Westward expansionin nineteenth century Essay

This essay has a total of 4152 words and 18 pages.

westward expansionin nineteenth century






THE WESTWARD EXPANSION

Introduction
The Westward Expansion has often been regarded as the central theme of American history,
down to the end of the19th century and as the main factor in the shaping of American
history. As Frederick Jackson Turner says, the greatest force or influence in shaping
American democracy and society had been that there was so much free land in America and
this profoundly affected American society.


Motives
After the revolution, the winning of independence opened up the Western country and was
hence followed by a steady flow of settlers to the Mississippi valley. By 1840, 10 new
western states had been added to the Federal union. The frontier line ran through Iowa,
Missouri and Arkansas on the western side of the river. All parts of the valley except
Wisconsin and Minnesota were well populated. Thus a whole new section had been colonized
with lasting effects on the American institutions, ideals and ways of living.

The far west was the land of high mountains, deserts, strange rock formations, brilliant
colors and immense distance. Fur trade with Europe had now become a lucrative business and
the fur traders became the pathfinders for the settlers. Migration was now possible by the
discovery of paths over which ox-driven carts could be driven through seeking mountains
and across the western desert. People wanted to move away from the overcrowded cities and
this led to the migration into the uninhabited lands. Increased transportation like roads,
railroads and canals and their construction created a demand for cheap labor making it
easier for people to get jobs now, in contrast with the cities where there was
unemployment.

The pioneer movement for 70 years after the revolution roughly represented the form of 3
parallel streams, flowing westwards from New England, Virginia and South Carolina. The
first pioneer groups tended to move directly westward. Thus the new Englanders migrated
into western New York and along the shores of the great lakes, Virginians into Kentucky
and then into Missouri and the South Carolinians and Georgians into the gulf territories.
Throughout the settlement of the Mississippi valley, most pioneers did not travel long
distances and as a territory had been occupied, families would move into the adjacent one.

There were boom periods of great activity, during which million acres of land were sold,
alternated with depression periods during which there was little further expansion of the
frontier and many disappointed pioneers even backtracked from the west to the east.

When the treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, the Americans had thought that they had
enough land between the Atlantic coast and the Mississippi river. Yet in 1803, by the
Louisiana Purchase, the area of the United States doubled and not long after, it was
augmented by the half-purchase-half-conquest of Florida. By the end of 1820, as many as 6
states were created, east of Mississippi-Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817), Alabama
(1819), Maine (1820) and Missouri (1821). By the 1830s, the frontier line had been carried
to Iowa, Missouri and Arkansas-about one-third of the way across the continent.

By the 1840s, the expansionist policy, typified by the Manifest Destiny doctrine, became
very strong with many sections willing to go to war to acquire more land. Slavery became a
bone of contention between the Northern and southern states with the control of the senate
in question. The South wanted expansion to increase slave states, the North to keep the
balance with free states and the West wanting expansion to increase their land. The
antagonism between the North and the South sees the beginnings of sectionalism leading to
the civil war later. The spirit of equality becomes a banner with which the expansionist
policy was proclaimed.


Phases Of Development
Before the 1830s, most sections of the west passed through the same phases of development
in a regular order. The first white men to usually enter a new area were the hunters and
fur trappers, who had extraordinary skills to open up a new path through wilderness,
finding food for themselves and dealing with the Indians. These men explored the country
and brought news of its resources back to the east.

In many regions, the second phase was cattle ranching while some also passed through the
mining phase. Parts of Missouri and Wisconsin, for example were settled by lead miners.
Behind the cattle ranchers or miners came the first farmers, who were often squatters with
no legal title to land. They were frequently restless and were impatient of the
restrictions of civilised society, and were not interested in making permanent houses.
Many of them, had a habit of moving every few years and would follow the frontier land as
it carried further into the west.

Once a new area had been opened up and shown to be fertile, it would soon attract men of
sober and ambitious type, who had much more capital and more farming techniques and wanted
homes where they could settle for the rest of their lives. They brought with them the
habits of civilizations. They developed trade, established churches, schools and
newspapers and set up institutions of government. The Federal government then assumed
responsibility for guiding each area through the territorial stage until it was ready for
statehood. But there were many parts of the west, where the white settlers provided for
their own government, by the democratic methods long before the legal establishment of
territorial institutions. Thus the society became more diversified once small towns sprang
up to meet the economic, political and cultural needs of the population. In those cases
that did not afterwards become urban and industrial, this represented the final stage.

