Two Brands of Nihilism Essay

This essay has a total of 1437 words and 8 pages.


Two Brands of Nihilism





Two Brands of Nihilism


As philosopher and poet Nietzsche's work is not easily conformable to the
traditional schools of thought within philosophy. However, an unmistakable
concern with the role of religion and values penetrates much of his work.
Contrary to the tradition before him, Nietzsche launches vicious diatribes
against Christianity and the dualistic philosophies he finds essentially life
denying. Despite his early tutelage under the influence of Schopenhauer's
philosophy, Nietzsche later philosophy indicates a refusal to cast existence as
embroiled in pessimism but, instead, as that which should be affirmed, even in
the face of bad fortune. This essay will study in further detail Nietzsche view
of Schopenhauer and Christianity as essentially nihilistic.

Nihilism

Throughout his work Nietzsche makes extensive use of the term “nihilism”. In
texts from the tradition prior to Nietzsche, the term connotes a necessary
connection between atheism and the subsequent disbelief in values. It was held
the atheist regarded the moral norms of society as merely conventional, without
any justification by rational argument. Furthermore, without a divine authority
prohibiting any immoral conduct, all appeals to morality by authority become
hollow. By the atheists reckoning then, all acts are permissible.

With Nietzsche's appearance on the scene, however, arrives the most potent
arguments denying the necessary link between atheism and nihilism. It will be
demonstrated that Nietzsche, in fact, will argue it is in the appeal to divine
proscriptions that the most virulent nihilism will attain.

There is a second sense of nihilism that appears as an outgrowth of the first
that Nietzsche appeals to in his critique of values. It contends that not only
does an active, pious, acknowledgment of a divinity foster nihilism, but also,
the disingenuous worship of a deity that has been replaced in the life man by
science, too, breeds a passive nihilism.

Christianity

Nietzsche conceives the first variety of nihilism, that fostered through active
worship, as pernicious due to its reinforcement of a fundamental attitude that
denies life. Throughout his life Nietzsche argued the contemporary metaphysical
basis for belief in a deity were merely negations of, or tried to deny, the
uncertainties of what is necessarily a situated human existence. Religious
doctrine is steeped in, and bounded by references to good and evil and original
sin.

The religious student is taught original sin, with the hopes the student will
faithfully deny a human nature. Good and evil are not the approbation or
prohibition against certain actions, rather, such doctrine codifies self hatred
and begs the rejection of “human nature”. Christianity goes beyond a denial of
just the flesh and blood of the body to do away with the whole of the world. In
Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche suggests in several places, that the world is
falsified when dictated by the tenets of dualistic philosophies, with emphasis
on Christianity.

How the “True World” Finally Became Fable, a section in Twilight of the Idols,
is subtitled “The History of an Error”, for it supposes to give a short
rendering of how the “true world” is lost in the histories of disfiguring
philosophies that posit otherworldly dualistic metaphysics. First, Plato's
vision of the realm of forms. “The true world - attainable for the sage, the
pious, the virtuous man…”, a feasible world, achievable through piety and wisdom.
A world a man may come to know, at least possible for the contemplative and
diligent student.In this early imagining the world is not entirely lost yet, it
is however, removed from the “concrete” world. A world hardly accessible but by
the few who might escape the cave.

The first realization of nihilism is the denial of the sensuous world for the
really real. The idea of the true world removed is then characterized as the
Christian world.“The true world - unattainable for now, but promised for the
sage, the pious, the virtuous man (‘for the sinner that repents')...(progress of
the idea: it becomes more subtle, insidious, incomprehensible - it becomes
female, it becomes Christian.)” The true world is promised, but removed and the “
apparant” world is denied for the sake of attainment of the real one. The
undermining of sensuous values attains what Nietzsche calls “ascetic ideals”,
good, evil, God, truth and the virtues that are demanded to attain in light of
these form the codes of the priests. These metaphysical codes are designed to
give the pious a transcendent idealized place to go, one that will replace the
sensuous situated world of humanity. The series of “nots” that Christianity
embraces, truth is not of the body, not of this world, not humanity, this
general negation of the world reveals to Nietzsche, Christianity's fundamental
denial of life. Ultimately, the unattainable world is the truth, God's point of
view is the view from nowhere, an unquestionable unbiased veridical apprehension
of the really real.
Continues for 4 more pages >>




