Women In Post-revolutionary Russia: The Opportunit Essay

This essay has a total of 1273 words and 5 pages.

Women In Post-revolutionary Russia: The Opportunities And Obstacles

The last Tsar of Russia abdicated the throne in February of 1917. With the fall of the old
regime, many old gender barriers fell, as well. The period after the Bolsheviks rose to
power was a time of many changes for all Russians, but none were more affected than the
women of the time. Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik party (later called the Communists)
was greatly disturbed by the domestic enslavement of Soviet women, and almost immediately
granted political equality for females throughout the nation. With this newfound freedom,
women were presented with many new opportunities in all aspects of life, and many
challenges, as well. Lenin reformed many civil and penal codes to the advantage of women.
Almost overnight all learning institutions opened their doors to both sexes, which
suddenly gave women the opportunity to strive for professional careers and higher paying
jobs. Women were given equal standing in marriage, and it became possible for them to get
divorced, to have abortions, and to sue for child support. Women could own property.
Within the Communist party, women rose to leadership positions. In theory, there was
complete equality between the sexes.


However, even with the advantages of the Communist leadership, there were some pitfalls,
as well. While the increased leniency of divorce laws was obviously an advantage to many
unhappy wives, some men made use of the new freedom also. Some women were left to raise
their children alone, and without the salary of their husbands, found it almost
impossible. Although these women now had complete economic independence under the laws of
Lenin, in practice all was not as simple. With several young children to watch over during
the day, it was difficult for any mother to be able to engage in any work outside of
family life. The realities of these women were shown clearly in Alexandra Kollontai's
novel Love of Worker Bees. based on life in post-revolutionary Russia. When Mr. Feodoseev
abandons his wife for another woman, she is horrified at the thought of trying to get a
job while raising three school-aged children. However, in Kollontai's novel, she is seen
as petty and jealous by certain members of the party, instead of a woman with great
financial difficulties. Perhaps this shows a certain blindness that many communist leaders
had to the realities of women's everyday lives and circumstances.


To help ease the burden on these women and all families, Kollontai, not only a writer but
a well-known feminist in the Bolshevik party, devised a plan of communal living. Within
these communities, specialists were to do many aspects of the housework and cleaning, and
children were to be raised by not only the parents, but others in the group, as well.
Pensions for the mothers would be supported in the form of a payroll tax, for Kollontai
felt that it was the responsibility of society to insure the success of Soviet children.
Unfortunately, communal family life was never supported in the way that Kollontai would
have liked. With the economic hardships of Russian life after the revolution and with
little support from her superiors, "material poverty hampered these experiments, and
cynicism and indifference mocked the dreams (Becoming Visible, page 428)."

Continues for 3 more pages >>




  • The shackles of socialist realism
    the shackles of socialist realism The civil strife and chaos that had torn Russia limb from limb in the early 20th Century, although brutally devastating, did not hail the end of the stability and power that had characterized the massive country for so much of history. The continuing strength of what was now the Soviet Union lay in the newly formed support structure provided by Socialist Realism, a force that directed the awareness of, and the arts produced by, the Soviet people. The ideals of S
  • Animal Farm As Social Criticism
    Animal Farm As Social Criticism Animal Farm As A Social Criticism Writers often use social criticism in their books to show corruptness or weak points of a group in society. One way of doing this is allegory which is a story in which figures and actions are symbols of general truths. George Orwell is an example of an author who uses allegory to show a social criticism effectively. As in his novel Animal Farm, Orwell makes a parody of Soviet Communism as demonstrated by Animal Farm\'s brutal tota
  • Animal Farm book report
    Animal Farm book report Many authors write about topics that they know and about historical events that are going on while they write their story. In the book Animal Farm by George Orwell this is definitely true. Orwell modeled many of his characters after Russian leaders. He ingeniously depicts the troubles of Russia in a book about farm animals. The story begins with a prize winning boar named Old Major, he gathers all of the farm animals around to tell them of a dream that he has. He tells th
  • Animal farm vs marxism
