Chemistry

forensic science Forensic Science, also known as Forensics, is the application of science to law. It uses highly developed technology to uncover scientific evidence in a variety of fields. Modern forensic science has a broad range of applications. It is used in civil cases such as forgeries, fraud or negligence. The most common use of forensic science is to investigate criminal cases involving a victim, such as assault, robbery, kidnapping , rape, or murder. Forensic science is also used in mon
From the Big Bang to Life On Earth From the Big Bang to Life on Earth Should we as humans expect to find intelligent life elsewhere in the Universe? There are many reasons for and against this concept, but first we should trace just how our terrestrial life started. The beginning of time and the universe began with the Big Bang. This was an explosion that started the expansion of the universe. In the most basic sense, the standard model is simply the idea that every bit of the matter and energy
Gaia John Lovelock in his book The Ages of Gaia presents an argument for a theory governing the relationship between the earth\'s biota and its physical environment. Lovelock holistic view of nature combines biology and geoclimatology as one science, which he calls geophysiology, the study of living and non-living Earth as a single system (Lovelock 11). Lovelocks theory states that life is necessary to maintain the planets thermodynamic and chemical composition in its current state of homeo
Gaia vs selfish gene People have always wondered how life evolved on Earth. Richard Dawkins book The Selfish Gene and James Lovelocks book The Ages of Gaia attempt to shed some light on this debate. Dawkins presents a reductionist point of view in that he argues that evolution takes place entirely through the effects of natural selection on the survival of selfish genes. Lovelock, on the contrary, provides a holistic view of evolution and argues that the entire earth evolves as a super-organ
Hardness of Water Water is the most important molecule that exists on the Earth. Without water living beings would not be able to live. Water is used for an immeasurable number of things. There are many properties of water, which makes this molecule so unique. One which people overlook is hardness. Hardness is defined in the Chemistry: The Central Science by Prentice Halls as being water that contains a relatively high concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, and other divalent cations. Water containing
hawkings Stephen W. Hawking Stephen W. Hawking has a mind set that is beyond today\'s general way thinking. His attempts to identify a grand unification theory that unites everything we know about the physical world and science far exceeds any realm of thinking that has ever graced this earth. Hawking was born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England. He spent most of his childhood in and around London, and was always a bit of a self-educator. He was interested in the stars, and his family used to
Heat Capacity Keith Griswold March 13, 2000 Exp. Physical Chem. Dr. Humphrey Heat-Capacity Ratios for Gases Materials of different types will exhibit varied changes in temperature when transferred the same amount of heat. This variation is a result of the difference in properties displayed from one material to another, known as heat capacity. Every substance has a variable, positive valued heat capacity that represents the amount of heat required to initiate a specific temperature change. (He
HG Wells Time Machine The Time Machine Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fiction\'s fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to
Histury of Gum Natural Gum is Discovered In A.D. 50, Ancient Greeks were believed to chew mastiche, tree resin from the Mastic tree. Researchers also discovered that the Mayans, an Indian civilization that inhabited Central American during the second century, enjoyed chewing chicle. This natural gum comes from the latex of the Sapodilla tree and later became the main ingredient in chewing gum. The American Indians discovered another natural form of gum-like resin by cutting the bark of spruce t
How Quarks Work How Quarks Work Quarks only exist inside hadrons because they are confined by the strong force fields. So you can not measure their mass by isolating them. There is no real way of telling a quarks mass, but the quantity scientists call quark mass is related to the equation F=ma. This will tell you how an object will behave when force is applied. The “parameter” that scientists call quark mass controls its acceleration when a force is applied. It is set to give what would be the
hydrogen Hydrogen: The Energy Source of the Future There have been many stories in the newspapers, on TV and on the radio about the state that our planet is in, and most of the time they are not too positive. We hear about pollution, and global warming most frequently, which are both caused mainly by the burning of fossil fuels. Because of this, organizations and governments have started to invest money in researching alternate forms of energy that are less polluting and that do not contribute
I am Become Death It’s strange how the thousands of events that made up one man’s life eventually had a role in the fate of almost 200 thousand Japanese people and later the entire world. Here is the life of the one man. The man is J. Robert Oppenheimer. So little had an impact on so much. He was the man who was in charge of the Manhattan Project. It was the U.S. project to make an atomic bomb. A bomb with, at the time, unimaginable power. A bomb so powerful it could single-handedly destroy an