Geographic factors also caused some variation in this usual pattern. Some mountain regions
never passed beyond the squatter stage, while fertile countries, such as the black belt of
Alabama and Mississippi, were sometimes settled, at the start, by men of more ambitious
type. Geography also determined the order in which different regions were occupied. The
early pioneers mostly preferred to make their homes in forest country or close to it, for
they needed timber for shelter and warmth and also for fencing. The forest regions were
therefore settled in advance of the open prairies.

By the 1830s, the frontier line had been carried into Iowa, Missouri and Arkansas.
Immediately west of the Mississippi valley was the Great Plains, which after 500 miles
sloped into the Rockies. The plains had a lot of wildlife with nomadic and highly warlike
Indian tribes. Beyond the Great Plains, the way westwards was through the South pass
between two immense mountain systems.

The Spanish territories of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada and California,
including parts of Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming were passed onto the newly established
Mexican government in 1821. But the Spanish had only made settlements in New Mexico and
parts of Texas and California, so the rest of the areas were ripe for expansion.

To the north of California, the area of Oregon was to be occupied jointly by the Americans
and the British according to the Anglo-American convention of 1818. From 1804 till 1807
and after 1812, the Federal government sent a number of exploring parties to the far west.
This area was labeled as the “Great American desert”. And so the American
government during the 1820s and the 1830s believed that the west might appropriately be
left to the Indians and were willing to promise that they could keep it in perpetuity.

A more important role in expansion to the west was played by the fur trappers. They were
the first white people to cover most of the western territories and find routes suitable
for pioneer settlers. Between 1807 and 1835, the trappers penetrated into the mountains
with intensive exploration and exploitation of the mountain country and discovering routes
that helped establish the fur trade as well as open up the west for expansion.

Overland trade with Mexico also helped in the knowledge of the far west. The trade route
from Missouri to Santa Fe and later upto California resulted in the Americans establishing
contacts with New Mexico and California which prepared the way for annexation.


Texas and California
It can be assumed that the northern parts of Mexico would have eventually come under the
control of the United States as the Mexicans did not colonize them, there was no effective
sovereignty and American settlers would have resulted in American annexation. That the
annexation occurred by force can be seen as the augmentation of an aggressive American
nationalism and the Mexicans’ refusal to sell the land and inability to develop it.

Mexico achieved independence in 1821 with the installation of a constitutional government
but from 1824 to 1857, the country was dominated by the army and chronic military
revolutions.

The earliest of the northern parts of Mexico to come under the control of Americans was
Texas. In 1823, Stephen Austin secured authorization from the Mexican government to
colonize the area. The Mexican government was hoping for the quick settlement and
mexicanisation of the area. By 1830, around 30,000 Americans were settled in Texas with
local self-government. At the same time, the Mexican government barred any more Americans
from settling in Texas. The dictatorial government meant negotiation was impossible and in
March 1836, a convention of Texans issued a formal declaration of independence, drafted a
constitution and chose Sam Houston as commander-in-chief of their army. The Texans were
hoping for annexation by the Americans but the question of slavery meant the Lone Star
Republic remained a republic. In 1844, a motion to make Texas a part of the United States
failed but it became the main platform for the next presidential elections. James Polk won
on the party platform of “reannexation” of Texas and
“reoccupation” of Oregon. In 1845, a joint resolution was passed by Congress
and Texas finally became a part of the United States.

Polk now had to get Mexican consent to the annexation of Mexico and fix the boundary line,
which the Texans said was Rio Grande while the Mexicans insisted on Nueces. Mexico had
also defaulted on the repayment of the debt of 2 million dollars. This made Polk order the
American army under General Zachary Taylor to occupy the disputed boundary region. Mexican
troops were also ordered to hold the same region and when a clash between the two armies
occurred in 1846, Congress declared war. The Northeast, under the leadership of Emerson,
Thoreau and James Russell opposed war, as they feared slavery. The planters of the South
wanted Texas but knew that New Mexico and California were unsuited for slavery and so
wanted limited expansion while the people of the West wanted war for expansion.

