WWII5 Essays and Papers

This essay has a total of 1981 words and 10 pages.


Pursuan t to the agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong
became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. Under
the terms of this agreement, China has promised that under its "one country, two systems"
formula its socialist economic system will not be practiced in Hong Kong, and that Hong
Kong shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
The Hong Kong Region Lies on the Eastern side of the Pearl River Estuary, facing Macau
across the river, bordering on the South China Sea and bounded by 3 Special Economic Zone
on the north. Its railway distance is 140 Kilometers to the city center of Guangzhou in
GuangDong Province. (Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Macau will ultimately form a very vital
triangle in the Pearl River Delta making this region one of the strongest is the world

The area of Hong Kong today consists of three parts:
1) Hong Kong Island (79 square kilometers) which was ceded to Britain by the Nanjing
Treaty as the result of the First Opium War in 1842.

2)The Kowloon Peninsula (10 square kilometers) with its border on the north called "The
Boundary Street", which was ceded to Britain by the Convention of Beijing as the result of
the Second Opium War in 1860.

3) The New Territory covers an area of nearly 1,000 square kilometers between the Boundary
Street on the South & the Shenzhen River to the North, making up about 91% of the total
area of Hong Kong today. It was leased to Britain according to a. special treaty (The
Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong of 1898.) for 99 years so that this year 1997 is
the end of the treaty. The following is the historic background of the event, which added
more humiliation to the Chinese nation. Near the end of the 19th century, the western
powers and Japan scrambled for their spheres of influence in China one after another.
Russia leased the Port of Dalian in the Northeast, Germany leased Qingdao City and some
other places in Shangdong Province, while France leased the then Guangzhou Wan (Now
Zhenjiang City) in the west part of Guangdong Province. Under such circumstances, The
British did not lag behind, so just two and a half years after Japan occupied Taiwan as
the result of the defeat of Qing Empire in the Sino-Japanese War in 1895. The British lost
no time in seizing a large piece of land and a large number of islands around Hong Kong
which made up what Hong Kong is today. At a discussion in the Parliament on whether to
take this voracious imperialistic action or not, a minister warned, "if we miss this
chance to de so, it will be too late. Because China will become strong in half a century,
what he predicted at the end of last century became true exactly half a century after
that. In 1949, the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.) was founded.

The Geographical Situation of Hong Kong and Its Position as an International Financial and Trading Center Today
Facing the South China Sea and the vast Pacific Ocean areas, Hong Kong is at the mid-way
between Beijing and Indonesia, also the midway point between Tokyo of Japan and the
central part of India.

It serves as the gateway to South China from Europe, Australia, America and Japan, having
a very convenient connection with the hinterland of the Central, South and Southwest China
through the City of Guangzhou. Functioning as a hub of communications in the
Pacific-Asian areas, linking Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia, and also as a port of
transshipments between America and South East Asia. Hong Kong is economically a bridge
connecting a large part of inner China to the world.

Hong Kong also is at the center of the world time Zone, forming a 24-hour financial market
together with New York to the east and London to the west. When Hong Kong sees the
sunrise, it's midnight in London so when the Hong Kong bankers get up in the morning they
can see the closing quotation of stock exchange of London. When the Hong Kong financial
organizations finish in the afternoon, the London market is going on powerfully. Hong
Kong can adjust their counter measures according to the change of market quotations of
London. When evening comes to Hong Kong the New York stock exchange reopens. Then Hong
Kong influences the U.S. stock market. So, Hong Kong links the three time zones of Europe,
Asia, and America into a one.

Hong Kong today is one of the three biggest financial centers in the world together with
New York and Frankfurt. It's also one of the three gold trade centers besides London &
Zurich of Switzerland.

The following facts and figures may help us understand further the position of Hong Kong
in the world economic life today.

 Hong Kong is the biggest transit port in the world. Its container handling
capacity was 13,300,000 in 1996, five years successively holding the world record.

 The turnover of Hong Kong's import & expert trade in 1996 reached 2,933.6 billion
H.K.D (about 380 billion USD), ranked 8th in the world.

 Hong Kong is second to the Chinese mainland in ready-made garments export volume.
Its export of watches and toys is on top of the world.

 Hong Kong's handling capacity of airfreight transportation ranked second in the
world in 1996. The daily handling capacity of its airport is 5,400 tons, not including
that of a new airport, which will be put into operation within this year.

The British and Hong Kong
Since the early 19th century, Britain had become the number one Colonial Empire of the
world, a number of important islands and peninsulas, such as Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus in
the Mediterranean Sea, Ceylon in the Indian Ocean, Malaya including Singapore in the.
Pacific Ocean and Malvinas Islands (the Falkland Islands) and Bermuda in the Atlantic
Ocean have been under the British flag.

In 1830, two British merchants also notorious opium smugglers, J.W. Matheson and W.
Jardine urged the British government to occupy a certain island at the Pearl River Delta
of Guangdong as an anchorage for the British merchant ships. Since 1820, the East Indies
Company had actually taken the island of as an anchorage for their opium ships, making
Hong Kong a base of their dirty trade. This was also described in the official documents
of the Qing Empire.

In March 1839, Lin Zhe - Sui was sent by the Emperial Court as a commissioner to ban the
opium trade in Guangdong. He ordered the opium traders to surrender more than 20 thousand
cases of opium and had them all burned in Human Fortress. This led to the notorious Opium
War. On June 25th 1841, the British navy officially landed on Hong Kong Island and hoisted
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