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ISU topic summary petroleum CHEMISTRY ISU: REFINEMENT OF CRUDE OIL My ISU will focus on Petroleum, a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that occurs in the Earth in liquid, gaseous, or solid forms. The term is usually restricted to the liquid form, commonly called crude oil, but as a technical term it also includes natural gas and the viscous or solid form known as bitumen. In its liquid and gaseous states, it is also known as Oil, or Crude Oil. Italicized are segments from my ISU or introductions
Kornberg A. Personal Information Arthur Kornberg (1918-), American biochemist and physician, claims he has never met “a dull enzyme.” He has devoted his life to pursuing and purifying these critical protein molecules. His love of science did not spring from a family history rooted in science. He was born on March 3rd, 1918, the son of a sewing machine operator in the sweatshops of the Lower East Side of New York City. His parents, Joseph Aaron Kornberg and Lena Rachel Katz, were immigrant Jews
Molar Volume of a Gas Introduction: This lab was designed so that we, the students, could learn how to determine the molar volume of a gas effectively. Method: The first step that we took to accomplish our goal was to put on our safety goggles and choose a lab station to work at. We received one 400ml beaker, one polyethylene pipet, two test tubes with hole rubber stoppers, two small pieces of magnesium (Mg), one thermometer and a vial of hydrochloric acid (HCl). We took the 400ml beaker and fi
Nicotine CHEMISTRY SOCIAL ISSUE REPORT Michael Yates 1997 Nicotine Killer or Wonder Drug ? Nicotine, one of the most unusual psychoactive drugs known, and the primary pharmacological agent of addiction in cigarettes, triggers powerful physical and psychological reactions in species as diverse as cockroaches and humans. Nicotine has been proven to boost concentration, improve memory and control body weight, as well as alleviating the symptoms of Alzheimer\'s and Parkinson\'s Disease sufferers. H
Nuclear Arms1 NUCLEAR ARMS Minh Le Mr. Ludeke Chemistry April 17, 2000 OUTLINE TITLE Introduction: I. The first sub-topic A. First supporting information for the sub-topic 1. Detail of the information 2. Detail of the information B. Second supporting information for the sub-topic 1. Detail of the information 2. Detail of the information II. The second sub-topic A. First supporting information for the sub-topic 1. Detail of the information 2. Detail of the information B. Second supporting inform
Oppenheimer Julius Robert Oppenheimer once proclaimed, As long as men are free to ask what they must, free to say what they think, free to think what they will, freedom can never be lost and science can never regress. This quote not only signifies the high intelligence and intellect of J. Robert Oppenheimer, but it shows his believe that man and science are deeply imbedded in each other. Julius Robert Oppenheimer lived a life devoted to science, and though he may have regretted some of his re
organic chemistry Chapter 23: Organic Chemistry December26 1999 23.1 What is carbon Compounds? · carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements · there are millions of different carbon compounds · most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens · some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are : · non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes · low melting points · compounds made solely from carbon
organic chemistry Chapter 23: Organic Chemistry December26 1999 23.1 What is carbon Compounds? · carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements · there are millions of different carbon compounds · most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens · some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are : · non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes · low melting points · compounds made solely from carbon
Ozone Layer Ozone Layer Introduction Orbiting above the Earth, an astronaut can look down on our home and see the thin blue ribbon that rims our planet. That transparent blanket  our atmosphere  makes life possible. It provides the air we breathe and regulates our global temperature. And it contains a special ingredient called ozone that filters deadly solar radiation. The Atmosphere The gaseous area surrounding the planet is divided into several spherical strata separated by narrow transitio
plants in extreme conditions In many ways, plants are far more versatile and successful to life on earth than animals and have been here for far longer. They were the first to colonise this planet and without them we would not exist, for we are totally dependent on them. Even today with all our technology they continue to amaze us with their ability to inhabit places we humans could not survive, from the frozen Antarctic to the intensity of a volcanic spring, plants utilise their environments t
presevation Preserving is a means of storing, food both raw and cooked for a future date. When you preserve you are following centuries of an old tradition of putting food by. In order to do this, you have to seal the food in an airtight container and process it in such a way that the four main spoliers- enymes, molds, yeast, and bacteria are removed and your food is safe to eat. Preservatives are something used to preserve food. Natural or chemical substances are added to food to inhibit s
quantam computing What is quantum computing? Quantum Computing is something that could have been thought up a long time ago - an idea whose time has come. For any physical theory one can ask: what sort of machines will do useful computation? or, what sort of processes will count as useful computational acts? Alan Turing thought about this in 1936 with regard (implicitly) to classical mechanics, and gave the world the paradigm classical computer: the Turing machine. But even in 1936 classical me
Robert Burns Woodward Biography of Robert Burns Woodward Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston on April 10th, 1917, the only child of Margaret and Arthur Woodward, of English antecedents. Robert\'s father Arthur died in October of 1918, at an early age of only thirty-three years old. Robert Woodward was attracted to chemistry at a very early age, and indulged his taste for the science in private activities throughout the period of his primary and secondary education in the public schools of