  • The trial
    The trial THE TRIAL by Franz Kafka read by Geoffrey Howard This disturbing and vastly influential novel has been interpreted on many levels of structure and symbol; but most commentators agree that the book explores the themes of guilt, anxiety, and moral impotency in the face of some ambiguous force. Joseph K. is an employee in a bank, a man without particular qualities or abilities. He could be anyone, and in some ways he is everyone. His inconsequence makes doubly strange his “arrest” by the
  • The slaughter house five
    The slaughter house five THE NOVEL - THE PLOT - Billy Pilgrim, like Kurt Vonnegut, was an American soldier in Europe in the last year of World War II. If you come to know a combat veteran well- a veteran of that war, of the Korean War, or of the war in Vietnam- you will almost always find that his war experience was the single most important event in his life. The sights and scars of war remain with the soldier for the rest of his days, and his memories of death and killing help to shape whateve
  • Women
    Women Throughout the myriad of cultures on our planet, we find different and sometimes opposing beliefs defining the values of an ideal citizen. Among these beliefs it is difficult to isolate a single set and deem them to be superior to another. The reason for this is that they vary based on cultural tradition, religious beliefs and even the technological advancement of that particular society. Although it is more evident with multicultural belief differences, we find large contrasts within the
  • Heart
    Heart Every man, or woman --to be politically and socially acceptable-- has buried, within himself, beneath centuries of societal norms and restrictions, a dark side, a savage side. When a man is taken out of society, and left to create his own norms, he must rediscover those primordial instincts which have sustained his species since the beginning of its existence. Survival of the fittest, physically and intellectually, cliqued as it may be, is the foundation of these archaic yet prevalent inst
  • Nietzsches Overman in The Will to Power
    Nietzsches Overman in The Will to Power The existential philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche believed that humanity nedded to be overcome. He viewed humans as weak creatures and slaves to the Christian religion. In The Will to Power, Nietzsche asserts the poer of the overman-- a creature beyond Christian good and evil-- to replace the passive man. To understand the book, it is first necessary to understand what Nietzsche means by \'The Will to Power\'. Denneson describes this as a \'psychological pre
  • Richard Wagner Wunderkind or Monster
    Richard Wagner Wunderkind or Monster Diana Glazer European History AP Research Paper Richard Wagner; Wunderkind or Monster? Richard Wagner remains the most controversial genius in music, perhaps in all the arts. The controversy began during his life - over ten thousand books about him were published before Wagner\'s death in 1883 - and continues still. The musical world is divided in Wagnerians (sometimes called Wagnerites) and anti-Wagnerians. Many have switched positions as the discover more a
  • Hitlers Rise To Power
    Hitlers Rise To Power Hitler’s Rise To Power Who or what was responsible for Hitler’s rise to power? Many believe that there was only one factor for his rise to power. Some state that Hitler could not have risen to power in any other than Germany, implying that he was nothing more than a product of German culture. Others say that Hitler made himself dictator by means of his political genius. And yet still others claim that it was the weak democratic government of the Weimar Republic or Germany’s
  • Modernism
    Modernism . Introduction [ ] Print section [ ] Modern Art , painting, sculpture, and other forms of 20th-century art. Although scholars disagree as to precisely when the modern period began, they mostly use the term modern art to refer to art of the 20th century in Europe and the Americas, as well as in other regions under Western influence. The modern period has been a particularly innovative one. Among the 20th century\'s most important contributions to the history of art are the invention of
  • Mussolini and the intervention crisis
    Mussolini and the intervention crisis Mussolini and the intervention crisis Benito Mussolini was born in Predappio, near Forli, in Romagna, on July 29, 1883. Like his father, Benito became a fervent socialist. He qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901. In 1902 he emigrated to Switzerland. Unable to find a permanent job there and arrested for vagrancy, he was expelled and returned to Italy to do his military service. After further trouble with the police, he joined the staff of a newspap
  • None Provided13
    None Provided13 Mussolini and the intervention crisis Benito Mussolini was born in Predappio, near Forli, in Romagna, on July 29, 1883. Like his father, Benito became a fervent socialist. He qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901. In 1902 he emigrated to Switzerland. Unable to find a permanent job there and arrested for vagrancy, he was expelled and returned to Italy to do his military service. After further trouble with the police, he joined the staff of a newspaper in the Austrian tow