Texas was soon conquered and with California being taken in 1847, the American annexation
of the Far West was complete. A treaty was signed in 1848 whereby Mexico ceded Texas with
the Rio Grande boundary, New Mexico, California and the rest of the western territories.
The United States would pay Mexico 15 million dollars and assumed its debt of 3.25 million
dollars. The treaty was ratified by the Senate. The settlement of California was
accelerated by the Californian Gold Rush, when gold was discovered in 1848. In 1849,
elections were held in California and California asked Congress for admission to the
confederation. California became a state in 1850.


Oregon
The settlement of Oregon was preceded by lot of propaganda, which was nationalistic in
nature led by Kelley and later Wyeth. Religious missions, from Methodist to Presbyterians
and Congregationalists and Catholic, all tried to settle this area and they were the first
permanent American settlements in Oregon and became the centers of agriculture and
cattle-raising.

The great migration began in 1841 and was stimulated by the depression of 1837 with people
with some capital hoping to make a fresh start. By 1845, there were 6,000 Americans in
Oregon, and the United States government tried to make the 49th parallel as the boundary
without success. The fur trade had since declined in this area so the British agreed to
the 49th parallel as the boundary in a treaty in 1846 and thus, American sovereignty was
established over the area covered by Washington, Oregon and Idaho.


Utah
The Mormon Church under the able leadership of Brigham Young settled the area south of
Oregon and by 1847 had settled the area of Utah.


Immediate Problems after the War
The new acquisitions meant that problems like transportation had to be tackled. A canal
across Panama was planned but this didn’t materialize for many years. The building
of a transcontinental railroad with the financial assistance of the government was debated
Continues for 9 more pages >>




  • Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the United States saw many problems come and go. Some problems were more important than others, however all led to further division of American politics. The most divisive issue in American politics during this time frame was the idea of Manifest Destiny, or territorial expansion. Manifest Destiny was the idea that it was the United States’ destiny to take over all of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Most o
  • James Knox Polk
    James Knox Polk James Knox Polk, (1795-1849), 11th President of the United States, he was one of the hardest-working presidents in American history, Polk was unusually successful in accomplishing in a single four-year term his ambitious goals in both domestic and foreign policy. The vigor with which he pushed the annexation of Texas, the settlement of the territorial dispute with Britain over Oregon, and the conquest of the Southwest through war with Mexico extended the territory of the United S
  • Mexican War
    Mexican War The Mexican War---Was It in the National Interest? Most Americans were advocates of expanding the Union to make a larger stronger country, but some also saw the Mexican War as a barefaced plot to expand slavery; however, the Mexican War was seen as something that was necessary to settle disputes between the two countries, and through the support of the "Manifest Destiny," the unresolved conflict that took place between the Texans and Mexicans in the early 1800\'s, and Polk\'s failed
  • Presidents and Conflict Resolution
    Presidents and Conflict Resolution Patrick McShan HIS 3360 November 19, 1999 Presidents and Conflict Resolution The term negotiation has been defined as a formal process that occurs when parties are trying to find a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict. People and parties, throughout time, have come to negotiate for two basic reasons. First, they negotiate to create something new that neither party could do on his own. Second, parties negotiate to resolve a problem or dispute betwe
  • Sam Houston
    Sam Houston Samuel Houston Sam Houston was as legend reports a big man about six foot and six inches tall. He was an exciting historical figure and war hero who was involved with much of the early development of our country and Texas. He was a soldier, lawyer, politician, businessman, and family man, whose name will be synonymous with nation heroes who played a vital part in the shaping of a young and prosperous country. He admired and supported the Native Americans who took him in and adopted h
  • Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. Lincoln entered office at a critical period in U. S. history, just before the Civil War, and died from an assassin\'s bullet at the war\'s end, but before the greater implications of the conflict could be resolved. He brought to the office personal integrity, intelligence, and humanity, plus the wholesome characteristics of his frontier upbringing. He also had the liabilities of his upbringing--he was self-educated
  • Causes of Mexican American War
    Causes of Mexican American War 2. Their were several events which led to the start of the Mexican-American War an there were also many things that happened as a result of the War. American belief of Manifest Destiny was a major factor in the cause of the war, Land hungry Americans were ready to do whatever it took to acquire more land to make themselves rich. This belief in Manifest Destiny caused Mexico and America to go to war but America benefited from the war politically but suffered militar
  • Democratice partys
    democratice partys Republic (government) (Latin res publica, literally "the public thing"), form of state based on the concept that sovereignty resides in the people, who delegate the power to rule in their behalf to elected representatives and officials. In practice, however, this concept has been variously stretched, distorted, and corrupted, making any precise definition of the term republic difficult. It is important, to begin with, to distinguish between a republic and a democracy. In the t
  • One Nation One People One Culture
    One Nation One People One Culture One Nation, One People, One Culture As the eighteenth century drew to a close, the new American Republic teetered between the danger of collapse and the promise of greatness. By expanding westward to occupy most of North America, the United States might develop into imperial wealth and power; if the nation could survive its first vulnerable decades. The great paradox of the new nation was that its short-term prospects appeared dire and its long-term prospects ap
  • Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the United States saw many problems come and go. Some problems were more important than others, however all led to further division of American politics. The most divisive issue in American politics during this time frame was the idea of Manifest Destiny, or territorial expansion. Manifest Destiny was the idea that it was the United States destiny to take over all of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Most
  • The life of william rufus king
    the life of william rufus king Hampton University Hampton, VA 23668 The Life and Times of William Rufus de Vane King Presented To Mr. Gene Moore In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements Of POL 399-01 By Sharri D. Mapp 8142 on April 18, 2001 William Rufus de Vane King was a distinguished politician who concluded his remarkable political career by being elected the Vice-President under Franklin Pierce’s pro-slavery ticket. However, he is the only person to be elected to that office that never
  • Andrew jackson
    andrew jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his presidency, fo
  • Andrew jackson
    andrew jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his presidency, fo
  • Andrew Jackson2
    Andrew Jackson2 Andrew Jackson greatly revolutionized the role and power of the presidency by uniting the executive branch, altering the perceived face of the President, introducing personal power into the office, and controlled the presidency for a third of a century. Before him, the executive branch was a group divided, unsure of their function and their superiors. Before him, the President was identified with Congress, merely another part of the buearocracy. Before him, the office of Preside
  • Andrew Jackson3