    animal farm vs marxism Animal Farm vs. Marxism Characters, items, and events found in George Orwells book, Animal Farm, can be compared to similar characters, items, and events found in Marxism and the 1917 Russian Revolution. This comparison will be shown by using the symbolism that is in the book with similarities found in the Russian Revolution. Old Major was a prized-boar that belonged to Farmer Jones. The fact that Old Major is himself a boar was to signify that radical change and revolutio
  • Lenin
    Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, or Lenin, was born on April 22, 1870, in the sleepy little town of Simbrisk, Russia. Childhood in Simbrisk was serene and pleasant for Lenin, and his father, Ilya Nikolaievich, was highly respected by many of the nobles in this province. Vladimir took just as much interest in his schoolwork than he did with his extra-curricular activities on the home front. He quickly impressed his teachers with his keen intelligence and his outstanding memory. He mastered his clas
  • Churchill
    Churchill SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, (1874-1965), British leader. English on his father\'s side, American on his mother\'s, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill embodied and expressed the double vitality and the national qualities of both peoples. His names testify to the richness of his historic inheritance: Winston, after the Royalist family with whom the Churchills married before the English Civil War; Leonard, after his remarkable grandfather, Leonard Jerome of New York; Spencer, the married na
  • Cumminisim in russia
    cumminisim in russia Communism in Russia Unless we accept the claim that Lenins coup dÄtat gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today’s Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians—the only empire that survived into the mid 1980s (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class differences would disappear and humankin
  • Joseph Goebbles biography
    Joseph Goebbles biography Master propagandist of the Nazi regime and dictator of its cultural life for twelve years, Joseph Goebbels was born into a strict Catholic, working-class family from Rheydt, in the Rhineland, on 29 October 1897. He was educated at a Roman Catholic school and went on to study history and literature at the University of Heidelberg under Professor Friedrich Gundolf, a Jewish literary historian renowned as a Goethe scholar and a close disciple of the poet Stefan George. Goe
  • Lenin
    Lenin Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, later known as Lenin was a key figure in European history. Lenin led the Bolsheviks (which later became known as communists) to overthrow the Russian Tsar, and to bring socialism to Russia. Lenin introduced Communism to Russia. This changed the history for Russia as well as the rest of Europe, and to this day has had a huge effect on the Russian economy. Lenin’s impact on Europe and Russia consisted of him applying Marxist ideas, which later led to complete C
  • Provisional Government
    Provisional Government This so-called October Revolution was an "armed insurrection" carried out by the Bolshevik Party using the apparatus of the Petrograd Soviet. Lenin insisted that the transfer of power from the Provisional Government to the Bolsheviks take this militarized form rather than the political form of a vote by the forthcoming All-Russian Congress of Soviets, an approach favored by Zinoviev and Kamenev. Lenin did this because he believed, as did Marx, that the class struggle was c
  • Russia
    Russia 1. Catherine II (the Great). The successor of the sickly Peter III, Catherine II was his wife until his suspected murder and she took the throne in 1762. Although she made no great reforms in Russian society, she gathered many friends by her death in 1796. Catherine had to keep the nobility pleased at all times because if she didn’t she could be dethroned easily. Because of this she carried out very few social reforms. Russia continued to follow an economic growth that Peter that Great ha
  • Russian Revolution
    Russian Revolution The roots of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were deep. Russia had suffered under an extremely oppressive form of government for centuries under the rule of the czars. During the 19th century the nation was filled with movements for political liberalization. In the long run there were several revolutions, not one. The first rebellion, known as the Decembrist uprising, took place in December 1825. Members of the upper classes, including many former soldiers, staged a revolt afte
  • Russian revolutions
    Russian revolutions Modern History oral task. The word at the beginning of the 20th century – Russian Revolutions. Tsar Nicholas II · Nicholas inherited the role of Tsar off his father in 1855, when his father Nicholas I passed away. · Tsar Nicholas did not have the abilities to be a natural autocrat. He considered it his duty to act as autocrat. · Nicholas tried to keep power. This produced a highly inefficient form of government and the First World War threw these weaknesses into sharp relict.
