# Adaptive Thresholding Essays and Papers

This essay has a total of 784 words and 4 pages.

Summary

We have to develop an adaptive thresholding system for greyscale image binarisation. The
simplest way to use image binarisation is to choose a threshold value, and classify all
pixels with values above this threshold value as white and all other pixels as black.
Thresholding essentially involves turning a colour or greyscale image into a 1-bit binary
image. If, say, the left half of an image had a lower brightness range than the right
half, we make use of Adaptive Thresholding. Global thresholding uses a fixed threshold for
all pixels in the image and therefore works only if the intensity histogram of the input
image contains distinct peaks corresponding to the desired subject and background. Hence,
it cannot deal with images containing, for example, a strong illumination gradient.

Local adaptive thresholding, on the other hand, selects an individual threshold for each
pixel based on the range of intensity values in its local neighbourhood. This allows for
thresholding of an image whose global intensity histogram doesn't contain distinctive
peaks.

The assumption behind method is that smaller image regions are more likely to have
approximately uniform illumination, thus being more suitable for thresholding. Firstly, we
develop a method based on the local row average to binarise the current line using that
threshold. We then extend this technique to a moving window of different sizes.

Method
For the first part of the assignment, we develop a method based on the local row average
to binarise the current line using that threshold. We consider each individual row at a
time; calculate the average brightness value for that row based on the brightness values
of all the pixels in that row. We then use this average value to binarise that row. We
then proceed to the next row and so on. In this way we binarise the whole image.

For the second part of the assignment, we make a window of user defined size around the
centre pixel under consideration, calculate the average value for all the pixels in this
window and then binarise that centre pixel using this average value as the threshold
value. We continue this procedure till we binarise the whole image.

For the pixels towards the edges of the image, we check for the number of pixels preceding
the centre pixel. If this number is less than half the window size, we modify our code
accordingly to take care so that we calculate the average value for that centre pixel.