running physiology The Effects Of Altitude On Human Physiology Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the body\'s ability to provide adequat
Rutherfords discoverys Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford was born in New Zealand in 1871 as one of 12 children. It was Rutherford who first "split" an atom and who discovered the atomic "nucleus", a name that he invented. For this he is regarded as the greatest experimental physicist of his time. Rutherford was one of the first and most important researchers in nuclear physics. Soon after the discovery of radioactivity in 1986 by the French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel, Rutherford discov
Schizophrenia When a person hears the word crazy, their first thoughts are probably of symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is seen as the ideal case of insanity. The causes of this disease remain unknown, but scientists are constantly searching for answers. Although a cure for schizophrenia is surely far in the future, research and understanding is making more and more progress every day. To find a cure for schizophrenia, scientists must first understand the disease itself. Over the year
Scientific Therory Omair Hameed. 2003-02-0143. SS-161- Science And Civilization. Assignment #2. Trace the development of the “Scientific Method” by examining relevant contributions by Aristotle, Galileo, Lavoisier and Pasteur. Your answer should be approximately 500 words. Scientific method is the way scientists learn and study the world around them. It is the process by which scientists work over a period of time to construct an accurate (i.e. reliable, consistent and non-arbitrary) representa
Speciation and origin of particulate copper in runoff water from a Mediterranean vineyard catchment Speciation and origin o particulate copper in runoff water rom a Mediterranean vineyard catchment Fungicide treatments have led to large copper contents of the topsoils of most vineyards. This paper examines the contamination of surface waters by copper in a Mediterranean wine-growing catchment. Its aims were to characterise the forms of copper associated with suspended matter during a heavy autu
The Chemical Engineer What exactly is a chemical engineer? Many would say that it is simply a "chemist who builds things" or an "engineer who makes chemicals. However, neither of these statements is completely true. The term "chemical engineer" is not meant to actually describe what it is a chemical engineer does, but to describe what sets it apart from the other branches of engineering: civil, mechanical, and electrical. On average, chemical engineers are numerically the smallest but also the
The History of Chemistry The History of Chemistry Chemistry is the science of the composition and structure of materials and of the changes that materials undergo. It is also used in improving standards of living, making it possible for such substances as rubber, nylon, and plastics to be made from completely different materials. New materials and new properties of old materials are always being discovered. Some earlier products discovered from chemical reactions are ceramics, glass, and metals
The History of Chemistry The History of Chemistry Chemistry is the science of the composition and structure of materials and of the changes that materials undergo. It is also used in improving standards of living, making it possible for such substances as rubber, nylon, and plastics to be made from completely different materials. New materials and new properties of old materials are always being discovered. Some earlier products discovered from chemical reactions are ceramics, glass, and metals
The molecule In the autumn of 1951, James Watson (left) and Francis Crick (right) started work on unravelling the structure of DNA. It was known at the time that DNA was present in the nucleus of every living cell, and that it had something to do with heridity, but without a knowledge of its structure little more could be understood about how it actually worked. They approached the problem with the same methodology that had been pioneered by Linus Pauling, who after years of exhaustive study ha
the sorrows of young werther The purpose of this papers it to give general information about the author, Wolfgang von Goethe, and introduce as well as analyze the main character of one of his most influential works: The Sorrows of Young Werther. The protagonist of this series of confessional letters, Werther, is in fact a tragic figure who committed suicide as a result of his loneliness and critical approach to society, as well as his obsession for a woman, Lotte, whom he could not eventually c
The theory of Evolution The theory of evolution, as set forth by Charles Darwin in 1859, stated that all plant and animal life evolved over long periods of time from simple to more complicated forms through mutation and adaptation. He also taught that only the fittest of each species would survive. He further postulated that the first living cell evolved in a "warm warm little pond" and that it took billions of years for the present diversity of living things to evolve. At the time, it was thou
Total Synthesis of CP Compounds Man\'s fascination with the many uses that can be found with the exploitation of natural substances has been demonstrated time and again throughout history, but the stage was set at the turn of the century for organic chemists to begin to focus on utilizing natural compounds for the benefit of medicinal and industrial uses. The discoveries of penicillin, aspirin, and other naturally occurring useful compounds in the earlier parts of the century set the stage for