  • College 1
    college 1 The main character of the novel Crime and Punishment by Feodor Dostoevsky, Raskolnikov, is in reality has two totally contradicting personalities. One part of him is intellectual. He is cold, unfeeling and inhumane. He exibits tremendous self-will. It is this side that enables him to commit the most terrible crime imaginable - taking another human life. The other part of his personality is warm and compassionate. This is the side of him that does charitable acts and fights out against
  • College 2
    college 2 The main character of the novel Crime and Punishment by Feodor Dostoevsky, Raskolnikov, is in reality has two totally contradicting personalities. One part of him is intellectual. He is cold, unfeeling and inhumane. He exibits tremendous self-will. It is this side that enables him to commit the most terrible crime imaginable - taking another human life. The other part of his personality is warm and compassionate. This is the side of him that does charitable acts and fights out against
  • Ethical egoism
    ethical egoism Ethical Egoism: In Pursuit of Self-Interest Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoism, like all other moral philosophical theories, tries to develop a comprehensive set of rules by which each person should govern their lives. Instead of approaching each daily decision separately and interpreting the correct response, philosophers try to find an overall nucleus of rules that will guide each person in their daily lives. This is obviously not an easy task. Ethical egoism tries to solve the probl
  • Existentialism2
    existentialism2 Existentialism Existentialism, philosophical movement or tendency, emphasizing individual existence, freedom, and choice, that influenced many diverse writers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Major Themes Because of the diversity of positions associated with existentialism, the term is impossible to define precisely. Certain themes common to virtually all existentialist writers can, however, be identified. The term itself suggests one major theme: the stress on concrete individual
  • Kierkegaard
    Kierkegaard Søren Kierkegaard Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (b.1813, d. 1855) was a profound and prolific writer in the Danish "golden age" of intellectual and artistic activity. His work crosses the boundaries of philosophy, theology, psychology, literary criticism, devotional literature and fiction. Kierkegaard brought this potent mixture of discourses to bear as social critique and for the purpose of renewing Christian faith within Christendom. At the same time he made many original conceptual cont
  • MUSSOLINI
    MUSSOLINI Bentio Mussolini, (18833-1945) was the Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943. He centralized all power in himself as the leader (il duce) of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler’s Germany. The defeat of Italian arms in World War II brought an end to his imperial dream and led to his down fall. Mussolini was born in Predappio, near Forli, in Romagna, on July 29, 1883. His father, Alesandro, was a Blacksmith, and his mother
  • Nazis
    nazis The racist and fascist ideals of Nazism have long claimed to be based on and supported by the writings of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. In actuality however, Nietzsche\'s ideas could not be more opposed to those of the Nazis. The blatant racism, oppression, and mass mentality of the National Socialists in no way fits with Nietzsche\'s writings or ideals. Knowing this, it is difficult to understand how Adolf Hitler managed to warp Nietzsche\'s individualistic, anti-racist, and
  • Nietzsche
    Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche, a unique philosopher had some very interesting ideas about peoples human values and personality types. In this essay I will explain what I like and dislike about his Master Morality & his antithesis to this, Slave Morality. According to Nietzche, all morality is a manifestation of the will to power. The other is driven by the will to power but attempts to deny this. The term master morality refers to all the values of the psychologically strong willed people
  • Racism and evolutionary theory
    racism and evolutionary theory How Racism Has Been Shaped by Evolutionary Ideas. Racism has been perpetuated falsely by evolutionary ideas throughout history. Since the beginning of intelligent life mankind has discriminated against others of it\'s own species. The "in group" mentality may be a genetic psychological trait. However, evolutionary theory has been used to justify unfair treatment of certain groups. Literature and other forms of influence have used evolutionary ideas to perpetuate ra
  • Sdgasd