Input Image File

• Chinese Immigrater
Chinese Immigrater Interrogations of Chinese Immigrants at Angel Island Like Ellis Island in New York Harbor, Angel Island in San Francisco Bay was an entry point for immigrants in the early 20th century. The Angel Island immigration station processed small numbers of immigrants from Japan, Italy, and other parts of the world and was the key place of interrogation and detention for immigrants from China ("Angel Island Over View, CD-ROM). Angel Island in 1910 to enforce the Chinese Exclusion Act
• None Provided1
None Provided1 Vision and Movement When we discuss our brain, we usually focus on the brains ability to think. That task alone is extremely complex and involved, but the brain also has many other tasks. Most of the time the brain is on autopilot, meaning that most of the activities preformed are just automatic. Our five senses; sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell, are automatically preformed in our brains. We don\'t have to think about how something sounds, we just hear it and we then interpre
• Home bases and Early hominids
Home bases and Early hominids “Home Bases and Early Hominids” is an article that looks at the earlier studies that suggests early hominids living in home bases and the new studies that may suggest different. The first archaeological sites from the Late Pliocene to the Lower Pliocene represented home bases suggesting that early hominids shifted their way of life to a way of life like present hunter and gathers (Potts, 338). However recent studies done from Olduvai Gorge suggests there are possibl
• The Western Lowland Gorilla
The Western Lowland Gorilla The Western Lowland Gorilla: A comparison with humans and a critique of methods of study. By Fokren Masters For thousands of years, men and women have strived to explain the why of their existence. To discover the reasons for how we act the way we do and what this knowledge can do to impact the way we live our lives in this complex society that we have created. One of the ways that science has begun to shed light on the inner workings of the human condition is through
• Ayasofya
ayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: "Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight." More prosaically,
• Optical Illusions
Optical Illusions My research paper is about the anatomy of an optical illusion. Optical Illusions are relevant to aviation in that the main guidance system of most aircraft on most flights is the pilot\'s eyes. Everyone, including pilots, is susceptible to an optical illusion. The hazards of optical illusions are many considering that at any time during the flight they can cause a healthy and experienced pilot to become confused, delusional and generally disoriented with obvious possible conseq
Children and Television Advertising Children Interacting with Television Advertising Introduction The following research has sought to understand the influence of television on children over the past twenty years using a variety of social models, from public policy and industry self-regulation, to how children receive and process media messages and the parental responsibility in monitoring what is acceptable for children to view. As a baseline, our research used a model of children interacting w
• GenesisYour vision for the Future
GenesisYour vision for the Future Introduction: “GENESIS” – Your Vision for the Future “GENESIS” Corporation is a company that deals with production of computer software and business applications that are essential for successful conduct of business today. We strive to provide affordable, innovative software solutions to users worldwide by applying creativity, experience and teamwork. The result of our efforts is production of high quality business solutions that make our customers’ live easier
• HewlettPackard Strategy
HewlettPackard Strategy Strategy Paper Hewlett Packard, Inc. (NYSE: HWP) TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 2 BACKGROUND 2 SECTION 2 2 MISSION, GOALS, AND STRATEGIES 2 Company Mission 2 Company Goals 2 Company Strategies 2 Management By Wandering Around. 2 Management By Objective. 2 Open-Door-Policy 2 Open Communication 2 SECTION 3 2 STAKEHOLDERS 2 Stockholders: 2 Employees: 2 Competition: 2 Major suppliers: 2 SECTION 4 2 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 2 Industry Environment 2 Differentiation versus Commodity 2
• MANAGEMENT POLICY
MANAGEMENT POLICY OPERATION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT All organizations have operations.” A manufacturing company may conduct operations in a foundry, mill, or factory. Our interest is in the management of operations, or operations management (OM), including the usual management cycle of planning, implementing, and monitoring/controlli ng. The driving force for OM must be an overriding goal of continually improving service to customers, where customer means the next process as well as the final,
• Techniques
Techniques Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is really real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. In order to acquire absolutely certainty, Descartes must first lay a complete foundation of integrity on which to build up his knowledge. The technique he uses
• Use of Facility and Distribution Layouts in a Serv
Use of Facility and Distribution Layouts in a Service Organization The BellSouth Payment Remittance Operation (PRO) processes customer payments for BellSouth Telecommunications (BST), and BellSouth Mobility (BMI). There are two PRO groups, one in Atlanta and one in Charlotte, North Carolina. The customers predominantly live in a nine-state region in the southeastern part of the United States. The Atlanta PRO processes payments for BST customers from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and
Advancements in Peripherals1 Recent Developments in Computer Peripherals Including an in-depth look at Multimedia Input Devices A Report by Mr Matthew James Smith HNC BIT Year One Contents Title Page Number Introduction Two Section One - Development in Peripherals Three Section Two - Multimedia Input Devices Five Section Three - An in-depth look Digital Cameras Six The History of the Digital Camera Six How Digital Cameras Work Seven Conclusion Nine Appendix / References Ten Glossary Eleven Intro
• Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence ABSTRACT Current neural network technology is the most progressive of the artificial intelligence systems today. Applications of neural networks have made the transition from laboratory curiosities to large, successful commercial applications. To enhance the security of automated financial transactions, current technologies in both speech recognition and handwriting recognition are likely ready for mass integration into financial institutions. RESEARCH PROJECT TABLE OF CO
• Building a computer
Building a computer BUILDING A COMPUTER With increasing popularity of computer games, and multimedia home PC users often need an unexpensive computer system upgrade. By building a custom computer one is able to combine componenets, and operating system to provide maximal gaming performance. Computers are often called number manipulators, because of their ability to run millions of mathematical operations per second (White 43). Computers use binary system of numbers, which allows them to operate
• Complete Computer System
Complete Computer System Computer System Computer Power Mac G4 The new Power Mac G4 is up to twice as fast as the fastest Pentium III-based PCs. With its Pentium-crushing speed and new design, the Power Mac G4 picks up where the old Macintosh (G3) left off. Its enclosure is now highly polished silver and graphite, yet it still offers easy access to every internal component through its swing-open side door. With PowerPC G4 with Velocity Engine, the computer speeds up to 450MHz, one megabyte of ba
• Computer purchase
computer purchase PROF. MARTINEZ COMPUTER PURCHASE Recently, I decided to purchase a new computer. Buying a computer can be a complicated procedure. A number of decisions must be made before making this purchase. I must decide what type of software and hardware I need for my everyday use. Another decision that must be made is how much money do I want to spend. There is no real budget for this purchase. I am not really concerned with the price of the computer. I am not looking to cut corners. My
• Intro to ecommerce
intro to ecommerce E-commerce an Introduction In the broadest sense, electronic commerce (e-commerce), is the buying and selling of products and services over the Internet. It has included the handling of purchase transactions and funds transfers over computer networks. According to the Forrester Research Study "Sizing Intercompany Commerce," total U.S business-to-business Internet trade in 1998 is .7 billion, compared to a total global e-commerce of .8 billion, dramatically increasing from
• Microsot Word 2000
Microsot Word 2000 Name and Type: -Microsot Word 2000 -Word Processor Producer/Maker: -Microsoft Corporation -The creator of the popular Windows operating system founded by Bill Gates. Price: (http://www.microsof t.com/office/order/p ricing.htm, 2000) Microsoft Word 2000 is generally purchased as a part of the Office 2000 package. The New User/Retail Upgrade Price when purchased with the: -Premium Package (including: Word, Excel, Outlook, - -Publisher, Small Business Tools, Access, PowerPoint, Fro
• WEB DESIGN
Mr WEB DESIGN Introduction When the Internet and World Wide Web were first created, they were designed a research tools and for the distribution of information through information systems networks. But as the use of the Web has become increasingly more complex, the focus on Web pages and their design has initiated a number of major changes. Initially, static Web pages were common, but the focus in recent years has been on the development of dynamic Web pages which are linked to databases and all
• PCs are Better than Macs for Home Users
PCs are Better than Macs for Home Users For years, Macs and PCs have been competing for home users. Apple has recently released the new iMac, and the notebook version of the iMac – the iBook. Even though several years ago, Macs were better than PCs, now, PCs are better than Macs for home users in terms of performance and expansion options. To some consumers, performance is often the most important factor in buying a computer. Performance doesn’t necessarily mean how well the computer performs po
• PCs are Better than Macs for Home Users1
PCs are Better than Macs for Home Users1 For years, Macs and PCs have been competing for home users. Apple has recently released the new iMac, and the notebook version of the iMac – the iBook. Even though several years ago, Macs were better than PCs, now, PCs are better than Macs for home users in terms of performance and expansion options. To some consumers, performance is often the most important factor in buying a computer. Performance doesn’t necessarily mean how well the computer performs p
• Software Licensing
Software Licensing In 1993 worldwide illegal copying of domestic and international software cost .5 billion to the software industry, with a loss of .2 billion in the United States alone. Estimates show that over 40 percent of U.S. software company revenues are generated overseas, yet nearly 85 percent of the software industry\'s piracy losses occurred outside of the United States borders. The Software Publishers Association indicated that approximately 35 percent of the business software i
web advertising web advertising Web Advertising Web advertising, not to mention the Internet itself, finds itself in a stage of relative infancy and therefore provides marketers with novel challenges and situations which need to be dealt with caution . The realm of Web advertising is unchartered terri tory! In terms of South Africa, the country finds itsef somewhat behind technologically. However, this may not prove to be a disadvantage as the uncertain nature of Web advertising may make a polic
• What do you know about computers