    Andrew Jackson3 Andrew Jackson The year was 1824. The election of this year was very unusual because of the number of candidates running for president. One of the candidates was Andrew Jackson, or “Old Hickory” as they called him, a general that had won the Battle of New Orleans(which was a battle not needed) in the War of 1812. Jackson became a hero after this war, and it would bring him all the way to the presidency. Another one of the candidates was John Quincy Adams. The son of John Adams,
  • Televisiooon
    televisiooon Andrew Jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his p
  • The Mexican War
    The Mexican War Introduction Beginning in 1845 and ending in 1850 a series of events took place that would come to be known as the Mexican war and the Texas Revolution. This paper will give an overview on not only the events that occurred (battles, treaties, negotiations, ect.) But also the politics and reasoning behind it all. This was a war that involved America and Mexico fighting over Texas. That was the base for the entire ordeal. This series of events contained some of the most dramatic w
  • Evolution of the power of the Presidency
    Evolution of the power of the Presidency The views of the presidency by the first sixteen presidents varied widely but all of their actions set precedents for their successors to use, expand, or even curtail the power of the office. Some believed in the Whig theory of strict adherence to the constitution, while others believed the president was the steward of the people with a loose interpretation of it. The power of the office expanded through the years, however it only expanded as far as the
  • The American Two Party Political System
    The American Two Party Political System The American two Party Political System Since the administration of George Washington two political parties have dominated the United States political system, but they have not always been the same two parties. The first two parties were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Federalists were those who supported a strong federal government and the Anti-Federalists were those who did not. The leaders of the Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams
  • James Buchanan
    James Buchanan James Buchanan On April 23, 1791, a great man was born; fifteenth president of the United States, James Buchanan.He was born near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. His father, James Buchanan, and his mother Elizabeth Speer Buchanan, raised their son a Presbyterian. He grew up in a well to do home, being the eldest of eleven other siblings. His parents cared for them all in their mansion in Pennsylvania. They sent him to Dickinson College. Buchanan graduated in 1809, was admitted to the b
  • Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his presidency, foc
  • Important Presidential Elections
    Important Presidential Elections 1812 The election of 1812 consisted of a battle between James Madison, and De Witt Clinton. Madison had represented both Democratic and Republican beliefs, while Clinton was a Federalist. James Madison was born in Port Conway, Va., on March 16, 1751. A Princeton graduate, he joined the struggle for independence on his return to Virginia in 1771. He had been an active politician in the 1770\'s and 1780\'s. He was greatly know for championing the Jefferson reform p
  • President Andrew Jackson
    President Andrew Jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his presi
  • Monroe Doctrine
    Monroe Doctrine QUESTION: Discuss the creation of the Monroe Doctrine and how its birth shaped U.S. foreign policy from the 1820\'s through the American Civil War. Be sure to include the key players and their various motives in creating or using this important document. The Monroe Doctrine History during the early 1800\'s found the American people very interested in the situation involving the Latin American countries found in central, South America, and Mexico. Though these Latin countries trie
  • The Presidential Contenders In 1856
    The Presidential Contenders In 1856 For the presidential election of 1856, the Democrats nominated James Buchanan and John Breckenridge, the newly formed Republican party nominated John Fremont and William Drayton, the American [or Know-Nothing] party nominated former president Millard Fillmore and Andrew Donelson, and the Abolition Party nominated Gerrit Smith and Samuel McFarland.Buchanan started his political career as a state representative in Pennsylvania, was elected to the U.S. House of R
  • The Epic Battle of Shiloh
    The Epic Battle of Shiloh The Epic Battle of Shiloh By: Brian Semich Mr. Gavin HIST 2030 05 Abstract (Summary of Report) The First Day April 6, 1862 With the loss of Forts Henry and Donelson in February, General Johnston withdrew his Confederate forces into west Tennessee, northern Mississippi and Alabama to reorganize. In early March, General Halleck responded by ordering General Grant to move his Union Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River. Occupying Pittsburg Landing, G
  • Sam Houston
    Sam Houston Sam Houston Samuel Houston Sam Houston was as legend reports a big man about six foot and six inches tall. He was an exciting historical figure and war hero who was involved with much of the early development of our country and Texas. He was a soldier, lawyer, politician, businessman, and family man, whose name will be synonymous with nation heroes who played a vital part in the shaping of a young and prosperous country. He admired and supported the Native Americans who took him in a
  • Andrew jackson
    andrew jackson Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson was born in the Waxhaws near the border of North and South Carolina, on March 15, 1767. When Andrew Jackson was born, no one probably guessed that he would be the seventh president of the United States of America. He wasn\'t a "high class" person or had all the same credentials, but he became a war hero thus lifting him to his presidency. Andy Jackson was born the third child of Scotch-Irish parents. Jackson\'s father, also named Andrew, died as a res
  • American Political Parties
    American Political Parties American Political Parties There have been many different political parties since the beginning of the American political system. A political party is made up of a group of people that share common goals and ideals, and these people work together to help elect people to offices that share these goals to represent them. Political parties work to try to control the government and their ultimate goal is to win as many elections and to gain as many offices as possible. Dur