    sdgasd vSport and aggressive behavior, Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inseparable part of each other. The term violence is defined as physical assault based on total disregard for the well being of self and others, or the intent to injure another person ( 2. Coakley). I
  • Sports and Agression
    Sports and Agression Sports and Aggression A Research Paper Presented to -------- at -------------------------------------- In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for English 12A By ------------------------ Period 1 March 27, 2000 Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inse
  • The Meaning Behind Marriage
    The Meaning Behind Marriage Welcome to "Hell." Welcome to the "trap." Welcome to "the rest or your life." These words are commonly heard everyday by couples who are engaged to be married. Encouraging words are passed around also, but we all know that few marriages last forever. Marriages should be based on total trust and "togetherness," and without this, marriage cannot last. Marriage is about knowing the good as well as the bad, the thrills and joys versus the pain and sadness. A formal defini
  • None Provided10
    None Provided10 By: Chris "Friends can help each other. A true friend is someone who lets you have total freedom to be yourself— and especially to feel. Or not feel. Whatever you happen to be feeling at the moment is fine with them. That\'s what real love amounts to— letting a person be what he really is.... Most people love you for who you pretend to be.... To keep their love, you keep pretending— performing. You get to love your pretense.... It’s true, we\'re locked in an image, an act— and th
  • Freidrich nietzsche
    freidrich nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche, a unique philosopher had some very interesting ideas about people’s human values and personality types. In this essay I will explain what I like and dislike about his “Master Morality” & his antithesis to this, “Slave Morality”. According to Nietzche, all morality is a manifestation of the will to power. The other is driven by the will to power but attempts to deny this. The term “master morality” refers to all the values of the psychologically strong wil
  • H e I d e g g e r s Metaphysics
    H e I d e g g e r s Metaphysics H e I d e g g e r’ s Metaphysics and its application to Filipino’s PATRIOTISM and NATIONAL PRIDE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 1. To be able for Filipino to know heidegger’s Metaphysics and apply it to their everyday living. 2. To be able to know that the foundation of success is oneself 3. To be able to encourage Filipino people to evaluate themselves; 4. To be able to maximize Filipinos’ good values and minimize their weakness; 5. To be able to develop discipline and
  • Nietzsche
    Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche, a unique philosopher had some very interesting ideas about people’s human values and personality types. In this essay I will explain what I like and dislike about his “Master Morality” & his antithesis to this, “Slave Morality”. According to Nietzche, all morality is a manifestation of the will to power. The other is driven by the will to power but attempts to deny this. The term “master morality” refers to all the values of the psychologically strong willed people
  • Nietzsche2
    Nietzsche2 Who is Friedrich Nietzsche? Can a man born in 1844 really tell us anything of relevance in the twenty-first century? To simply say Nietzsche was a German philosopher would be an injustice… let\'s stay clear of labels, I\'ll simply describe Nietzsche as a man with an incredible metal penetration of situations covering all walks of life… Friedrich Nietzsche challenged the foundations of traditional morality and Christianity. He believed in life, creativity, health, and the realities of
  • Philosophy of Crime and Punishment
    Philosophy of Crime and Punishment Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment is a tale of poverty and suffering by all characters. Through suffering comes rationalization of decisions made and the circumstances of life. Philosophical theories develop through rationalization of the character. Two main philosophical motifs arise through out Crime and Punishment. Existentialism and Nihilism are the two main philosophies represented. Raskolnikov, the main character, is involved with the text in which these
  • Socrates Plato and Christianity Through the Eyes o
    Socrates Plato and Christianity Through the Eyes of Friedrich Nietzsche Socrates has undoubtedly had a major impact upon western philosophy and society in general. Plato, whose work is essentially an elaboration and expansion upon that of Socrates, has had a similar effect. Naturally, these two philosophers have been subjects of immense academic interest for over two thousand years. With this great interest comes both praise and criticism. One of the most critical writers to attack these legenda
  • Decline of Religion in 20th Century Neitzsche
