Treating anaphylaxis Essay

This essay has a total of 867 words and 5 pages.

treating anaphylaxis



TREATING ANAPHYLAXIS

In the emergency setting, anaphylaxis is a dangerous, life threatening condition that must
be treated in an aggressive and timely fashion. Anaphylaxis is a condition related to
acute allergic reactions. Following the body’s exposure to the offending allergen, there
are common systemic reactions. The most serious reactions involve the respiratory and
cardiovascular systems, but the gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and genitourinary systems
are often involved causing varied symptoms such as urticaria, flushing, angioedema,
bronchospasm, hypotension, cardiac arrythmias, nausea, intestinal cramps, pruritus, and
finally uterine cramps. (Physician Assistant, 8/94) The above list is by no means
exhaustive, specific symptoms vary from person to person. The same person suffering from
several anaphylactic reactions can also present with differing symptoms.

Physiologically speaking, the two main effects of the body’s released mediators (IgE)
during an anaphylactic reaction are smooth muscle contraction and vasodilatation, which
cause most of the body’s adverse symptoms. (JAMA, 11/26/82) Since the most life
threatening reactions usually involve the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, that is
where emergency treatment is focused. In the cardiovascular system, a combination of
vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, tachcycardia, and arrhythmias can lead to
severe hypotension. In the respiratory system, the swelling of tissues along with
bronchospasm and increased mucus production are the main cause of death. So, if untreated,
anaphylaxis can be fatal as a result of the body’s going into what is essentially shock,
while simultaneously (and more importantly) being deprived of the oxygen needed to sustain
life.

As of today there is one universally accepted treatment for acute anaphylaxis.
Epinephrine. Epinephrine is both an alpha and a beta agonist. This makes it the drug
optimally suited to treat anaphylaxis. "Epinephrine will increase vascular resistance,
reduce vascular permeability, produce bronchodilation and increase cardiac output."
(Emergency, 10/93)

Epinephrine will directly counteract the potentially life threatening aspects of
anaphylaxis. Epinephrine can , and is, used in the both the pre-hospital environment as
well as in definitive care institutions. Epinephrine is widely administered by ALS
providers the world over. The drug is so effective that and relatively simple to use that
"…subcutaneous administration of epinephrine by EMT-B’s trained in recognition … of
anaphylaxis… is safe." (Annals of Emergency Medicine, 6/95)

Following the administration of epinephrine, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine,
hydroxyzine, and promethazine can be administered. These agents block the harmful effects
of histamine, a mediator associated with allergic reactions, and while not displacing
Continues for 3 more pages >>