  • Stalins purges
    Stalins purges There are many different types of insectides and pesticides. Aldrin is a an insecticide which is one of several isomers, compounds that have the same make-up but different structure of hexachlorohexahydrodimethanonaprthalene which is a chlorinated hydrocarbon. Aldrins were first prepared in the late 40s, it comes as a light tan or brown solid or as a powder. Aldrins are the result of the reaction of hexachlorocyclopentadiene with bicycloheptadiene, which both come from hydrocarbon
  • Strong government
    strong government Why is it Important for a Country to have a Strong National Government? Looking at governments of countries that are or were weak and what happened to those countries can best emphasize the importance of a strong national government. For example, because the government of Germany was weak after World War I, there was an opportunity for the Nazis to take control. A madman like Adolph Hitler and the other members of the dictatorship he established were easily able to take over th
  • The rise of communism in russia
    the rise of communism in russia The Rise of Communism In Russia "Unless we accept the claim that Lenin\'s coup d\'etat gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today\'s Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980\'s" (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class diffe
  • Winston Churchill1
    Winston Churchill1 Thesis Statement Churchill, the master British statesman, stood alone against fascism and renewed the worlds, faith in the superiority of democracy. Sir Winston Churchill The political history of the 20th century can be written as the biographies of six men: Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, and Mao Zedong. Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. The first four were totalitarians that made or used revolutions to create monstrous dictatorships. Roosevelt and Churchill differed from them
  • Animal farm vs marxism
    animal farm vs marxism Animal Farm vs. Marxism Characters, items, and events found in George Orwells book, Animal Farm, can be compared to similar characters, items, and events found in Marxism and the 1917 Russian Revolution. This comparison will be shown by using the symbolism that is in the book with similarities found in the Russian Revolution. Old Major was a prized-boar that belonged to Farmer Jones. The fact that Old Major is himself a boar was to signify that radical change and revolutio
  • Animalism Vs Marxism
    Animalism Vs Marxism Animalism Vs. Marxism Characters, items, and events found in George Orwells book, Animal Farm, can be compared to similar characters, items, and events found in Marxism and the 1917 Russian Revolution. This comparison will be shown by using the symbolism that is in the book with similarities found in the Russian Revolution. Old Major was a prized-boar that belonged to Farmer Jones. The fact that Old Major is himself a boar was to signify that radical change and revolution ar
  • Animalisn Vs Marxism
    Animalisn Vs Marxism Animalism Vs. Marxism Characters, items, and events found in George Orwells book, Animal Farm, can be compared to similar characters, items, and events found in Marxism and the 1917 Russian Revolution. This comparison will be shown by using the symbolism that is in the book with similarities found in the Russian Revolution. Old Major was a prized-boar that belonged to Farmer Jones. The fact that Old Major is himself a boar was to signify that radical change and revolution ar
  • Causes of ww1
    Causes of ww1 Causes of WWI The First World War had many causes; the historians probably have not yet discovered and discussed all of them so there might be more causes than what we know now. The spark of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a Serbian nationalist on the morning of June 28, 1914, while traveling in a motorcade through Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Archduke was chos
  • Finland
    Finland There is evidence of Finland being inhabited as early as 10.000 years ago. Those inhabitant\'s main occupation was hunting and fishing. They came to Finland by different routes - through Karelia and over the sea from the west and the south. There are many language groups: the Finnish, the Finnish Swedish (coastal area, the Åland islands), the Lapps (Lapland) and the Romany. There are two official languages in Finland - Finnish and Swedish. At present the population amounts to a little ov
  • Liberalism
    Liberalism Under communism, only the tiniest fraction of people expressed open dissent against the system. The system tried to draw in as many people as possible as accomplices. One of the most effective means was the threat that a failure to actively denounce opponents of the ideology would mean classification as a supporter. Communism is a system that follows the roots of Marxism. It unites the people into one class and call for industrial power. All the people work, the people are all at the
  • Rasputin Man or Myth
    Rasputin Man or Myth Rasputin: The Man and the Myth Few people in the 20th Century have been more notorious, yet more mysterious, than the Siberian peasant who burst upon the world\'s stage in 1905, Gregory Yefimovich Novykh. Gregory is better known today as “Rasputin.” Rasputin literally translates to “the debauched one,” a moral corrupter. To the Imperial Family of Russia, he was simply “Father Gregory.” Rasputin was known for seeming to dominate the last Tsar of Russia, causing the downfall o
