Xerox Essay

This essay has a total of 4189 words and 18 pages.


The Xerox Movement
IPC 560

Communication and Change
Joe D. Phearse
Instructor: Dr. Gayle Pohl
Central Michigan University, Schofield Barracks, Hi 96857

The Xerox Movement

Xerox from its inception has always been regarded as an organization that thrives on
innovation and diversification. The introduction of the their xerographic office copier in
1959 is seen as one the main technological advancements in the 20th Century. Even as late
as the 1990's Xerox has been boldly reinventing itself from a predominantly black and
white, light lens copier company to a digital, color and document solutions company. Even
the release of their third quarter results for 2001 in October, showed despite a 5% drop
in revenue, the organization still looks forward to improving its overall strategy by
revealing a new turnaround program "Our actions are centered on improved cash flow and
profitability - and at the same time strengthening our strategic core"- Mark Bernstein-
Interim CEO "This plan provides Xerox with a strong financial foundation, to build on the
unique strength inherent in our brand, market position, technology, people and leadership
team" - Anne Mulcahy-Chairman & Chief Operating Office.

Mission Statement
Xerox Mission Statement - "Our strategic intent is to help people find better ways to do
great work - by constantly leading in a document technologies, products and services that
improve our customers' work processes and business results. Xerox operates under the
guidance of six core values:

1. We succeed though satisfied customers
2. We value and empower employees
3. We deliver quality and excellence in all we do.
4. We provide superior return to our shareholders
5. We use technology to deliver market leadership
6. We behave responsibly as a corporate citizen.
Xerox, with 78,900 employees worldwide and revenues in excess of $17 billion, is the
global leader in the document management business, offering the widest array of innovative
document solutions, services and systems -including color and black and white printers,
digital presses, multifunction devices and digital copiers - designed for offices and
production printing environments. It also offers supplies, software, and support.

Xerox and their need to become innovative, Xerox had enjoyed what could be almost
described as a monopoly when they introduced their xerographic office copier in 1959. The
Company pinpointed markets where it would capture the high profit margins and concentrated
its sales on these markets. Xerox removed itself from the low-end business focusing its
attention on the middle-volume markets and high-volume markets, with development of a
product to meet these markets. The Company grew at a prodigious rate but with a problem of
becoming "internally oriented", in the sense that with no competitors of any notable size,
it depended on its own standards and its own internal competition as a means to quantify
performance and achievement. But Xerox reliance on its own monopoly was to be its own
debasement. With the eventual removal of its monopoly in 1973, there was a surge from
other corporations to challenge them for the markets. Xerox was always a corporation who
relied on producing innovative products, but this diversification was often to no effect.
In 1969, Xerox diversified after acquiring the Scientific Data Systems Company, which
manufactured mainframe computers. This particular venture backfired as the minicomputer
was introduced and the requirement for the larger mainframe computers lessened. A newly
formed office products divisions introduced a word processor and a workstation, each of
which failed to take off for different reasons. In the interim Japanese competitors
established a solid position within the low-volume markets and turned its attention to the
more profitable medium & high volume markets. By the start of the ‘80's, Xerox was
losing significant market share to its Japanese competitors. Not only were the Japanese
products excellent, they were sold cheaper than Xerox could manufacture them. Xerox market
share dropped from nearly 100% in the ‘60s to below 50% in 1980. It was this threat that
changed the way Xerox was to focus in the future. For a long time, Western Companies
rationalized Japans success to low labor costs, the Japanese work ethic, lifetime
employment and other factors. Japan had simply developed vastly superior products,
practices and processes. Xerox had to look outside its particular functions to identify
the best competitors and how they did certain things, be it cost, quality or product
reliability. The work for the 1980's for Xerox was to rise to the challenges of the 70's,
to meet increase competition, sustain growth and profitability, control costs and improves
quality. To quote Rogers's definition of innovation -" is an idea, practice, or object
that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption." Innovation is the
generation, acceptance, and implementation of new ideas, process, products or services".
This quote best describes the way Xerox wanted to give rise to a vision of its future,
which would engage the attention of management to become covetous of success. Driven by
the vision of David Kearns, their Chief Executive Officer at the time, Xerox introduced
what could be described as a "make or break innovative process" through their program of
Total-Quality control "The Xerox Movement". The ideals encompassed the need to work
together to improve quality, by doing the job right in the first place and meeting
customer's requirements. The new Xerox movement resulted in a dramatic turnaround in
results, and had shown the organization that it was possible to raise to the challenges -
a rise that would have to embrace change and a new drive to manage. The detailed company
wide strategy launched in 1983 had taken months to design and would take years to
implement. Its objective was to create a culture in which the quality of goods and
services would improve while costs declined, thereby enabling Xerox to become an effective
competitor in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Product & Services as mentioned
previously Xerox offers a broad array of document products, services and solutions in the
industry. Most people are very familiar with their copiers, printers, fax machines,
scanners, desktop software, digital printing and publishing systems. However, they also
offer a number of different services to the market in order to back up their products.
They offered a complete range of cost-effective business solutions and services, from
printing on demand, customer consulting services, to strategic consulting and training,
equipment relocation services, electronic delivery unit, education services, and online
billing. Xerox apply powerful document-focused technologies to an individuals problems and
opportunities by offering solutions that deliver value and help reduce costs and boost
services. Analysis of the product Development Process in the Organization John Bessant
(1994) wrote, "Developing technological competence through process innovation is more than
a shopping expedition for new equipment; it requires the systematic assessment,
exploration and development of capabilities so that they support the broader business
objectives." Product Development Process at Xerox Corporation to succeed in today's highly
competitive business environment a company must ensure that it provides the right product
of the right quality at the right price. It must also ensure the effective use of
resources in developing the product. These aims require both the use of appropriate design
techniques and a thorough understanding of the processes involved plus a willingness to
adapt to new working practices and organizational arrangements. Product development is the
total integrated activity aimed at providing new or improved products for the markets, and
taking account of all influences on the product throughout its life. Xerox Corporation
manages its development process using a process they call Product Delivery Process (PDP).

