Alan Turing was born in London on 23 June 1912. He was the son of Julius

Mathius Turing and Ethel Sara Stoney, the youngest of three children, he was

born to a distinguished family. His family background includes diplomats and

engineers, three of which succeeded to the Royal Society.

Alan turing was educated at Sherbourne school, from 1923 to 1931. After

which he studied mathematics at Kings College, Cambridge, graduating in

1935 with a B.A. He was elected a fellow of the college on the strength

of his paper "On the Gaussian error function", it won a Smiths prize for

mathematics in 1936. Turing was brilliant and slightly headstrong, he

discovered the central limit theorem for himself, after it had been already

discovered and proved. Later in 1936 he went to the United States of

America to study at Princeton University for two years with Alonso

Church. Turing worked on the theory of computation and in 1937, he

presented the paper for which he was to become famous, to the London

Mathematical Society. The paper "On computable numbers with an

pplication to the Entscheidungsproblem", proved that a class of

mathematical problems existed which could not be solved by automatic

machines and introduced the concept of a theoretical "universal"

computing machine (the Turing machine). Turing was awarded a Ph.D. degree

for this paper by Princeton University.

Alan Turing returned to Kings College in 1938 and when war broke out in

1939, he began work for the government code and cipher school at

Bletchley Park. In 1946 Turing was awarded an O.B.E. for designing

machines to break the German Enigma codes. After the war Turing declined

ffer of a lectureship at Cambridge, to join the mathematics division of the

National Physics Laboratory at Teddington, where he began to design the

general computer called the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE). In 1948

Turing was appointed reader in the theory of computation at the University of

Manchester and made assistant director of Manchester Automatic Digital Machine

(MADAM).

Two years later Turing published a paper in "Mind" entitled "computing

machinery and intelligence". In the paper Turing concluded that by his

definition of thinking, it was possible to make intelligent machines.

uring\'s last years were spent working at home. In 1952 he published

the "Chemical basis of morphogenesis", it applied mathematical and

mechanical theory to biology. Alan Turing died from self administered

poisoning on 7 June 1954. Alan Turing\'s place in history was earned by

his theory of computation which he worked out in 1936 and 1937.

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