  • Russia
    Russia The roots of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were deep. Russia had suffered under an extremely oppressive form of government for centuries under the rule of the czars. During the 19th century the nation was filled with movements for political liberalization. In the long run there were several revolutions, not one. The first rebellion, known as the Decembrist uprising, took place in December 1825. Members of the upper classes, including many former soldiers, staged a revolt after the death
  • Soviet propaganda
    Soviet propaganda The soviet communist party, or the Bolsheviks, always new that strong propaganda was essential to increase the consciousness of the masses. As stated in the Encyclopedia of Propaganda, " propaganda was central to Marxist-Lennist ideology long before the Bolshevik revolution of 1917."(675) The power of persuasion and coercion were exercised with great force by Soviet leaders. The two leaders whom utilized propaganda to influence public opinion in the USSR were Vladimir Lennon an
  • World civ cheat
    world civ cheat S.Asin phiosophies to the West. Third World countries w/ collective widespread lasting poverty in Asia , Africa, South and Cent, Amer. Low life expect. High inf. mortality. Poor health. Underdeveloped, lack of resources create this as well as colonization and exploitation by imperial powers. Trench Warfare (WWI) a new dev\'d method of fighting utilizing ditches dug on the western front=deadlock and killing thousands of soldiers for virtual stalemate. 3X Entente-France, Russ, GB (
  • Communism
    communism Communism - From Marx to Zemin Communism has long been heralded in capitalist countries as the root of all evil. However, as with all phobias, this intrinsic fear of communism comes from a lack of knowledge rather than sound reasoning. It is that same fear that gave the world the Cold War and McCarthy’s Red Scare. The purpose of this paper is neither to support communism over capitalism nor the reverse of that. Rather, it is to inform the reader of communism’s migration through time an
  • Premodern to post modern society
    Premodern to post modern society Western liberal scholars have divided human history into three phases: the premodern, the modern and the post modern. Each phase has no definite end, rather they layer on top of each. For example, a thoroughly post modern society has elements of premodern and modern in it. There is no one exact time when the premodern ended and the modern began: each society reached them differently. Western Europe entered the modern era in the sixteen hundreds while the rest of
  • Behind the Urals
    Behind the Urals "Behind the Urals" The United States that we live in makes it very hard for us to fathom what a struggling nation is like to live in. In the United States, we are socialized to believe that America is the most superior of all the countries and our prosperity will continue to grow. We are very fortunate to be born into a relatively high standard of living as a society, thus we cannot comprehend what it is like for countries trying to build societies from the bottom up. John Scot
  • Hisotry of Labor
    Hisotry of Labor A Short History of American Labor This brief history of more than 100 years of the modern trade union movement in the United States can only touch the high spots of activity and identify the principal trends of a "century of achievement." In such a condensation of history, episodes of importance and of great human drama must necessarily be discussed far too briefly, or in some cases relegated to a mere mention. What is clearly evident, however, is that the working people of Ame
  • None Provided5
    None Provided5 Joseph Stalin was maybe the biggest mass murderers of the twentieth century. From the purges in the Red Army to forced relocations, Stalin had the blood of millions on his hands. This essay is not going to debate the fact that this was indeed a brutal and power hungry individual, because he was indeed just that. I will on the other hand show you that through his way of governing the Soviet Union, he actually saved mother Russia from the German invasion in World War Two through he
  • Animal Farm The Fable The Satire The Allegory
    Animal Farm The Fable The Satire The Allegory Animal Farm, by George Orwell, is a fable about rulers and the ruled, oppressors and the oppressed, and an idea betrayed. The particular meaning given will depend partly on the political beliefs- “political” in the deepest sense of the word. The book is there to be enjoyed about how human beings can best live together in this world. The novel, Animal Farm by George Orwell, successfully combines the characteristics of three literary forms- the fable,
  • Capitalism
    capitalism Unless we accept the claim that Lenin\'s coup that gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today\'s Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980s (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class differences would disappear and humankind would live in harmony.