  • Abortion
    abortion Click Here to Visit our Sponsor Abortion Life or Death ÄÄÄ Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, sta
  • FIREFIGHTING
    FIREFIGHTING Firefighters put their life in danger every single day to help and save the public. Firefighters must be prepared for the endangers they encounter and be able to respond immediately to a fire or any other emergencies that arises. Because fighting fires is so complex, it requires organization and teamwork. At every emergency scene, firefighters perform specific duties assigned by a superior officer. At fires they connect hose lines to hydrants, operate a pump to high pressure hoses,
  • Safty and health
    safty and health This Paper is copyright COSHE\'s Reports on the Net @ www.coshe.com Title : 14 ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL SAFETY & HEALTH PROGRA Description : 14 ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL SAFETY & HEALTH PROGRAM Element 1: Hazard Recognition, Evaluation and Control. Establishing and maintaining safe and healthful conditions required indenifing h Body of Essay : 14 ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL SAFETY & HEALTH PROGRAM Element 1: Hazard Recognition, Evaluation and Control. Establishing and maintaining sa
  • Privacy and Information Technology
    Privacy and Information Technology Geoffrey Graves MG3700 Mid Term Exam 4/24/2000 Part I 1.) In order to produce an upwards swing in revenue, Toy World must track its customer’s buying trends with more accuracy and more detail. The Point of Sale system that they are currently working from can be improved and made to reduce after-market inventory. Trend data can be used for a wide variety of purposes. One of the first problems is the store design and layout of items. Sale items and hot merchandis
  • Executive Orders
    Executive Orders Orders Issued by President Bill Clinton What are Executive Orders? Executive Orders are official documents, Executive numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government. Some Executive Orders in the past have created new commissions, councils, task forces and committees; issued and allocated bonds; authorized permit issuance; etc. 40 Executive Orders issued by President Clinton Date Document Titles 1. 2000-12
  • England 17th
    england 17th Abortion Debate - Pro-Life Stance In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for hu
  • George Washmgton
    George Washmgton GEORGE WASHINGTON Biography George Washington was born on Feb. 22, 1732 (Feb. 11, 1731/2, old style) in Westmoreland County, Va. While in his teens, he trained as a surveyor, and at the age of 20 he was appointed adjutant in the Virginia militia. For the next three years, he fought in the wars against the French and Indians, serving as Gen. Edward Braddock\'s aide in the disastrous campaign against Fort Duquesne. In 1759, he resigned from the militia, married Martha Dandridge Cu
  • Abortion misc16
    Abortion misc16 n Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for human life was to be from the mome
  • Alternative Families A look at the samesex nest
    Alternative Families A look at the samesex nest Abstract This paper will introduce the "neonuclear" family, homosexual couples with children and attempt to present a brief overview of the unit. First the nature/nurture theories will be presented to explain the origins of sexuality; then discussing the formation of gay and lesbian families including the reasoning for legalization of marriage and the introduction of children to these lifestyles; including scaffolding and barriers to achieving stab
  • AntiChoice RTLProchoice
    AntiChoice RTLProchoice Human life begins at conception. Therefore, abortion is murder of a person. Personhood at conception is a religious belief, not a provable biological fact. Mormon and some Fundamentalist churches believe in personhood at conception; Judaism holds that it begins at birth and abortion is not murder; ensoulment theories vary widely within Protestantism. The religious community will never reach consensus on the definition of a "person" or when abortion is morally justified. U
  • Isnt fair to women
    Isnt fair to women Isn’t Fair to Women Ever since the Taliban became a military and political force in late 1994, women and girls in Afghanistan have become practically invisible in Taliban controlled parts of the country. Who are these men of the Taliban? Members of the Taliban claims that they are students of Islam, and all they wanted to do is to bring Afghanistan under Islamic rule. (The Taliban Story) The impact of these rules are most felt in the cities where women had enjoyed somewhat gre
  • Sex marriage
    sex marriage Same-sex marriage There are many important issues discussed in public policy today. One of these issues is homosexual marriage. This is an important issue because it deals with a relatively large minority of the United States. This issue is put into many different lights. Those of morals, family values and religion; and those of equality, constitutionality, and right to privacy. The aspect with the most relevance is constantly left up to debate. Homosexuals are \'gay\' due to a comb
  • Adrienne Rich
    Adrienne Rich "What I know, I know through making poems" Passion, Politics and the Body in the Poetry of Adrienne Rich Liz Yorke, Nottingham Trent University, England This paper is largely extracted from my book Adrienne Rich, which is to be published by Sage in October this year...What I have tried to do for the paper is to track one thread explored by the book, which I feel runs through the whole span of Rich\'s thought, a thread which links desire, passion, and the body - to politics, to acti
  • NIOSH
    NIOSH NIOSH and It’s Direction and Programs The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety an Health Administration (OSHA) were established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act passed by congress in 1970. NIOSH is a part of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and is the only federally funded and controlled division responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work related illnesses and injuries. It is im