    Decline of Religion in 20th Century Neitzsche In this paper I am supposed to choose an existential or nihilist thinker and apply their thoughts to the 20th century problems that we identified at the beginning of class. I’m not going to do this. What I’m going to write about is one of, if not the biggest, problem mankind has ever created for itself. Christianity. While Christianity was not on the list of problems that we identified I cannot help but wonder if the man I will examine and his writin
  • Sports and aggressive behavior
    sports and aggressive behavior Sports and Aggressive Behavior Sport and aggressive behavior, Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inseparable part of each other. The term violence is defined as physical assault based on total disregard for the well being of self and others, o
  • Sports and Aggressive Behavior
    Sports and Aggressive Behavior Sport and aggressive behavior, Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inseparable part of each other. The term violence is defined as physical assault based on total disregard for the well being of self and others, or the intent to injure another
  • Sports and Agression
    Sports and Agression Sports and Aggression A Research Paper Presented to -------- at -------------------------------------- In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for English 12A By ------------------------ Period 1 March 27, 2000 Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inse
  • Polytheism
    polytheism Reproduced, with permission, from THE FUTURIST, Published by the World Future Society, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 450, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche wrote a fictional account of a madman who went about the town proclaiming that "God is dead." Nietzsche\'s story is illustrative of a wave of atheism that spread through the intellectual circles of Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries,
  • Communist Manifesto
    Communist Manifesto Chapter 1 Summary: Bourgeois and Proletarians The Communist Manifesto begins with Marx\'s famous generalization that "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles" (79). Marx describes these classes in terms of binary oppositions, with one party as oppressor, the other as oppressed. While human societies have traditionally been organized according to complex, multi-member class hierarchies, the demise of feudalism affected by the French Revo
  • Benito Mussolini
    Benito Mussolini Mussolini and the intervention crisis Benito Mussolini was born in Predappio, near Forli, in Romagna, on July 29, 1883. Like his father, Benito became a fervent socialist. He qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901. In 1902 he emigrated to Switzerland. Unable to find a permanent job there and arrested for vagrancy, he was expelled and returned to Italy to do his military service. After further trouble with the police, he joined the staff of a newspaper in the Austrian t
  • Hitelrs Rise To Power
    Hitelrs Rise To Power Hitlers Rise To Power Who or what was responsible for Hitlers rise to power? Many believe that there was only one factor for his rise to power. Some state that Hitler could not have risen to power in any other than Germany, implying that he was nothing more than a product of German culture. Others say that Hitler made himself dictator by means of his political genius. And yet still others claim that it was the weak democratic government of the Weimar Republic or Germany
  • To bomb or not to bomb
    to bomb or not to bomb To Bomb or Not to Bomb… “Iraq’s peace offer rejected” was the front-page headline that caught my attention. The blaring question in my head was why? President Clinton had already approved a military attack when word of Saddam Hussein’s peace letter surfaced. “The Iraqi letter was welcomed by France, Russia and China as the council began meeting late yesterday. The United States was the only member to reject it outright and Britain said it was skeptical, but keeping its op
  • Germany stuff
    germany stuff Germany: The answer to an old Question Thesis: This paper will argue that Germany needs to secure itself as both the economic and political hegemon of Europe inside of the European Union; until its present condition and effectiveness in the global politics changes, instability in the European Union, as well as, basic fear of will always be present. I. Introduction II. Historical Perspective-The two negative factors A. Fear - twice in one century 1) Bismarck/Frederick II 2) Hitler
  • Sdgh
    sdgh polytheism By: tyler smith Reproduced, with permission, from THE FUTURIST, Published by the World Future Society, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 450, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche wrote a fictional account of a madman who went about the town proclaiming that "God is dead." Nietzsche\'s story is illustrative of a wave of atheism that spread through the intellectual circles of Europe in the late nineteenth and early
  • Jim Morrison