What do you know about computers Prior to attending this class I thought I knew a lot about computers. What I’ve learned is that all I really knew was "buzz" words: megahertz, gigabyte, ram, megabyte, etc. I also assumed bigger was better, and there "may" be some truth to that statement. However, it is equally true that bigger is not always necessary. I needed to purchase a computer that would satisfy all the needs and wants of the family. I needed a system that could run accounting software, my
• Captain Queeg
Captain Queeg Grade recieved: B+ Names are removed for security reasons. Captain Queeg Have you ever been acquainted with a person who makes a lifelong impact? A person who, although the exact opposite you in every aspect, showed you the right path to take? Someone with whom your life would be entirely different having not known them. I have had the honor to have has met such a person. His name is Captain XXXXXX. Captain XXXXXX was a competent, intelligent and dedicated Naval officer who had jus
Canada Post Executive Summary Canada Post Corporation will face many difficulties in the future stemming from two present concerns: Ø Customer Perception- Customer perception is fairly negative and is either associated with problems evident in the past or those associated with the United States Postal Service. Ø Unionized Labour- Unions are a constant problem for any company associated with them. To remedy these situations we propose the following: Ø Divestiture- CPC should break into strategic
• McDonalds in Moskow
McDonalds in Moskow Question # 1: Describe at least 5 ( five) American Marketing Techniques, utilized by Russians that you believe enhanced the productivity of the enterprise . 1. McDonalds in Russia was a joint Canadian-Russian venture, in which the appointed president was a Russian person. It was done first of all because Russian businessmen know all the specific aspects of doing business in Russia, and second of all in order to show the public that Russians play a major role in this venture.
• Technology and the Stock Market
Technology and the Stock Market The purpose of this research paper is to prove that technology has been good for the stock market. Thanks to technology, there are now more traders than ever because of the ease of trading online with firms such as Auditrade and Ameritrade. There are also more stocks that are doing well because they are in the technology field. The New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ have both benefitted from the recent technological movement. The NYSE says they “are dedicated to m
• Computer Based Training Business Interchange
Computer Based Training Business Interchange COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT) BUSINESS INTERCHANGE Dallas Baptist University Spring 1999 MISM 6330, Section 01 Database Management Systems Instructor: Mary Braswell, MBA Mary L. Everitt 19 April 1999 Table of Contents Introduction Computer-based training (CBT) is an all-encompassing term used to describe any computer-delivered training including CD-ROM and the World Wide Web. CBT courseware curriculum development involves the use of integrated multime
• Motor Training
Motor Training Motor training to develop readiness, motivation and means of expression, as a basis for learning programs Motor activity is fast becoming a valuable aid in the teaching of academic subjects to elementary school children. The realization of the place motor activity has in the classroom does not imply that physical activity is a prerequisite to learning but rather a method through which a child can learn more easily and understand more fully. Training in physical coordination is not
• A Thermodynamic Reading of The Crying of Lot 49
A Thermodynamic Reading of The Crying of Lot 49 A Thermodynamic Reading of The Crying of Lot 49 Exploring thermodynamic entropy and information theory clarifies the ambiguous relationship between Oedipa Maas, Maxwell\'s Demon and the Tristero System in The Crying of Lot 49. Through a convoluted, chaotic adventure leading to disorder, Oedipa searches for the truth about Tristero, hoping it will save her from her tower of imprisonment (Pynchon, 11). Pynchon dangles this elusive message over Oedipa
El Salvador Kelly Pire 2/15/01 World Geography report El Salvador Here are historical facts on El Salvador. The history of El Salvador revolves around land. It is the smallest country in Central America. Agriculture defined the economic life of the country well before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the early 1500s. The unequal distribution of land in El Salvador can be traced directly to the Spanish colonial system, under which land title was invested in the crown. The individuals t
• Israels Economy
Israels Economy Israel’s economy stands on natural resources. Copper and salt can be found there. Also, natural chemicals like potash and phosphates come from the Dead Sea area. Israel is one of the top producers rubber, plastics and chemicals. Also, clay and sand come naturally to Israel. Scientists have proven that Israel can grow fruits and vegetables in its hot and dry deserts. That gives them a bigger amount of plants to sell and help their economy. Citrus fruits and vegetables help a great
• PostTraumatic Stress Disorder
PostTraumatic Stress Disorder Have you ever witnessed someone being badly injured or even killed? Have you ever been involved in a fire, flood, or any other natural disaster? The estimated lifetime prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among adult Americans is 7.8%, with men calculating at 5% and women at 10.4%, twice as likely as men to have PTSD at some point in their lives. This represents a small proportion of those who have experienced at least one traumatic event, for 60.7% of men a
French Canadians in NE French Canadians & The Blackstone Valley John J. Barron Ethnicity in Massachusetts Wed. 12:30 The French have a lengthy history on this continent. The French became interested in the "New World" in 1524 when King Francois I sought wealth for his European domain (Brown 19). Expeditions were underwritten by the crown. It was eager to compete with other European powers in search for riches. Included in the early voyages were trips by Frenchman Jacques Cartier. Cartier discove