Wallace Carothers Wallace Carothers Wallace Carothers was born in Iowa(1896). He was the oldest of four siblings. After high school Carothers studied acconting at Capital City. He then went to Tarkio College in Missiouri where he studied science and taught accounting. He graduated in 1920 then got his master from the University of Illiniois the following year. He took a teaching post at The University of South Dakota, and there began working on organic chemistry, He found he liked research far
What is Science What is Science? Several dictionary definitions of science in Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary define science as a system of knowledge about a specific topic. The systems come from systematic, or precise, observations of natural events; a random example would be the study of the movement of a caterpillar. This very fact would make one think that science encompasses every topic in the world. It amazingly does; from apples to zucchini (in the science called botany). Science
Romeo and juliet from play to big screen Romeo and Juliet: From Play to Big Screen In 1596, William Shakespeare published the tragic tale of two star-crossed lovers, Romeo and Juliet. The origins of this story are uncertain but Shakespeares chief source for his adoption of the story was from &The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet, a poem by Arthur Brooke (1562). He also knew the story from Palace of Pleasure, by William Painter, which appeared in several editions prior to 1580.(Boyce 5
Bulemia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Colleges and universities around the country are reporting an increased prevalence of eating problems among young female students. Difficulties include obsession with food, starvation dieting, severe weight loss, obesity, and compulsive binge eating, often followed by self-induced vomiting (Hesse-Biber, 1989, p.71). Since the beginning of the women\'s liberation movement in the 1970\'s, the Western world has seen a severe increase in the rate of eating disorders,
Gun Control2 Introduction: The gun 1st appeared in Europe\'s literature in 1326. It evolved into a mechanical tool as no other tool before it, it incorporated different materials like wood and metal, it also involved physics, chemistry and had ignition. Thus, making the gun the foundation of modern technology, not to mention the fact it gave America its freedom."The shot that was heard around the World" April 19,1775. In 1689 the English Bill of Rights, was passed by Parliament in responsed to
Gun Control2 Introduction: The gun 1st appeared in Europe\'s literature in 1326. It evolved into a mechanical tool as no other tool before it, it incorporated different materials like wood and metal, it also involved physics, chemistry and had ignition. Thus, making the gun the foundation of modern technology, not to mention the fact it gave America its freedom."The shot that was heard around the World" April 19,1775. In 1689 the English Bill of Rights, was passed by Parliament in responsed to
Medicinal Marijuana Marijuana when used in the medical sense is beneficial to not only the patient’s health but to their financial status as well. In this report you’ll see many reasons why we believe this. Medical marijuana is used in many treatments. We are not obviously the only people who believe this either. In the last 20 years, 36 states have passed some form of legislation recognizing the medical value of marijuana. In 1996, voters in both Arizona and California passed laws allowing the
Rivethead Social Issues of Work Introduction Ben Hampers book Rivethead; Tales From The Assembly Line is a gritty in your face account of a factory workers struggles against his factory, his co-workers, and the time clock. Hamper makes no apologies for any of his actions, many of which were unorthodox or illegal. Instead he justifies them in a way that makes the factory workers strife apparent to those who have never set foot on an assembly line and wouldn’t have the vaguest idea how much blood
serial killer SERIAL MURDER: In the last three decades the USA has been troubled by an approaching problem, the serial killer. A serial killer is a person who kills a number of people, usually considered over five, with a cooling off period between each murder, usually one murder at one given time). Two murders at one time occasionally happen and these murders may go on for a period of months or years until the killer is caught. Throughout the last three decades the US serial killer rate has ri
social problems with ecstay Social Problems of Ecstasy and Raves Throughout American history drugs have posed a problem to society and lawmakers. Many attempts have transpired to try to prevent future problems associated with drugs. Many of the drugs threatening America were originally designed toward the improvement of human health. The most recent epidemic of recreational drug use is ecstasy. Ecstasy’s popularity is particularly in the possession of the nations youth. The institute of use is
teenage suicide Teenage suicide has become a critical, national problem the extent of which is mind boggling. From 1980 to 1992 the rate of suicides involving persons from the ages of 10-14 years old has increased by 120 percent, and has increased 28.3 percent when involving persons from the ages of 15-19 years old (Suicide 451). More recently in a poll of 3,210 high-school honor students, a stunning one-quarter have seriously considered suicide (Eaton 15). Suicides have been proven to be one o
Terrorism What are the causes of terrorism and how can it be stopped? Terrorism and guerrilla warfare, whether justified as resistance to oppression or condemned as disrupting the rule of law, are as old as civilization itself. The power of the terrorist, however, has been magnified by modern weapons, including television, which he has learned to exploit. (Guerrillas and Terrorists) There are many definitions and forms of terrorism: biological and chemical, nuclear, international, cyber, crim