    Jim Morrison "Friends can help each other. A true friend is someone who lets you have total freedom to be yourself and especially to feel. Or not feel. Whatever you happen to be feeling at the moment is fine with them. That\'s what real love amounts to letting a person be what he really is.... Most people love you for who you pretend to be.... To keep their love, you keep pretending performing. You get to love your pretense.... Its true, we\'re locked in an image, an act and the sad thing
  • Jim Morrison The Doors
    Jim Morrison The Doors Jim Morrison " The Doors. There\'s the known, and there\'s the unknown. And what separates the two is the door, and that\'s what I want to be. Ahh I wanna be thdoor . . ." - Jim Morrison Jim Morrison is often thought of as a drunken musician and, an addict and, to many, another \'doped up\' rock star. These negative opinions project a large shadow on the many positive aspects of this great poet. Jim\'s music was influenced heavily by many famous authors. One must cast as
  • Jim Morrison
    Jim Morrison "Friends can help each other. A true friend is someone who lets you have total freedom to be yourself and especially to feel. Or not feel. Whatever you happen to be feeling at the moment is fine with them. That\'s what real love amounts to letting a person be what he really is.... Most people love you for who you pretend to be.... To keep their love, you keep pretending performing. You get to love your pretense.... Its true, we\'re locked in an image, an act and the sad thing
  • Your Lost Little Girl
    Your Lost Little Girl The song Your Lost Little Girl was a metaphorical symbolism for everything Morrison believed in. It reflects Jims terrible disposition for authority and his goal to show people the way to freedom. He believed that to accept authority was to become authority. His excessive drug use and drinking fueled him to write some of the most original and visionary music ever. It also led him to a mind state that left some people thinking him insane and others thinking him a god. Ja
  • Friedrich Nietzsche
    Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche Some call Friedrich Nietzsche the father of the Nazi party. Was Nietzsche\'s ideas twisted and warped by a needy country? Nietzsche himself despised the middle and lower class people. Was it Nietzsche\'s Will to Power theory that spawned one of the greatest patriotic movements of the twentieth century? These are some of the questions I had when first researching Friedrich Nietzsche for the following paper. Friedrich Nietzsche, at one time called "the arch
  • Man8217s Identity According to Nietszche
    Man8217s Identity According to Nietszche Mans Identity According to Nietszche, In Comparison to Marxs and Societys Definition Friedrich Nietzsche wrote The Anti-Christ as a response to his own outrage concerning mans Christian-influenced values on life. Nietzsche saw Christianity as the leading cause of the problems with mankind. All the teachings of Christianity were contrary to the ways in which Nietzsche felt man should act and behave. His focus in The Anti-Christ is on this fact that Ch
  • Nietzsche and platonism
    nietzsche and platonism In Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche writes, "My objection against the whole of sociology in England and France remains that it knows from experience only the forms of decay, and with perfect innocence accepts its instincts of decay as the norm of sociological value-judgments. The decline of life, the decrease in the power to organize, that is to tear open clefts, subordinate and super-ordinate -- all this has been formulated as the ideal in contemporary sociology." (p 541
  • Nietzsche and the devil
    Nietzsche and the devil Friedrich Nietzsche Some call Friedrich Nietzsche the father of the Nazi party. Was Nietzsche\'s ideas twisted and warped by a needy country? Nietzsche himself despised the middle and lower class people. Was it Nietzsche\'s Will to Power theory that spawned one of the greatest patriotic movements of the twentieth century? These are some of the questions I had when first researching Friedrich Nietzsche for the following paper. Friedrich Nietzsche, at one time called "the
  • Nietzsche and Wagner
    Nietzsche and Wagner The Rhythm of the Saints Lex Olsen In terms of artists and their influences, the case of Nietzsche and Wagner has been the focal point of discussion between many great academic minds of the last century. The controversy surrounding the relationship has led many to postulate that the eventual break between the two men may have contributed to the untimely death of Wagner in 1882, and Nietzsche\'s eight-year writing spurt from 1883 - 1888. While investigating the details of th
  • Problem of evil
    problem of evil evil Beyond the Problem of Evil Introduction: The problem of evil is, in my opinion, the best point of departure for a fruitful dialogue between Christianity, traditionally conceived, and those strands of modern philosophy which have been perceived--indeed, have sometimes perceived themselves--as a threat to that tradition. As such, I will attempt first, to outline the problem of evil in the starkest terms possible, presenting Augustine\'s approach to its solution followed by a