• Henry Ford
Henry Ford HENRY FORD (1863-1947) American Industrialist Dennis Keating English 103 Professor Tague May 12, 2000 "A bore is a fellow who opens his mouth and puts his feats in it." -Henry Ford Henry Ford\'s parents left Ireland during the potato famine and settled in the Detroit area in the 1840s. Henry Ford, born July 30, 1863, was the first of William and Mary Ford\'s six children. He grew up on a prosperous family farm in what is today Dearborn, Michigan. Henry enjoyed a childhood typical of t
• Ecommerce Market Study
Ecommerce Market Study Prepared for: Paul Boray, MBA Prepared by: Pat Wilson June 10, 1999 Student Number: 100077846 Executive Summary The firms objectives can be met and a goahead is suggested subject to addressing the recommendations. Macrosegmentation of the market identified machinery, wood, base metals and plastics as target markets for the firm. Revenue expectation based on a 0.4% market share is 9,000. Break even is 9,000 and requires contributions from 17 customer projects at an
advetising Web Advertising Web advertising, not to mention the Internet itself, finds itself in a stage of relative infancy and therefore provides marketers with novel challenges and situations which need to be dealt with caution . The realm of Web advertising is unchartered terri tory! In terms of South Africa, the country finds itsef somewhat behind technologically. However, this may not prove to be a disadvantage as the uncertain nature of Web advertising may make a policy of \'watching and l
• Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence ABSTRACT Current neural network technology is the most progressive of the artificial intelligence systems today. Applications of neural networks have made the transition from laboratory curiosities to large, successful commercial applications. To enhance the security of automated financial transactions, current technologies in both speech recognition and handwriting recognition are likely ready for mass integration into financial institutions. RESEARCH PROJECT TABLE OF CO
• Assisted Reproductive Techniques
Assisted Reproductive Techniques In-Vitro Fertilization or IVF IVF is the name for in-vitro fertilization, a procedure that involves retrieving eggs and sperm from the bodies of the male and female partners and placing them together in a laboratory dish for fertilization. The fertilized eggs are then transferred two to six days later into the female partner\'s uterus. After the fertilized eggs are set into the uterus embryo development will hopefully occur as in a normal pregnancy. IVF is actual
• Australian Information Mangement Ethics and Law
Australian Information Mangement Ethics and Law In the new electronic age, we are relying more and more on information technology to streamline government, educate our children, make health care more accessible and affordable, and make our businesses more productive and competitive. This rush to embrace a new age of technology must not, however, obscure the ongoing responsibility to protect important information and maintain the personal privacy of citizens. There is increasing awareness, both i
• Computer Security
Computer Security Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people¡¦s homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in a collection of computers that were linked together in the 19
• Computer3
computer3 I went with the Intel Pentium III CPU with 450 MHz because it offered solid value for high clock frequency and Cache size, and also I got Texas Mother board with the latest chipset and 3D graphics processing features. The Memory I chose has 128 MB capacity, which is good for graphic. The type of memory is SDRAM which is the fastest memory. This computer has IBM HDD, which has lowest access time to transfer data. And the total amount of storage that the drive can hold is 18 GB. It also
• Frogs
Frogs , and again now, we heard that wonderful bass hum of the heating system as it whirs away up in the ceiling. In the silence of this room the sound of that motor became very prominent in our consciousness. Usually, while talking and listening, thinking and worrying, we don\'t notice it. That motor reminds me of a wonderful realization I had in the hotel room where I\'m staying a couple of blocks from here. There\'s a refrigerator in the room, and of course the refrigerator goes on and off as
• Global oil crisis
global oil crisis When I was a child, recycling was only important at school. My teachers would always tell me that recycling was good for the earth. But, I didn\'t really show any concern, because my parents never really mentioned recycling until I got older. I started recycling aluminum cans, because I found out that companies paid money for recycled cans. The first time I took my cans to be recycled I got forty dollars, so naturally it became a regular hobby of mine. Not only did the money im
• Hurricanes
Hurricanes When I was told that I had to pick a topic that was related to science I knew that I was going to write about hurricanes. I have had this fascination with this a monstrous turbulence since I can remember. The definition for hurricane is a disturbance that forms over warm water and has sustaining winds that exceed over 74mph. My report will give you a brief summary of what a hurricane is and how todays technology is helping with the prediction of hurricanes. Youre probably sitting th
• Hurricanes
Hurricanes When I was told that I had to pick a topic that was related to science I knew that I was going to write about hurricanes. I have had this fascination with this a monstrous turbulence since I can remember. The definition for hurricane is a disturbance that forms over warm water and has sustaining winds that exceed over 74mph. My report will give you a brief summary of what a hurricane is and how todays technology is helping with the prediction of hurricanes. Youre probably sitting th
• Internet5
internet5 The Internet: its effects and its future Essay written by Eva Kotsi Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people\'s homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in a