought up again
in the conversation between Cruz and Gozonal Bernal who stated, "The educated ones only
want a half revolution…to live well, to take the place of Don Porfirio's elite.4" While
the concept of redefining the establishment of the elite in Mexico harks in the realm of
social implacability, it can be considered political because of the role the elite class
has in creating legislative policies, and for the revolution's call for a new political
institution.

By establishing Artemio Cruz as an archetype for the new elite that emerged, Carols
Fuentes made another indication to what the nature revolution was. For the social roots of
Artemio was that of the peasant class, and his rise to power was dependent upon the
changing of that structure, or more specifically the enabling of the lower class to
exercise social mobility through the restructuralization of the previous social hierarchy
by delegating the previously exalted individuals to a lower stature. This notion of new
sociological boundaries was touched upon in Bernal's pensive conversation with Artemio
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