  • The Emergence of Capitalist Economy In Russia
    The Emergence of Capitalist Economy In Russia The Emergence of Capitalist Economy in Russia Noen H. Loquiño I.Introduction: A Newfound Freedom II.The Beginnings of Socialism A.Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto B.The Theory of Socialism C.The Dual Revolution in Russia III.History of the Soviet Union A.The Early Years B.Stalin\'s Reformation C.World War II D.The Soviet Union\'s Postbellum Period E.The Cold War IV.The Fall of Communism A.Gorbachev\'s Visions B.The Reunification of Germany C.Fr
  • Animal Farm3
    Animal Farm3 Animal Farm by George Orwell Animal Farm compared to the Russian Revolution All of the characters in Animal farm have counterparts in real life. This book was based on the Russian Revolution, and all the important populace of the revolution are symbolized. Some of the animals represent individuals in the Russian Revolution, and some types of animals represent different types of Russian citizens. The book carries out much like the actual revolution. It starts out with hopes of an em
  • Role of Pigs in Animal Farm
    Role of Pigs in Animal Farm Pigs In Animal Farm The pigs are perhaps the most interesting characters in the novel, Animal Farm, written by George Orwell. The pigs have certain characteristics, which shape the way this book starts and concludes. They bring conflict and perceive as the most important animals in their Animal Revolution and most important people involved in Russian history. The pigs have the most important role of all. They change throughout the story while paralleling with aspects
  • Communism in The World
    Communism in The World Both communism and liberalism maintain with complete certainty that the destruction of the existing society will give birth to a new form of human existence at the least approaching utopia. They are what Daniel Chirot dubbed \'tyrannies of certitude\'. A particular group of people has been responsible for blocking the happy development for centuries. In the case of communism it was capitalists, in the case of liberalism it is \'racists\' - nearly all of whom are of course
  • Book Comparison of the Rise of Communist Parties S
    Book Comparison of the Rise of Communist Parties Soviet Union and China The first half of the twentieth century were the breeding years of Communism. The books Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini by Bruce F. Pauley and China in Transformation by Colin Mackerras both deal with the rise of Communism, the former in the Soviet Union and the latter in China. Although one book deals with the rise of Communism in the Soviet Union and the other book deals with the rise of Communism in China, both authors hav
  • Cause of WWI
    Cause of WWI The First World War had many causes; the historians probably have not yet discovered and discussed all of them so there might be more causes than what we know now. The spark of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a Serbian nationalist on the morning of June 28, 1914, while traveling in a motorcade through Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Archduke was chosen as a target
  • Lenin and Stalin Ideology
    Lenin and Stalin Ideology Compare and contrast the ideologies and the political and economic practice of Lenin and Stalin. Every state is based upon and driven by some ideology. Imperial Russia was based upon autocratic absolutism for over 400 years. Following the Bolshevik seizure of power in 1917, a new era dawned upon Russia. For the next 36 years she would be in the hands of two men that would attempt to apply a new, vastly different creed in ruling and transforming this country. Vladimir I
  • Revolution of 1917
    revolution of 1917 Towards the end of nineteenth century, and the beginning of the twentieth century, most of Europe was going through a great deal of changes, many new ideas were introduced, causing people to dream of a better life, and more economic stability. Nowhere was this factor as true as in Imperial Russia. The basic dilemma facing Alexander II, Alexander III, and Nicholas II was that it was impossible to ignore the demands either of external military security or of internal political
