Theories of Mass Extinction Essay

This essay has a total of 609 words and 4 pages.

Theories of Mass Extinction

Scientists have found the first evidence that a devastating meteor impact in the Middle
East might have triggered the mysterious collapse of civilisations more than 4,000 years
ago.


Studies of satellite images of southern Iraq have revealed a two-mile-wide circular
depression which scientists say bears all the hallmarks of an impact crater. If confirmed,
it would point to the Middle East being struck by a meteor with the violence equivalent to
hundreds of nuclear bombs.


Today's crater lies on what would have been shallow sea 4,000 years ago, and any impact
would have caused devastating fires and flooding.


The catastrophic effect of these could explain the mystery of why so many early cultures
went into sudden decline around 2300 BC.


They include the demise of the Akkad culture of central Iraq, with its mysterious
semi-mythological emperor Sargon; the end of the fifth dynasty of Egypt's Old Kingdom,
following the building of the Great Pyramids and the sudden disappearance of hundreds of
early settlements in the Holy Land.


Until now, archaeologists have put forward a host of separate explanations for these
events, from local wars to environmental changes. Recently, some astronomers have
suggested that meteor impacts could explain such historical mysteries.


The crater's faint outline was found by Dr Sharad Master, a geologist at the University of
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, on satellite images of the Al 'Amarah region, about 10 miles
north-west of the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates and home of the Marsh Arabs.


"It was a purely accidental discovery," Dr Master told The Telegraph last week. "I was
reading a magazine article about the canal-building projects of Saddam Hussein, and there
was a photograph showing lots of formations - one of which was very, very circular."


Detailed analysis of other satellite images taken since the mid-1980s showed that for many
years the crater contained a small lake.

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