  • The Contenders
    The Contenders For the presidential election of 1856, the Democrats nominated James Buchanan and John Breckenridge, the newly formed Republican party nominated John Fremont and William Drayton, the American [or Know-Nothing] party nominated former president Millard Fillmore and Andrew Donelson, and the Abolition Party nominated Gerrit Smith and Samuel McFarland. Buchanan started his political career as a state representative in Pennsylvania, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 18
  • Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his presidency, foc
  • The Contenders
    The Contenders For the presidential election of 1856, the Democrats nominated James Buchanan and John Breckenridge, the newly formed Republican party nominated John Fremont and William Drayton, the American [or Know-Nothing] party nominated former president Millard Fillmore and Andrew Donelson, and the Abolition Party nominated Gerrit Smith and Samuel McFarland. Buchanan started his political career as a state representative in Pennsylvania, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 18
  • Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson There are many things that set Andrew Jackson apart from other presidents. His policies and personality set him apart from most. Although he was the seventh president, he was the first in many ways. Jackson was the first president to be born in a log cabin, and he was the first president to ride on a railroad train. Along with that, he was the only president to serve in both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson was also the first to have a vice-president (John
  • Some Of The Most Important Presidential Elections
    Some Of The Most Important Presidential Elections 1812The election of 1812 consisted of a battle between James Madison, and De Witt Clinton. Madison had represented both Democratic and Republican beliefs, while Clinton was a Federalist.James Madison was born in Port Conway, Va., on March 16, 1751. A Princeton graduate, he joined the struggle for independence on his return to Virginia in 1771. He had been an active politician in the 1770\'s and 1780\'s. He was greatly know for championing the Jef
  • Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his presidency, foc
  • Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny By: John Doe During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the United States saw many problems come and go. Some problems were more important than others, however all led to further division of American politics. The most divisive issue in American politics during this time frame was the idea of Manifest Destiny, or territorial expansion. Manifest Destiny was the idea that it was the United States\' destiny to take over all of North America from the Atlantic to the P
  • James Buchanan
    James Buchanan James Buchanan On April 23, 1791, a great man was born; fifteenth president of the United States, James Buchanan.He was born near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. His father, James Buchanan, and his mother Elizabeth Speer Buchanan, raised their son a Presbyterian. He grew up in a well to do home, being the eldest of eleven other siblings. His parents cared for them all in their mansion in Pennsylvania. They sent him to Dickinson College. Buchanan graduated in 1809, was admitted to the b
  • The Nomination Ofandrew Jackson To The presidents
    The Nomination Ofandrew Jackson To The "presidents Hall Of Fame" The Nomination ofAndrew Jackson to the Presidents Hall of Fame Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Preside
  • Abraham lincoin
    abraham lincoin Abraham Lincoln was born Sunday, February 12, 1809, in a log cabin near Hodgenville, He was the son of Thomas and Nancy and he was named for his paternal grandfather. Thomas Lincoln was a carpenter and farmer. Both of Abraham\'s parents were members of a Baptist congregation which had separated from another church due to opposition to slavery. As Abraham grew up, he loved to read and preferred learning to working in the fields. This led to a difficult relationship with his father
  • Trail of tears
    trail of tears The Presidency of Andrew Jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson.
  • With Malice Toward None
    With Malice Toward None About the Author Stephen B. Oates is a professor of history at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and the author of eight other books, including The Fires of Jubilee and To Purge This Land with Blood. His task in this biography was to perpetuate Lincoln as he was in the days he lived. His purpose of this biography was to bring the past into the present for us and his students. The Life of Abraham Lincoln Although other states such as Indiana lay claim to his birth,
  • President Andrew Jackson
    President Andrew Jackson Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I\'ll go over his presi
  • Some of the most important presidential elections
    Some of the most important presidential elections 1812 The election of 1812 consisted of a battle between James Madison, and De Witt Clinton. Madison had represented both Democratic and Republican beliefs, while Clinton was a Federalist. James Madison was born in Port Conway, Va., on March 16, 1751. A Princeton graduate, he joined the struggle for independence on his return to Virginia in 1771. He had been an active politician in the 1770\'s and 1780\'s. He was greatly know for championing the J
  • The Presidential Contenders in 1856
    The Presidential Contenders in 1856 For the presidential election of 1856, the Democrats nominated James Buchanan and John Breckenridge, the newly formed Republican party nominated John Fremont and William Drayton, the American [or Know-Nothing] party nominated former president Millard Fillmore and Andrew Donelson, and the Abolition Party nominated Gerrit Smith and Samuel McFarland. Buchanan started his political career as a state representative in Pennsylvania, was elected to the U.S. House of
  • Andrew jackson
    Andrew jackson I will go over Andrew Jackson’s presidency, focusing on both the highs and the lows of his two terms in office, from 1829-1837. The issues that I\'ll focus on are states\' rights, the tariff, the spoils system, Indian removal, and banking policies; these controversies brought forth strong rivalry over his years of president. He was known for his iron will and fiery personality, and strong use of the powers of his office that made his years of presidency to be known as the "Age of