  • Russian history
    russian history 1. Catherine II (the Great). The successor of the sickly Peter III, Catherine II was his wife until his suspected murder and she took the throne in 1762. Although she made no great reforms in Russian society, she gathered many friends by her death in 1796. Catherine had to keep the nobility pleased at all times because if she didn’t she could be dethroned easily. Because of this she carried out very few social reforms. Russia continued to follow an economic growth that Peter tha
  • Russian Revolution2
    Russian Revolution2 The Russian Revolution This was two revolutions, the first in February/March, overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October/November, placed the Bolsheviks in power. By 1917 the bond between the Tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. Government corruption and inefficiency were rampant. The Tsar\'s intransigent policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had sp
  • Soviet Poropaganda
    Soviet Poropaganda The soviet communist party, or the Bolsheviks, always new that strong propaganda was essential to increase the consciousness of the masses. As stated in the Encyclopedia of Propaganda, " propaganda was central to Marxist-Leninist ideology long before the Bolshevik revolution of 1917."(675) The power of persuasion and coercion were exercised with great force by Soviet leaders. The two leaders whom utilized propaganda to influence public opinion in the USSR were Vladimir Lenin
  • Soviet Poropaganda1
    Soviet Poropaganda1 The soviet communist party, or the Bolsheviks, always new that strong propaganda was essential to increase the consciousness of the masses. As stated in the Encyclopedia of Propaganda, " propaganda was central to Marxist-Leninist ideology long before the Bolshevik revolution of 1917."(675) The power of persuasion and coercion were exercised with great force by Soviet leaders. The two leaders whom utilized propaganda to influence public opinion in the USSR were Vladimir Lenin
  • Stalin
    Stalin Joseph Stalin was perhaps on of the biggest mass murderers of the twentieth century. From the purges in the Red Army to forced relocations, Stalin had the blood of millions on his hands. This essay is not going to debate the fact that this was indeed a brutal and power hungry individual, because he was indeed just that. I will on the other hand show you that through his way of governing the Soviet Union, he actually saved mother Russia from the German invasion in World War Two through he
  • Stalin and Trotsky Patrons of world domination
    Stalin and Trotsky Patrons of world domination Stalin and Trotsky: Patrons of world domination One of the most well known countries in the world is Russia. Since the Paleolithic Period, Russia has faced misfortune and difficulties through its brutal leaders. Every change that has made this country more inclusive has been won with toil, tears, and blood. The year of 1879 was the beginning of another great new chapter (Flachmann p. 357) in Russias history. It was the year two patrons of world
  • Stalin1
    Stalin1 Stalin, whose original name was Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, was born on Dec. 21, 1879, in the Caucasian town of Gori, Georgia. He was the only one of four children to survive infancy. His father, Vissarion Dzhugashvili, an unsuccessful cobbler, entered a factory in Tiflis, took to drink, and died in 1890 from wounds received in a brawl. However, his mother, Yekaterina, kept the family together by taking in washing and sewing, hiring out for housework, and nursing young Joseph thr
  • Stalin
    Stalin Joseph Stalin was perhaps on of the biggest mass murderers of the twentieth century. From the purges in the Red Army to forced relocations, Stalin had the blood of millions on his hands. This essay is not going to debate the fact that this was indeed a brutal and power hungry individual, because he was indeed just that. I will on the other hand show you that through his way of governing the Soviet Union, he actually saved mother Russia from the German invasion in World War Two through he