  • The unitsed ates Fie fighter today
    The unitsed ates Fie fighter today THE UNITED STATES FIREFIGHTER TODAY By Paul Newhook Firefighting is one of the world’s most honored but hazardous occupations. It is the duty of every fire department to practice life safety, incident stabilization, and property conservation. Whenever and wherever an emergency arises, the fire department is one of the first called and to respond. In today’s fire service the fire department has an expanded roll that involves more than just fires. The emergencies
  • Abortion5
    Abortion5 Abortion In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for human life was to be from the
  • Abortion5
    Abortion5 Abortion In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for human life was to be from the
  • Life or Death Abortion
    Life or Death Abortion Abortion Life or Death: Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost r
  • Samesex Marriage
    Samesex Marriage Same-sex marriage There are many important issues discussed in public policy today. One of these issues is homosexual marriage. This is an important issue because it deals with a relatively large minority of the United States. This issue is put into many different lights. Those of morals, family values and religion; and those of equality, constitutionality, and right to privacy. The aspect with the most relevance is constantly left up to debate. Homosexuals are \'gay\' due to a
  • Samesex Marriage
    Samesex Marriage Same-sex marriage There are many important issues discussed in public policy today. One of these issues is homosexual marriage. This is an important issue because it deals with a relatively large minority of the United States. This issue is put into many different lights. Those of morals, family values and religion; and those of equality, constitutionality, and right to privacy. The aspect with the most relevance is constantly left up to debate. Homosexuals are \'gay\' due to a
  • Sex marriage
    sex marriage Same-sex marriage There are many important issues discussed in public policy today. One of these issues is homosexual marriage. This is an important issue because it deals with a relatively large minority of the United States. This issue is put into many different lights. Those of morals, family values and religion; and those of equality, constitutionality, and right to privacy. The aspect with the most relevance is constantly left up to debate. Homosexuals are \'gay\' due to a comb
  • Bystander Apathy
    Bystander Apathy As you wait to cross the street, a blind man is standing in front of you. Without warning, he begins to cross the street even though the light has not changed in his favor. He seems to be in no danger until you see a car about a half mile away speeding towards him. Totally unaware of the situation, the man continues walking across the street. As you and many others watch in horror he is struck by the car. Although every single one of you had plenty of time to rescue him, you jus
  • The Effect of Employee Assistance Programs
    EAP The Effect of Employee Assistance Programs At the Workplace Throughout the business world, one of the largest problems individual businesses face is the use of illegal drugs and alcohol. These substances greatly affect the business and workplace environments for many individuals. Employee assistance programs were created to help deal with augmenting substance abuse problems. Employee assistance programs enable a companies and its workers to detect if a co-worker is having problems and aids
  • REDUCTION OF POLICE CAUSED FATALITIES
    REDUCTION OF POLICE CAUSED FATALITIES REDUCTION OF POLICE CAUSED FATALITIES 1. BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF NEED · CURRENT CONDITION: Confrontations between private citizens with mental health issues and police officers have increased in recent years. Several of these situations have resulted in the deaths of mentally ill persons at the hands of police officers. The Governor has requested a long-range plan to drastically reduce these incidences. · CAUSES OF CURRENT CONDITION: Government reductio
  • Virtual Reality The Future of Tomorrow
    Virtual Reality The Future of Tomorrow Virtual Reality: The Future of Tomorrow Although some doubt the potential of virtual reality, the reality is our technologically dependent culture is making virtual reality a part of everyday life. Popular in video games, virtual reality allows the user to totally control a computerized character. Every action the user makes is imitated by the character and instantly displayed for the user. However, since the early 90s, the use of virtual reality has deve
  • In Favor of a More Liberal Drug Policy
    In Favor of a More Liberal Drug Policy In William J. Bennetts address entitled Drug Policy and the Intellectuals, Bennett maintains that the drug problem in America can be ultimately solved. In my opinion, the drug problem in America is one that cannot be completely resolved to the point where drug use no longer exists in America, but drug abuse can be alleviated. One effective way to do this would be to legalize the personal use of drugs that are more common and less potent (like marijuana)
  • Macroeconomics
    Macroeconomics 1. IS-LM Basics A) The IS curve slopes downward and to the right. B) The LM curve slopes upward and to the right. C) The slope of the LM curve depends on the interest sensitivity of money demand. An elastic money demand function caused the LM curve to be relatively flat. An inelastic money demand function caused the LM curve to be steep. D) The slope of the IS curve depends on the slope of the investment function. If investment is highly interest elastic, then the IS curve is rel
  • Hurricane Iniki