Product Delivery Process
The Product Delivery Process is the collection of events, decisions and deliverables
required to develop and deliver new Xerox products to a worldwide market. The primary
customers for the process are the Product Delivery Teams, to enable them to deliver
products, while meeting their QCD requirements. Secondary customers include D&M Senior
Management, the Operating Units and worldwide Marketing. For Xerox using the PDP the
process of developing and delivering products is really a sequence of customer/supplier
relationships. The PDP looks at those relationships throughout a product program lifecycle
and identifies what it takes to successfully meet these management requirements. There are
three key components to the PDP: Process Enablers Management Decision, 2. Process
Elements, 3. Decision Process Process.

Management Decision Process
The Management Decision Process provides the guidance for the management and the control
of Design and Manufacturing product programs through all phases of the product life cycle.
Also the MDP helps product delivery teams understand the requirements of each phase of the
program, and at the same time it provides management with the information it needs to make
decisions to release funds and resources where and when they are needed. There are seven
phases of the Management Decision Process and these are; 1) Pre-Concept 2) Concept 3)
Design 4) Development 5) Production 6) Launch 7) Maintenance Process Elements and Phase
Deliverables Process elements help the Product Development Teams to understand what they
need to do to get where they need to go. They are the detailed descriptions of what needs
to be done on a program from Pre-Concept to Maintenance on one particular area of
specialization. Every element defines steps, inputs and process outputs required to meet
the phase deliverables. The Process Enablers facilitate and aid use of the process. The
process enablers for PDP include documentation, organization effectiveness and network of
computer systems. The documentation provides information to many users at many levels of
detail. Distribution of the documentation is made in conjunction with completed PDP
training courses. Effective Product Design and Development Effective product design and
development is essential if companies are going to compete successfully with their
industry rivals. Xerox know that the PDP alone will not deliver them world class products
but it is dependent on linking it with other Xerox groups, and organizations, defining
deliverables, requirements and timing. But Xerox is committed to using Product Development
Processes to help them achieve their goals of delivering world-class products to the
worldwide market.

The Customer Delivery Process
The Customer Delivery Process (CDP) defies the practices and procedures used by the
operating units. These are there to provide planning engagement, launch and field support
for end user products and services. Xerox also realizes that the PDP will only be
successful if they have a commitment to Development and Manufacturing, and create an
environment that supports this. The environment will need to include a stable and
consistent strategic business focus, the total cooperation and visible commitment of
management, and the provision of required resources and critical skills for the
implementation of these new processes. Xerox is very much committed to new product
development. The have research centers worldwide, in the US, Canada and Europe and in
collaboration with Fuji Xerox in Japan and Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in California.
Palo Alto Research Center was founded in 1970 and challenged by the organization to create
the office of the future. The scientists invented the Ethernet network cabling topology.
They invented "laser printing" which is a large part of the FX Palo Alto Laboratory, Inc.,
has been asked to provide Fiji Xerox with a digital technology base for the 21st Century.
The Wilson Center for Research and Technology provides four services to Xerox: it scans
new marking and related technologies, exploring and internalizing those with the most
promise, it refines and improves xerographic marking technologies, and it integrates
marking and related technologies into Xerox prototype marking platforms, usually in
collaboration with suppliers.

Architecture Center (XAC) is driving Xerox to achieve "enterprise coherence" by overseeing
the company's Document Systems Coherence Program. Its goal is to enable Xerox to offer
products and services that are fully interoperable, easy Xerox Research Centre Europe
(XRCE) to use and consistent in performance. It was formed in 1993 and comprises of three
organizations located at two sites, Greenoble in France and Cambridge in England. It
pursues commercialization opportunities and has increased the visibility of Xerox's
research efforts through extensive participation in European and other scientific
collaboration. Xerox Research Centre of Canada is Xerox strategic materials research
center. It enables the flow document materials in both paper and digital word from
research concepts or document solutions. The PARC center in California is well known for
having developed the network technology Ethernet, although it never pushed it enough it
only got little recognition for its endeavors. It was the first to create the graphical
user interface that most people with computers will be aware of and that is now
incorporated into Microsoft Windows. Xerox still is a dominant force and an innovator in
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