    Hurricane Iniki Hurricane Iniki Kauia County, Hawaii consists of the islands of Kauia and Niihau. Kauia is a 555-square-mile island with a population of about 57,000 people. Lihue, the largest city on Kauia, is home to an estimated 12,000 people. Kauia is one of the wettest spots on Earth with an annual rainfall averaging 400 inches. It has seven microclimates including desert-like conditions on the west to tropical rain forests in the interior. Many species of endangered or threatened birds re
  • Presidentail Executive Orders
    Presidentail Executive Orders Executive Orders Issued by President Bill Clinton What are Executive Orders? Executive Orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government. Some Executive Orders in the past have created new commissions, councils, task forces and committees; issued and allocated bonds; authorized permit issuance; etc. 40 Executive Orders issued by President Clinton Date Document Tit
  • Quebec
    Quebec Quebec Canada is one of the most unique and diversified countries in the world. It consists of ten provinces and two territories. All parts of Canada are interesting and contain important details to them, however, Quebec\'s political situation is the most controvercial of all. In all other parts of Canada, the main spoken language is english and it creates no problem amongst its settlers in each province. In Quebec, the situation differs. There is twenty four percent of a french populati
  • Downsyndrome
    Downsyndrome Down Syndrome People with Down syndrome are first and foremost human beings who have recognizable physical characteristics due to the presence of an extra chromosome 21. The estimated incidence of Down syndrome is between 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births. Each year approximately 3,000 to 5,000 children are born with this chromosome disorder. It is believed there are about 250,000 families in the United States who are affected by Down syndrome. Children with Down syndrome are us
  • The Problems with HMOs
    The Problems with HMOs Sarah Cay Bradley English 320 May 20, 1999 The Problems With HMOs It was no surprise when I interviewed my English class about HMOs, that out of 13 students, seven currently having HMO coverage, 77% felt HMO healthcare inferior to traditional insurance. This group closely represents the U.S. population, as HMOs have become practically synonymous with health care and the idea that Americans are no longer receiving the quality care they received from unmanaged plans. Manage
  • HMO Regulation
    HMO Regulation Mark Miller ENG 101 December 2, 2000 HMO Regulation Health Maintenance Organizations, or HMOs, are a very important part of the American health care system. They involve elements such as beneficial health care programs like Medicare for seniors and Medicaid for the poor. HMOs are sometimes referred to as managed care programs, which involves participation through clinics, physicians and insurance companies. Other essential parts of HMOs include prescription drug plans, such as
  • Show Circuit Drozen Dog Dinner
    Show Circuit Drozen Dog Dinner Situation Analysis Background Tyler Pet Foods currently sells a frozen dog food product in a few stores in the southwestern U.S. This dog food is considerably better quality than the major companies’ offerings. Because it was created as a food for dog breeders, it is made to very high standards. The food is made from uncooked meat and is frozen to preserve freshness. The product is successful in its current market because of the demanding nature of its customers d
  • Nursing Changing the improper use of patient restr
    Nursing Changing the improper use of patient restraints Patient Restraint 1 Running head: PATIENT RESTRAINT PROTOCOLS Patient Restraint Protocols Patient Restraint 2 Patient restraints have been a hot issue within the past ten to fifteen years in nursing. There have been numerous studies done on the adverse affects restraints have on patients, physiologically and psychologically. Anger, fear, impaired mobility, bladder and bowel incontinence, eating difficulty, skin breakdown, and nosocomial in
  • “Karl Mannheim's conception of self-rationalizatio
    bb “Karl Mannheim\'s conception of self-rationalization is useful in understanding what is one of the central social psychological processes of organizational life. In a world where appearances - in the broadest sense - mean everything, the wise and ambitious person learns to cultivate assiduously the proper, prescribed modes of appearing. He dispassionately takes stock of himself, treating himself as an object. He analyses his strengths and weaknesses, and decides what he needs to change in or
  • “Karl Mannheim's conception of self-rationalizatio
    bb “Karl Mannheim\'s conception of self-rationalization is useful in understanding what is one of the central social psychological processes of organizational life. In a world where appearances - in the broadest sense - mean everything, the wise and ambitious person learns to cultivate assiduously the proper, prescribed modes of appearing. He dispassionately takes stock of himself, treating himself as an object. He analyses his strengths and weaknesses, and decides what he needs to change in or
  • Flaw
    flaw Karl Mannheim\'s conception of self-rationalization is useful in understanding what is one of the central social psychological processes of organizational life. In a world where appearances - in the broadest sense - mean everything, the wise and ambitious person learns to cultivate assiduously the proper, prescribed modes of appearing. He dispassionately takes stock of himself, treating himself as an object. He analyses his strengths and weaknesses, and decides what he needs to change in
  • Sermon
    Sermon The Storms of Life: Whats He Doing? There once was a man who dreamed he was at the end of his life. He saw his life as if it were a walk along a beach with Jesus. As he looked back over his life he saw two sets of footprints in the sand along most of the way  one set belonging to him, the other to Jesus. He noticed, though, that many times along the path of his life there was only one set of footprints in the sand. He also noticed that it happened at the very lowest and saddest times i
  • AIDS
    AIDS Is the message getting through? We already know enough about AIDS to prevent its spread, but ignorance, complacency, fear and bigotry continue to stop many from taking adequate precautions. We know enough about how the infection is transmitted to protect ourselves from it without resorting to such extremes as mandatory testing, enforced quarantine or total celibacy. But too few people are heeding the AIDS message. Perhaps many simply don\'t like or want to believe what they hear, preferrin
  • Diabetes1
    Diabetes1 Insulin-dependent Diabetes is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough insulin and is, therefore, unable to convert nutrients into the energy necessary for daily activity. The disorder affects females and males approximately equally. Although the causes of insulin-dependent diabetes are not known, genetic factors seem to play a role. Symptomatology --- Normally, sugars and starches (carbohydrates) in the foods we eat are processed by digestive juices into glucose. Glucose
  • Diabetes1
    Diabetes1 Insulin-dependent Diabetes is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough insulin and is, therefore, unable to convert nutrients into the energy necessary for daily activity. The disorder affects females and males approximately equally. Although the causes of insulin-dependent diabetes are not known, genetic factors seem to play a role. Symptomatology --- Normally, sugars and starches (carbohydrates) in the foods we eat are processed by digestive juices into glucose. Glucose
  • Space Exploration
    Space Exploration SPACE EXPLORATION: FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE Ever since the beginning of time, mankind has been fascinated with wonders of space. Before the mid-1900s, all mankind could do was gaze at the stars from Earth and wonder what it would be like to go into space. Man would look through telescopes and make theories on how the universe worked. During the mid-1900s, mankind finally was able to send a man into space and explore the wonders of space first hand. So why do humans explore
  • Drug Abuse
    Drug Abuse Drug Abuse Among American Teenagers Drug abuse in America is a major problem. Especially among teenagers. Drugs have hurt the lives of nearly 40 percent of all teenagers in America. Either with health problems, DWIs, highway crashes, arrests, impaired school and job performance. These drugs that teenagers use range from Alcohol, LSD, Marijuana, and even Cigarettes. Most of the teenagers that are involved in drug abuse have either, broken families, parents that are drug abusers, a uns
  • Origins of the NHS
    Origins of the NHS Origins of the NHS The NHS began in 1948 as a result of an act of Parliament in 1946, under the guidance of Aneurin Bevan, then a Minister of the incumbent Labour Government, and in response to the Beveridge Report on The Welfare State of 1942. Most hospitals in the UK had previously been operated as non-profit making concerns. About two-thirds of them had been run by Local Authorities (the bodies also responsible for local Fire Services, Schools, Roads etc), with about one t
  • Teenage drug use
    Teenage drug use Drug Abuse Among American Teenagers Drug abuse in America is a major problem. Especially among teenagers. Drugs have hurt the lives of nearly 40 percent of all teenagers in America. Either with health problems, DWIs, highway crashes, arrests, impaired school and job performance. These drugs that teenagers use range from Alcohol, LSD, Marijuana, and even Cigarettes. Most of the teenagers that are involved in drug abuse have either, broken families, parents that are drug abusers,
  • The Tuskegee Experiment
    The Tuskegee Experiment “The Tuskegee Experiment” In 1932, in the area surrounding Tuskegee, Macon County, Alabama, the United States Public Health Service (PHS) and the Rosenwald Foundation began a survey and small treatment program for African-Americans with syphilis. Within a few months, the deepening depression, the lack of funds from the foundation, and the large number of untreated cases provied the government’s reseachers with what seemed to be an unprecedented opportunity to study a see
  • Virtual Reality1
    Virtual Reality1 Introduction Close your eyes and imagine yourself being able to jump off the Empire State Building and fly over New York City on your own personal tour. You catch a glimpse of Madison Square Garden and a breathtaking view of Broadway. Jump back a few hundred years into the medieval times and joust with a knight. One last visualizationyou are playing baseball in Busch Stadium on the same team as Mark McGuire. The crowd is wild. You soak up the glory as you realize they are chee
  • Anthrax
    anthrax Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium. The most common victims of anthrax are warm-blooded animals, but it can also infect humans. Anthrax spores can be produced in a powdery form for biological warfare. When inhaled by humans, these particles cause respiratory failure and death within a week. Because anthrax is considered to be a potential agent for use in biological warfare, the Department of Defense (DOD), in 1998, announced
  • Stress
    Stress The purpose of this paper is to define stress and how it effects the body\'s physiological systems. This paper will include the normal functions and organs involved in the following five physiological systems, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, immune and musculoskeletal. This paper will also include a description of a chronic illness associated with each physiological system and how the illness is affected by stress. Stress means different things to different people and stres